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<ul><li><p>Page1of16</p><p>Lessondownloads&gt;IELTSAcademicModulepreparation&gt;Writing&gt;Lesson4</p><p>Introduction</p><p>InthepreviousIELTSlessonwetookafirstlookatdescribingchartssomethingyoumaybeaskedtodoinPart1oftheIELTSwriting.Youlearnedwhattolookforwhenyoufirstreadachartandhowtotellthedifferencebetweendynamicandstaticcharts.Inthislessonwellbetakingacloserlookatusefullanguagefordescribingdynamiccharts.</p><p>SofarintheseIELTSlessonswehavelookedatthreekindsofcompositionyoumaybeaskedtowriteforTask2ofthetest.Theseare:</p><p> describecausesofaproblemandoffersolutions presentargumentsinfavourofandagainstanidea expressyouropiniononacontroversialissue</p><p>Inthislessonwelllookinmoredetailabouthowtoanalyseaquestionandhowtopresentyourpointofviewclearlyandeffectively.</p><p>Inthislessonyouwill</p><p> Practisereadingandgettinginformationfromdynamiccharts. Learnstructuresandexpressionsfordescribingincreaseanddecrease. Practiseusingprepositionswhendescribingnumbersanddates. LearnhowtouseamindmaptogenerateideasforTask2. Practisesupportingyouropinionswithreasonsandexamples. Learnusefulwordsandexpressionsforsupportingyouropinions. Learnhowtopicsentenceshelptoorganiseyourwriting</p><p>IELTSWRITINGTASK1:MOREABOUTCHARTS</p><p>Activity1&gt;Understandingdynamiccharts&gt;10minutes</p><p>a)Thechartbelowisincomplete.Inamoment,youregoingtoreadadescriptionofthechartandcompleteit.Beforeyoudothis,though,takeagoodlookatthechartandanswerthequestions.</p></li><li><p>Page2of16</p><p>UKUnemploymentrates(16+yearolds):May2003July2006</p><p>4.2</p><p>4.4</p><p>4.6</p><p>4.8</p><p>5</p><p>5.2</p><p>5.4</p><p>5.6</p><p>5.8</p><p>May03</p><p>Jul03</p><p>Sep03</p><p>Nov03</p><p>Jan04</p><p>Mar04</p><p>May04</p><p>Jul04</p><p>Sep04</p><p>Nov04</p><p>Jan05</p><p>Mar05</p><p>May05</p><p>Jul05</p><p>Sep05</p><p>Nov05</p><p>Jan06</p><p>Mar06</p><p>May06</p><p>Jul06</p><p>Rate%</p><p>Source:NationalStatisticswebsite:www.statistics.gov.ukhttp://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nscl.asp?id=6682CrowncopyrightmaterialisreproducedwiththepermissionoftheControllerofHMSOhttp://www.statistics.gov.uk/copyright.asp</p><p>1Whatkindofchartisthis?a)Apiechartb)Alinegraphc)Aproportionalbarchart</p><p>2Whatdoesthechartshow?a)Thepercentageoftheworkforceover16whowereunemployedb)Thepercentageoftheworkforceover16whoareunemployedc)Thenumberofpeopleover16whowereunemployed</p><p>3Whataretheunitsshownintheverticalaxis(goingup)?a)hundredsb)thousandsc)percentages</p><p>4Whatperioddoesthechartcover?a)Justover3yearsb)Almost3yearsc)Justover2years</p><p>5Whatwastheunemploymentrateatthebeginningoftheperiod?a)5percentb)5.1percentc)5.2percent</p><p>b)Nowreadthedescriptionofthechartanddrawthemissingsectionofthelinegraph.</p></li><li><p>Page3of16</p><p>ThelinegraphshowsfiguresforunemploymentintheUKworkforcebetweenMay2003andJuly2006.Itisclearfromthechartthattherateofunemploymentfluctuatedagreatdealduringthistime.Atthebeginningoftheperiod,unemploymentstoodat5.1percent.Afewmonthslaterthefigurehadrisenslightlyto5.2percent.UnemploymentthenremainedstableuntilSeptember2003.FromthispointontherewasasteadydownwardtrendandbyJanuary2004theratehadfallento4.9percent.ItstayedatthisleveluntilMaythesameyear,butfromMaytoJulytherewasanothersmalldropof1percent.TherewerenofurtherchangesinthelevelofunemploymentuntilMarchthefollowingyear.FromMarchtoMay2005,therewasasmallincreaseof1percent,butthisdidnotlastlongandthefigurehadfallenbackto4.8percentbyJuly.FromSeptember2005onwards,however,therewasamarkedupwardtrendintherateofunemploymentintheUK.FromSeptember2005toNovemberthesameyear,thefigureshotupfrom4.8to5.2percent.Therateremainedstableforafewmonths,butthenrosesharplyagain,andhadreachedapeakof5.7percentbyJuly2006.