how to create smart mobs
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How to Create a Smart Mob:Understanding a Social Network CapitalP. Takis Metaxas, Ashley Hubbard HarmonWellesley College, USAE-Democracy, July 2010Web: cs.wellesley.edu/~pmetaxasE-mail: email@example.comTwitter: takis_metaxas
Smart Mobs of the 21st Centurytechnologically-mediated self-structuring social organizations
Manilla e-RevolutionGo 2EDSA. Wear blck
Many more examples(partial) List of better-known Smart Mobs2007 Kenyan post-election violence2007 Burma riots2009 Iranian electionsKivas micro-financing modelHaiti earthquake relief initiativeSnowmageddon Groupon network4chan trollingWhat do they have in common?Can you create them on-demand?Rheingolds blog: Characteristics of the leader (?)
Challenges in creating Smart MobsNot just a social networkfacebook, twitter: are notSmart Mob on demand?Could I start a revolution?Could I find my stolen laptop?What does it take to create a Smart Mob? An agreement between N participants seems to need a large number of handshakes
Sufficient (& necessary) ingredientsDesire for CommunicationInnate desire of humans to communicateMan is by nature a social animal. John LockeAffordable Communicating DevicesSmart Mobs need to include a large group of peoplePossible, thanks to Moores LawOpportunities for instantaneous communicationA network, a forum to enable the formationWhen the network enables transactions between the individual nodes, the value is squared. When the same network includes ways for the individual to form groups, the value is exponential Reeds Law Shared GoalWithout it, we simply have a social network.Traditionally successful actions towards a cause have often been limited to well-funded, organized groups. Not anymoreSmall time-frameNeed for urgency in its formationLong periods of time will not provide the focus or urgency necessary.
Ingredients to create a Smart MobIt is neither a particular technology, nor the skill of a leader:it is a confluence of 5 factors.
Manila e-RevolutionLost SidekickBalloon spottingDesire for CommunicationSeeking political justnessSense of justiceSeeking success in research goalAffordable Comm. DevicesCellphonesComputersGPS-enabled cellphonesOpportunities for instantaneous Comm.Texting networkWeb blogs, Web pagesDARPAs challengeShared GoalEnding Pres. Estradas regimeReturning a cell-phone to ownerFinancial gain; bragging rightsSmall time-frameJan. 17-20, 2001Jun 6-15, 2006Dec. 5, 2009
Kenya post-electionsviolenceDec. 27, 2007 election results are disputed by opposition.Violence erupts between ethnic/political supporters of Kibaki and Odinga.At least 1,000 people killed, 200,000 displaced.Difficult to find out where help was needed.Proposition from Ory Okolloh attract attention of a few programmers who create Ushahidi in a few days.
Ushahidi: Smart Mobs on demand
Smart (and nasty) Mobs: 4chan.orgOngoing smart mob of unsocial typesResponsible for a variety of attacks for (their) funIntroducing new memesThreats against Church of ScientologyRevenge YouTube by posting pornShow off by adding strobe-lights on Epilepsy pageVoting moot as the 2009 Time 100, Persistent over time
Destroying a Smart MobBreak any of its five criteriaDesire for communication is innate, can only be broken from withinAffordable communication devices: If available to few, SM ineffectiveOpportunities for CommunicationBurma regimes 2007 taking down the internet for maintenanceShared GoalIran regimes insertion of rogue elements inciting violenceSmall time-frameDeclared effort to defeat Creationism in schools had no time urgencySo, all 5 sufficient criteria are also necessary
The existence of smart mobs was first observed in 2001 in a book by Rheingold. At that time there were a small set of examples, the most important being the 2001 e-Revolution in the Philippines.Writer, artist and designer, theorist and community builder, Howard Rheingold is one of the driving minds behind our net-enabled, open, collaborative life.http://www.smartmobs.com/*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EDSA_Revolution_of_2001Prez, Estrada is accused of profiteering with billions of $ from illegal gambling He is impeached. The committee of 21 senators are split 11-10 against opening an envelope allegedly containing damaging evidence. Within an hour of the vote, thousands gather at the location of the 1989 revolution that brought down Marcos (?) via a msg: Go 2EDSA, Wear blck.*1. Ivanna lost a cellphone. (May 31, 200^) Found out that Sasha had the cellphone. Asked her to return it. She refused it.2. Evan organized an online community interested in the story. (June 6)3. The community created wide awareness.4. The awareness reached the NYTimes.5. The NYT's published an article.6. The article forced the NYPD to arrest Sasha and return the cellphone to Ivanna. (June 15)
(Eventually sold for $3600 on eBay actually did not, the buyer was fake)*http://www.smartmobs.com/2006/12/07/characterisitics-of-people-who-participate-in-online-communities-/*1. Man is by nature a social animal. John Locke2. Thanks to Moores Law3. When the network enables transactions between the individual nodes, the value is squared. When the same network includes ways for the individual to form groups, the value is exponential as Reeds law 4. Traditionally successful actions towards a cause have often been limited to well-funded, organized groups. Not anymore.5. Long periods of time will not provide the focus or urgency necessary for the rise of a smart mob.*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007%E2%80%932008_Kenyan_crisisDecember 27, 2007 February 28, 2008Polotical, economic, and humanitarian crisis that erupted in Kenya after incumbent President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner of the presidential election held on December 27, 2007. Supporters of Kibaki's opponent, Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement, alleged electoral manipulation. This was widely confirmed by international observers, perpetrated by both parties in the election.*Global deployment in less than 3 years.*http://education.change.org/petitions/view/organize_smart_mobs_to_defeat_creationism_in_schools*