horticulture ii - landscape unit b landscape design

Download HORTICULTURE II - LANDSCAPE Unit B Landscape Design

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Horticulture II - Landscape

Horticulture II - LandscapeUnit B Landscape DesignObjective 4.01Remember elements and principles of design, irrigation system components and measurements, and symbols used to develop landscape and irrigation plansElements of landscape designElements of design create moods or feelings in the observerForm shape of the individual plantsEx: circlesSquaresTrianglesCombination of shapesLine the continuity of a landscape. Geometric shapes and curved patterns allow the observers eye to move around the landscapeEx: (1) straight lines that intersect suggesting change of view or change of direction(2) curved lines suggesting a casual or relaxed movementTexture the coarseness or fineness of the materials in a landscapeEx: small leaves vs. large leavesSand vs. crushed rocksPrinciples of designPrinciples of design the standards by which designs can be created, measured, discussed, and evaluatedBalance the even distribution of materials on opposite sides of a central axisSymmetric one side of the landscape is a reflective mirror image of the opposite side. Both sides are identicalAsymmetric the visual weight on opposite sides of the landscape is the same, but the materials used and their placement may varyProximal/distal is asymmetric balance but carries it further by dealing with depth in the field of vision. In addition to balancing from side to side in the landscape, there is a need to balance near and farFocalization selects and position visually strong items into the landscape. A focal point catches the eye of the viewer and draws it to a key feature in the landscape.Ex: hardscapesColor movementUnusual or unique plant or specimen plant

Principles of designSimplicity seeks to make the viewer feel comfortable within the landscapeProportion concerned with size relationship between all the features of the landscapeRhythm and line when something repeats itself enough times with a standard distance between repetitions, a rhythm is establishedEx: lamp postsFencingPatterned side walksUnity when all the separate pieces contribute to the creation of the total designUnity is the master principle combining all the other principlesMethods of grouping plantsCorner planting one of the most natural locations for a focal point. This planting is placed in the corner of the landscape.Ex: a bench or hardscape (yard art) or a plant may be used as a focal pointFoundation planting a very prominent line planting; plants are planted along the foundation of a building, the entry way or a building to soften and blend into the landscape. Typically taller plants are planted at the corners of the foundation while shorter plants are planted under windowsFoundation plantings may extend beyond walls of the structure. This will focus the observers eye on the entrance

Methods of grouping plantsLine planting creates a wall or line in the landscape. They are used for privacy and can screen particular areas from viewMass planting a group of plants that fill a large area or cluster in the landscapeAccent plant creates particular beauty or interest in the landscape. It draws the observers eye to a particular plant or area. It may be one or a mass of plantings or hardscapes.Accent plants should not be placed in the middle of the lawn areaThey are often plant or placed to the side or in an area to create an illusion that the area is larger than it appears

Criteria for lettering and numbering plans and for using scalesLettering and NumberingUse single strokes when forming letters and numbersUse all capital (UPPER CASE) lettersUse light strokes when lettering or numbering to avoid smudgesDraw letters and numbers verticallyUse appropriate spacing when lettering and numberingDraw letters and numbers to touch both bottom and top guidelineShow uniformity in letters and numbers

Criteria for lettering and numbering plans and for using scalesUsing scalesEither an architect or an engineering scale may be used to represent actual dimensions of land or objects on the drawing paperA scale of 1/8 = 1 is a good place to start with an architect scale1 = 10 is a good place to start with an engineering scaleScale can be changed before starting to draw the objects so that they will fit on a reasonable size paper

Irrigation system componentsTypes of irrigation systemsSprinkler irrigation applies water under pressure over the tops of plants

Drip or trickle irrigation supplies water directly to the root system of a plant

Irrigation system componentsTypes of sprinkler headsSpray heads sprinklers in which the water is distributed in a set pattern over a fixed areaUsually have no moving partsCan only propel water 14 to 16 feet before wind becomes a problemUsed most commonly for shrubs and flowerbedsRotary sprinklers sprinklers that have a spray head that moves over the area to be irrigatedHave moving partsMay or may not pop-upAll move in full or partial circlesCan throw water up to 110 feetMay be gear driven or impact driven

Irrigation system componentsTypes of sprinkler headsPop-up sprinklers sprinkler heads that rise above ground level when water pressure is applied and retracts to ground level when pressure is cut offPositive retract uses a spring to return the nozzle back to ground levelMay be rotary sprinklers or spray headsEmitter a device designed to take the place of a sprinkler head for trickle irrigationMicrospray low volume emission device that waters the entire hydrozone and operates similarly to a conventional spray head but at much lower flow ratesDrip irrigation uses 30-50% less water than sprinkler systemsUses 150-200 mesh filters to prevent clogging from debris

Other sprinkler componentsBack flow preventer device that ensures water from irrigation system does not return to main water sourceA requirement in some counties for anyone who uses city water supplies for irrigation systemsRemote control valves devices that open and close to allow pressurized water to flow through pipesPlaced in the water line and controlled by an electrical contact with the irrigation system controllerController device that automatically opens and closes the valves in an irrigation system according to a pre-set programSold by number of valves they control in the landscapeControllers are set with a programProgram set of instructions that tell a controller which valves are open on which days and for how long to leave them openOther sprinkler componentsZone area of lawn and a group of sprinklers operated by one remote control valve also called a block of headsCycle one complete run of a controller through all programmed stationsMain line main source of water in an irrigation system and has water pressure or water flowing through at all timesLateral line secondary line of an irrigation system that has water pressure only when valve is open

Irrigation measurementsGPM gallons per minute. Measures amount of water that flows through an irrigation system

GPH gallons per hour. Measures amount of water that flows through an irrigation system.

PSI pounds per square inch. Measures the force at which water moves in an irrigation systemPlant symbols

Plant symbols

Hardscape symbols

Hardscape symbols

Irrigation symbols

Irrigation symbols

Miscellaneous symbols

Miscellaneous symbols


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