</p><p>c)Thehighlightedwordsinthedescriptionofthechartthatyouvejustreadareusefulphrasesfordescribingincreasesanddecreases.Readthereportagainandfindphrasesfromthetextwhichmean</p><p>wentupanddownfrequentlydidnotchange(2phrases)</p><p>wentupalittlewentupveryquickly(2phrases)arrivedatitshighestpointwentupnoticeablyoveraperiod</p><p>wentdown(2phrases)wentdowngraduallyoveraperiod</p><p>Activity2&gt;Describingincreaseanddecrease(1)&gt;5minutes</p><p>a)Inthelasttaskyoulearnedsomeusefulphrasesfordescribingincreasesanddecreases.Therearealsotwousefulsentencestructuresfordoingthis:</p><p>1[nounphrase]+[verb]+[adverb]</p><p>Forexample: Theunemploymentrate rose rapidlyThecostofliving fell dramatically</p><p>2[Thereis/are]+[nounphrase]</p><p>Forexample: Therewas ariseinunemploymentTherehasbeen anincreaseinthecostofliving</p><p>Finisheachsentencebelowsothatitmeansthesameastheonegiven.</p><p>1Thepriceofoilrosesharply.There</p><p>2ThereisanoticeableincreaseintemperaturefromMayonwards.Temperature</p><p>3Thenumberofpeopleattendingthetheatrehasfallendramatically.There.</p></li><li><p>Page4of16</p><p>4TherehadbeenasteadyriseinDVDsalesforthefirstsixmonthsoftheyear.DVDsales</p><p>5Therehasbeenarapidgrowthintheuseofalternativeenergysources.Theuseofalternativeenergysources</p><p>6Thepopularityofselfcateringholidaysdecreasedsignificantlyduringthe1990sThere</p><p>Activity3&gt;Describingincreaseanddecrease(2)&gt;5minutes</p><p>Youcanalsodescribeincreasesanddecreasesbyusingfractionstoshowthesizeofthechangeoveracertainperiod.Forexample:</p><p>Thecostofrentsdoubledinlessthanayear.Birthrateshavehalvedsincetheturnofthecentury.ByJuly,thepriceofpetrolhadfallenbyathird.Thenumberofschoolleaversgoingontouniversityhasrisenbyaquartersince1980.</p><p>a)Thechartbelowcomparesmonthlysalesfortwomonthsfromafruitwholesaler.Checkthetitle,thekeyandtheaxessothatyouunderstandthechart.</p><p>Fruitsales(kilos)</p><p>0</p><p>2000</p><p>4000</p><p>6000</p><p>8000</p><p>10000</p><p>12000</p><p>14000</p><p>16000</p><p>oranges apples lemons bananas plums apricots pineapples</p><p>kg</p><p>JulyNovember</p><p>b)NowwritesentencesaboutthechangesinfruitsalesfromJulytoNovember.Usethewordsfromthebox.</p><p>aquarterathirddoubledfellbyhalvedrosebytripled</p></li><li><p>Page5of16</p><p>Orangesalesdoubled.(example)</p><p>Applesalesfellbyaquarter.</p><p>Lemonsales</p><p>Bananassales</p><p>Plumssales</p><p>Apricotsales</p><p>Pineapplesales</p><p>Activity4&gt;Makingapproximations&gt;5minutes</p><p>Thechartinthepreviousactivityhadveryconvenientnumbers.However,inreallifethingsarentquitesoeasy!ThechartintheIELTStestisnotlikelytoshowfiguresthatriseandfallbyexactfractions,suchasahalforathird.</p><p>Whatyouneedtodoismakeapproximations.Forexample,ifrealsalesfiguresfororangesrosefrom4000kilosto7850kilos,youcansaythatorangesalesalmostdoubled.