Holmes online learning communities bera

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Presentation on Online Learning Communities delivered at the BERA conference in September 2011


<ul><li> 1. Online Learning Communities Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for Teachers' Continuous Professional Development September 2011 BERA conference , London Brian Holmes, Lancaster University &amp; European Commission Dr. Julie-Ann Sime, Lancaster University with the support of Tiina Sarisalmi, Municipality of Orivesi, Finland Anne Gilleran, European Schoolnet, Belgium </li> <li> 2. Online Learning Communities <ul><li>Research context </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for Teachers' Continuous Professional Development </li> <li> 3. <ul><li>Study on learning communities supported by ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits for learners: </li></ul><ul><li>Online communities support intentional and non-intentional learning </li></ul><ul><li>Participants can follow and observe life of others, encouraging reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Support active learning of all key competences and transversal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Online communities provide new opportunities for equality (Ala-Mutka, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater individual understanding through a group endeavour (McConnell, 2006) </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn 1. Research context Online learning communities </li> <li> 4. 1. Research context Case study: an eTwinning Learning Event http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn <ul><li>eTwinning supports teachers across Europe </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Joint pedagogical projects </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Continuous professional development </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Thriving community of teachers </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li> Learning Events </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Short, intensive online sessions, in groups </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Focused on a theme, led by a subject expert </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Involve teachers in hands-on, non-formal learning with peers </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>My case </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Exploiting Web 2.0: eTwinning and Collaboration </li></ul></li></ul>www.eTwinning.net </li> <li> 5. 1. Research context Research questions <ul><li>In an eTwinning Learning Event (LE) for teachers continuous professional development: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>How does the online learning community influence the development of teachers competence and practice? </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>How do social and facilitation aspects influence collaboration and learning? </li></ul></li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn </li> <li> 6. Online Learning Communities <ul><li>Research context </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for Teachers' Continuous Professional Development </li> <li> 7. 2. Methodology Theoretical framework http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn <ul><li>Cognitive presence active learners in a community </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Constructing meaning through sustained communication </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Essential for critical thinking </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Social presence feeling a person is real </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Projecting personal characteristics into the community </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Directly contributes to success of learning </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Teaching presence design and support for active learning </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Support and enhance cognitive and social presence for the purposes of learning </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Design often led by teacher </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Facilitation often shared with learners </li></ul></li></ul>(Garrison et al, 2000, p.88) Communication Medium Community of Inquiry COGNITIVE PRESENCE SOCIAL PRESENCE Supporting Discourse TEACHING PRESENCE (Structure/Process) Setting Climate Selecting Content EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE </li> <li> 8. 2. Methodology Action research <ul><li>Completed two cycles of action research </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1. Initial LE, April 2010, 156 teachers </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>2. Revised LE, Oct-Nov 2010, 142 teachers </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Participative research </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Worked together with Tiina Sarisalmi, a teacher and the domain expert </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Supported by EUN, the LE organisers </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Participated as tutor </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Data collection and analysis </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Initial and final interviews </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Final online questionnaire </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Coding of discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework </li></ul></li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Cycle of Action Research (OLeary, 2004; Koshy, 2010, p.7) </li> <li> 9. Online Learning Communities <ul><li>Research context </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for Teachers' Continuous Professional Development </li> <li> 10. 3. Results Recommendations from 1st LE http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn <ul><li>Increase social presence </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>More support for socio-emotional aspects (Kreijns et al, 2003, Zenios &amp; Holmes, 2010) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Give time to develop trust, shared values and reciprocity (McConnell, 2006) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce cognitive presence </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Activities for critical thinking </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Reflection in practice and meta-cognition (Schn, 1983, Kolb, 1984) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen teaching presence </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Increase facilitation and orchestration at key points (Dillenbourg, 2008) </li></ul></li></ul>Meta-cognition: reflection on own practice and competence Web 2.0 tools and collaboration Cognitive activities Introductions What is web 2.0? Documenting the learning Planning and managing a project Sharing videos, presentations, photos Collaborative learning Conclusion and evaluation Social activities Introductions Social interaction Mutual support Feedback Stories </li> <li> 11. 