</p><p>a)HerearesomeusefulwordsandphrasesformakingapproximationsMatchphraseswiththesamemeaning</p><p>1justover aaround</p><p>2approximately bnearly</p><p>3justunder cslightly morethan</p><p>b)Nowwritesentencesaboutthechartbelow,whichshowschangesinthequantitiesofimportsofcertainelectronicgoods.Again,usethewordsintheboxes.</p></li><li><p>Page6of16</p><p>Importsofelectronicgoods</p><p>3</p><p>2.1</p><p>6.2</p><p>4</p><p>6.25.8</p><p>1.7</p><p>8.5</p><p>5.2</p><p>2.8</p><p>0</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>6</p><p>7</p><p>8</p><p>9</p><p>DVDplayers CDplayers Televisions Radios Videorecorders</p><p>millionsofunits20002006</p><p>aquarterathirddoubledfellbyhalvedrosebytripled</p><p>justoverapproximatelyjustunderaroundnearlyslightlymorethan</p><p>1(DVDplayers)2(CDplayers)3(Televisions)4(Radios)5(Videorecorders)</p><p>Activity5&gt;Prepositionsoftime&gt;5minutes</p><p>InthelastIELTSlessonyoulearnedhowimportantverbtensesarewhendescribingdynamicchartsandtables.Correctuseofprepositionsisalsoimportant.Herearesomeofthemainprepositionsyouwillneedtouse:</p><p>in[month/year/morning,afternoonetc]at[9oclock,10.30ametc]from..[apointintime]..to[anotherpoint]between[apointintime]..and[anotherpoint]during[aperiodoftime]before[apointintimeoraperiodoftime]after[apointintimeoraperiodoftime]by[apointoftimearrivedat]until[apointoftimereached]since[fromapointinthepastuntilnow]</p><p>a)Gobacktothedescriptionofthechartinactivity1bandunderlineexamplesoftheprepositionsoftimelistedabove.</p><p>b)Nowcompleteeachofthesesentenceswiththecorrectpreposition.</p><p>1 Januarytherewasanoticeableriseinthenumberofpeopletakingsickleavefromwork.</p></li><li><p>Page7of16</p><p>2Temperaturesusuallyreachapeak about1oclockintheafternoon.3From1997 2006therewasasteadyincreaseinsalesoforganicproduce.4 therecession,unemploymentgrewsteadily.5Televisionsaudienceviewingfiguresrisedramatically 6oclockintheevening.6 Junesalesfigureswerelow,butlatertheybegantoincreaserapidly.7Thepriceofoilhadshotupto$70perbarrel August.8FromNovember theendoftheyearenergyconsumptioncontinuedtorise.9Therehasbeenamarkeddecreaseinroadaccidents thenewlawswereintroducedin2005.</p><p>Activity6&gt;Prepositiontodescribeincreaseanddecrease&gt;10minutes</p><p>Youwillalsoneedtobecarefulwhenusingprepositionswithnumbers.Simplychangingtheprepositioncanchangethewholemeaningofasentence.Forexample,whatsthedifferencebetweenthesetwosentences?</p><p>1)Newspapercirculationroseby20,000newspaperspermonth.2)Newspapercirculationroseto20,000newspaperspermonth.</p><p>Sentence1describesthesizeoftheincrease.Perhapsnewspapercirculationwasalready40,000permonth,andtherehasbeena20,000permonthincrease.Thefinalfigurewillbe60,000permonth.</p><p>Sentence2showsthepointreached.Perhapsnewspapercirculationhadbeen15,000permonthanditthenrosebyanother5,000toreach20,000permonth.</p><p>Rememberalsothatnotallwordsfordescribingriseandfallwilltakeapreposition,andtheprepositionwilldependonwhetheryoureusingthewordasaverboranoun.Seethetablebelowformoredetails:</p><p>Verbsthattakeapreposition</p><p>Verbsthatdonttakeapreposition</p><p>Nounsthattakeapreposition</p><p>riseto/byincreaseto/byfallto/bydropto/byshootupto/byplungeto/bystayatremainatfluctuatebetween/around</p><p>reach ariseofanincreaseofafallofadecreaseof</p><p>Nowlookatthechartandcompletethereportbelowwithasuitableprepositionwhereneeded.</p></li><li><p>Page8of16</p><p>Crudeoilprices:USdollarsperbarrel</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005</p><p>IranIraqwar</p><p>InvasionofKuwait</p><p>SecondGulfcrisisIranianrevolution</p><p>Araboilembargo</p><p>Sourceforchart: OECDFactbook2006ISBN9264035613OECD2006http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/default.aspx?DatasetCode=CSP6</p><p>Thechartshowsfluctuationsinthepriceofcrudeoiloverathirtyfiveyearperiod,andclearly</p><p>illustrateshowoilpricesareaffectedbyworldevents.</p><p>Ingeneraltherehasbeenanupwardtrendinthepriceofcrudeoil[1]..1970,whenitwasonly</p><p>$1.30perbarrel.Theoilembargooftheearly1970s,however,causedthepricetorisesharply[2]..nearly$11perbarrel.Thecrisisendedsoonafterwards,butthepriceremained[3]..</p><p>around$11to$13perbarreluntil1979.TheIranianrevolutionofthatyearhadahugeimpactonoil</p><p>prices,whichshotup[4]..$17toreach[5]..about$30perbarrelinthesameyear.</p><p>ThefollowingIranIraqwarcausedafurtherincrease,andthepricereached[6]..apeak</p><p>[7]..nearly$36in1980.Fromthatpointuntil1985,thepricefellsteadily.However,from1985to</p><p>1986thepricesuddenlyplunged[8]..$13.Forthenextfewyearsthepricefluctuated[9]..</p><p>$14,butwiththeinvasionofKuwaitin1990therewasasuddenrise[10]..$5.Thepricequickly</p><p>fellagainandremainedstableformostofthe1990s.</p><p>Thingschangedonceagainattheendofthedecade,andfrom1999to2000thepriceincreased</p><p>[11]..almost$10perbarrel.Despiteaslightdropin2000,therisecontinuedandbytheendof</p><p>theperiod,thepriceofcrudeoilhadshotup[12]..apeakof$50perbarrel.</p></li><li><p>Page9of16</p><p>IELTSWRITINGTASK2: USINGAMINDMAP</p><p>Activity7&gt; Gettingstartedusingamindmap &gt;15minutes</p><p>Gettingstartedwithyourcompositioncanbetheworstpart.Sometimesitcanbedifficulttothinkofideas,buttherearethingsyoucandotohelp.Onetechniqueistodrawamindmap.</p><p>Amindmapissimplyawayofgeneratingideasaboutatopicbylookingatitfromdifferent angles.Eachangleisaheadinginthemindmap.Youshouldkeeptheheadingsasgeneralaspossiblebecausethiswillhelpgeneratemoreideas.Forexample,youcanlookatalmostanyquestionfromoneoftheseangles:</p><p>personal,economic,political,educational,scientific,psychologicaletc.</p><p>Letslookatanexample.HeresatypicalIELTStask2writingtask:</p><p>Presentawrittenargumentorcasetoaneducatedreaderwithnospecialknowledgeofthefollowingtopic.</p><p>Levelsofdepressionandantisocialbehaviourinchildrenhaveincreaseddramaticallyinmodernsocieties.Thissituationhasledmanypeopletobelievethatchildhooditselfisincrisis.Towhatextentdoyouagreeordisagreewiththisview?</p><p>Youshoulduseyourownideas,knowledgeandexperienceandsupportyourargumentswithexamplesandrelevantevidence.</p><p>Belowisamindmapforthequestionyouvejustread.Therearefiveverygeneralheadings,eachonerepresentingadifferentwaytolookatthequestionofchildhoodincrisis.</p><p>a)Trytothinkoftwoideasofyourowntonotedownundereachheading.</p></li><li><p>Page10of16</p><p>b)Herearesomeideaswethoughtof.Nowcompletethemindmapbyputtingeachoftheseideasunderthebestheading.