3. Results The revised LE <ul><li>Added time for practice and reflection </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>12 days for the LE cognitive activities, 19 days to try out in own teaching practice, 2 days of final reflection in the LE </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Encouraged sharing of stories, feelings and reflections </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Added a virtual staff room </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>A place for informal discussion and reflection in practice </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Tables of small groups to foster stronger ties </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Increased facilitation </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Moderator/facilitator at key points to encourage and support </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Encouraged mutual support and facilitation </li></ul></li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn </li> <li> 12. 3. Results All messages over time in staff room http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Frequency of messages related closely to activities and to the messages from tutors Almost no messages whilst applying ideas in practice </li> <li> 13. 3. Results Coding for cognitive presence <ul><li>Example of Edita: illustrates the progression in cognition for a typical participant </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Cognition Critical thinking Coding suggests critical thinking reached in later stages Garrison et al (2001) </li> <li> 14. 3. Results Views of participants <ul><li>Applying ideas in practice </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn I was able to apply what I learned in the classroom and my pupils are very excited and they want to learn more (final questionnaire) Staff room most of my time was spent in the staff room, to get ideas, to get support, and to feel proud and happy when my work got commented on. i think the idea of the staff room was the best (final interview) Collaboration does not always work Well in the forum there is merely discussion and I understand that cooperation is a step further and collaboration even further, and I did not enjoy not being able to collaborate in my own group (final interview) Facilitation and feedback from the tutor is not always a good thing I think those are things that can very easily smother the flame of creative thinking and learning (email feedback from Tiina) However ... </li> <li> 15. Online Learning Communities <ul><li>Research context </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn Case study of an eTwinning Learning Event for Teachers' Continuous Professional Development </li> <li> 16. 4. Conclusions From the teachers perspective <ul><li>Online learning community </li></ul><ul><li>The online community supported teachers to develop their professional competence </li></ul><ul><li>The community provided an opportunity for mutual support, exchange of experience and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>The community was useful for as long as it supported learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by doing </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who applied what they were learning in their own teaching practice were motivated, gained confidence and were more convinced </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>It was beneficial to reinforce facilitation at key points and to back-off as and when peer support emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction was important, it facilitated learning and engendered a sense of community </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn </li> <li> 17. 4. Conclusions From an academic perspective <ul><li>Community of Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>The CoI model was a useful framework to analyse the interrelation between the cognitive, teaching and social aspects (Garrison et al, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation and mutual support </li></ul><ul><li>Increased teaching presence had a positive impact on cognitive presence (critical thinking) (Dillenbourg, 2008; Shea &amp; Bidjerano, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Applying ideas in practice and reflection with peers reinforced competence development (Schn, 1983; Kolb, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Social and community aspects </li></ul><ul><li>The learning community engendered mutual support, trust and sharing (Grossman et al, 2000; McConnell, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Social ties were important for learning, however interaction remained purposeful and the community was ephemeral (Kreijns et al, 2003; Zenios &amp; Holmes, 2010) </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn </li> <li> 18. References (1 of 2) <ul><li>Ala-Mutka, K. (2010) Learning in informal online networks and communities, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), J., European Commission (ONLINE - http:// ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id =3059 - accessed 18.11.2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Dillenbourg, P. (2008) 'Integrating technologies into educational ecosystems'. Distance Education, 29 (2), pp.127 140 </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T. &amp; Archer, W. (2000) 'Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education'. The Internet and Higher Education, 2 (2-3), pp.87-105 </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, D., Anderson, T. &amp; Archer, W. (2001) 'Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education'. American Journal of Distance Education, 15 (1), pp.7-23 </li></ul><ul><li>Grossman, P., Wineburg, S. &amp; Woolworth, S. (2000) What makes teacher community different from a gathering of teachers? , Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Koshy, V. (2010) Action research for improving educational practice, 2nd ed., London, Sage publications Ltd. </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn </li> <li> 19. References (2 of 2) <ul><li>Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A. &amp; Jochems, W. (2003) 'Identifying the pitfalls for social interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: a review of the research'. Computers in Human Behavior, 19 (3), pp.335-353 </li></ul><ul><li>McConnell, D. (2006) E-Learning Groups and Communities. Maidenhead, Open University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>O'Leary, Z. (2004) The essential guide to doing research, Sage Publications Ltd Riel, M. &amp; Polin, L. (2004) 'Online learning communities: Common ground and critical differences in designing technical environments', in Barab, S., Kling, R. &amp; Gray, B. (Eds.), Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning, pp.16-50, Cambridge University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Schn, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. London, Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Shea, P. &amp; Bidjerano, T. (2009) 'Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster epistemic engagement and cognitive presence in online education'. Computers &amp; Education, 52, pp.543-553 </li></ul><ul><li>Zenios, M. &amp; Holmes, B. (2010), 'Knowledge creation in networked learning: combined tools and affordances', Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning 2010, Copenhagen, pp.471-479 </li></ul>http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn </li> <li> 20. Thank you http://www.slideshare.net/holmebn [email_address] http://holmesbrian.blogspot.com/ </li> </ul>