</p><p>ChildrenspendingmoretimealoneComputergamesoftenpromoteviolenceDangersoftheInternetDisappearanceoftraditionalhomeroutinessuchasfamilymealtimesExposuretosexandviolenceonTVatanearlyageLessclearviewsinsocietyaboutsuitablebehaviourforchildrenandadultsLessstructureddaysathomee.g.nofixedbedtimeLongworkinghoursinterferewithfamilylifeMarketingofproductsandimagecreatesconsumersfromchildrenMoreandmoretestingandexamsatschoolsMorecompetitivesocietyaddstopressuretosucceedToomuchtimetakenupbylonelyactivitiessuchascomputersandTVParentsoftenabsentordisinterestedPeerpressurefromfriendsandclassmatesPoordisciplineinschooldisruptsroutinesandpatternsPressurefromparentstosucceedandachieve</p><p>Activity8&gt;Statingandsupportingyourpointofview(1) &gt;5minutes</p><p>TheIELTSwritingtask2questionoftenendswiththewordsTowhatextentdoyouagreeordisagreewiththisview? Youdonthavetoagreewiththestatement,butitisimportantthatyouexpressanopinionofyourown.Whetheryoudisagreeoragree,youshouldgivegoodreasonswhy.Examinerswantyouto: </p><p> stateyouropinion clarifywhatyoumean givereasonsforyourviews giveexampleswhenappropriate emphasiseimportantpoints</p><p>a)Herearesomeusefulwordsandphrasesfordoingthesethings.Putthemunderthecorrectheadings.</p><p>Atypicalexampleis,Clearly,Forexample,Forinstance,Frommypointofview,Iamconvincedthat,Infact,Inmyopinion,Inotherwords,Indeed,Itismybeliefthat,Needlesstosay,Obviously,suchas,Thatistosaythat,Thereasonsforthisare,Thisisbecause,Thisisdueto,Thisisonaccountof,WhatImeanbythisis</p><p>Statingyouropinion</p><p>Clarifyingwhatyoumean</p><p>Givingreasonsforyourviews</p><p>Givingexamples</p><p>Emphasisingimportantpoints</p></li><li><p>Page11of16</p><p>Activity9&gt;Statingandsupportingyourpointofview(2)&gt;5minutes</p><p>Everytimeyoustateanopinion,itsimportantthatyoufollowthisupwithyourreasonsorexamples.Belowareopinionswhichcouldbeexpressedinanswertothequestionaboutchildhood.Matchtheopinions(15) withthesupportingsentences(AE).</p><p>1 Schoolhasbecomeasourceofanxietymorethanasourceoflearning.2 Todayschildrenleadamuchmorelonelylifestylethanpreviousgenerations.3 Therehasbeenagradualbreakdownofthebondsbetweenchildrenandtheirparents.4Childrenneedthesecurityofroutine,butthisisoftenlackingintodaysfamilies.5 ThefrequencyofunsupervisedaccesstotelevisionandtheInternetisalsohavinganeffectonthepsychologicalstateofmanymodernchildren.</p><p>A Forinstance,theywouldmuchratherplaycomputergamesalonethanplayintheparkwithfriends.B Inotherwords,childrenarebeingallowedtoviewprogrammesandinternetsitesthataretotallyunsuitablefortheirage.Asaresult,theirunderstandingoftheworldisoftenmisbalancedorconfused.C Thisisduetothefactthatschoolpupilsfacemoreandmoretestsandexamseachyear.D Oneofthemanyreasonsforthisisthatparentssimplyspendlesstimewiththeirchildren.E Insomefamilies,forexample,therearenosetmealtimesandchildrenmaybenotbegoingtobedbefore11.00pm</p><p>Activity10&gt;WritingTask(1)&gt;10minutes</p><p>Nowitsyourturntowrite.</p><p>a)MakeaplanforyourownanswertothequestionyoureadinActivity7.Youcanusetheideasinthemindmapfromearlier,oryourownideas.Rememberthatyoudontneedtousealltheideas.</p><p>b)Writeyouranswer.Youneedtowriteatleast250words.TrytousesomeoftheexpressionsfromActivity8andremembertofollowupallyouropinionswithreasonsorexamples.</p><p>Activity11&gt; Topicsentences&gt;10minutes</p><p>Agoodwritermakesthingseasyforthereaderandyouneedtomakethingseasyfortheexaminer.Onewayyoucandothisistousetopicsentences.Topicsentencesintroducethethemeofaparagraph.Theyarelikesignpostsinyourcompositionandtheytellthereaderthatyouaremovingontoanewtheme.</p><p>a)Readthesampleanswerandmatchthetopicsentenceswithth...</p></li></ul>