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  • History 202 American History II Survey Reconstruction To The Conservative Revolution Steve Strickland (ABD)
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  • Reconstruction Intro: American has been split apart by three major warsThe American Revolution, The Civil War, and the Vietnam War. All affected the participants and the generations engaged dramaticallywe will look at the Civil War and How America North and South viewed Reconstruction.
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  • Reconstruction Three Important Questions: 1) Can the U.S. truly be united? 2) Can Black and White Americans coexist peacefully? 3) Who runs this countryPresident or Congress, Supreme Court, or the American People?
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  • Reconstruction First define ReconstructionDictionary states to build again. Certainly the Southerners preferred this definition. The Radical Republicans chose this definitionto build anew. Change the Souths economy, social system and race relations.
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  • Reconstruction Winners write the HistoryLosers write the statisticscaveat, concerning Civil warLosers did a good job of writing the history.[victor gets the spoils] What were the spoilshow had the South suffered? 3 ways to answer this: 1) Physically; 2) Legally or Constitutionally; 3) Most importantlyemotionally and psychologically.
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  • South Devastated PhysicallyFrom Richmond to New Orleans lay in ruins. Transportation, communications, economically, financially and Socially. 4 Billion dollars worth of slave property liquidated with no compensation
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  • South Devastated LegallyBiggest most immediate issue. Southern states had acted treasonous, left the Union, and now had to be reannexed; Reannexed with severe stipulations. Debates begin before war actually ends.
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  • South and Stipulations Lincolns 10% Compromise; acceptance of the 13 th amendment (citizenship) The Wade-Davis Bill and Mainfesto; acceptance of the 14 th amendment(due process 1867) Black Codes Civil Rights Bill of 1866; acceptance of the 15 th amendment(suffrage1870)
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  • South and Stipulations 3) Emotionallythe South suffered a devastating blow to their ideals and who they thought they wereeverything had faileddied of a theory to quote Davis. Their former friends France and England had deserted them in their hour of need, many of their slaves had deserted and joined the Union Army; Worst of all, they had to accept utter defeat and Military occupation.
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  • Southern Reconstruction The actuality of reconstruction would prove much harder to deal with than simple definitions. ( moral and social victoryin spite of military defeat) In the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction issued in 1863, Lincoln stated that the South had never technically left the Union; therefore the loyalty oath, lay down arms, and emancipation of slavery was all that was required; His attitude was malice toward none. With charity to all.
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  • Southern Reconstruction Countered with the Wade-Davis Bill in July 1864; (Benjamin Wade[Ohio] and Henry Davis[Maryland]) It required 50% of the population swear a loyalty oath, and prove they had never been disloyal to the Union; or taken up arms against the Union; disloyal people lose Vote This eliminated almost all southerners and especially all the antebellum Slavocracy.
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  • Southern Reconstruction Thaddeus Stephens of Pennsylvania the most radical forced into the Wade-Davis Bill, each state constitution not only had to guarantee full citizenship to ex-slaves, but also assure total equality in the political, economic, and suffrage arenas; Deny all ex-confederates the right to vote or hold public officeand each confederate state must repudiate its debt. This assures that the first question on unity will be slow in coming. It also assures that peaceful coexistence and equality will also be hampered.
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  • Southern Reconstruction Lincoln realized this would prolong and even create another war; Pocket vetoed it. Result was the Wade-Davis Manifesto- reminding Lincoln it was his job to obey and execute the laws they pass. Segues into who runs the country? The Executive or Congress ( Neither cares about the People equation at this time).
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  • Four Reconstruction Theories 1) Presidential Theory 2) Southern Theory 3) Conquered Provinces Theory 4) Forfeited Rights Theory
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  • Presidential Theory The South never truly out of Union; they needed restoration not reconstruction; President had full say over so-called reconstruction; Johnson wanted to pardon the states and state leaders; Appoint sympathetic Provisional Governors and bring them back into Union peacefully; as if nothing happened
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  • Southern Theory To Southerners the war itself had proved secession could not happen; therefore states had not really left the Union; There was no constitutional question about re-entering; should be no conditions; Therefore they should be welcomed back in the Union and everything revert to pre-War status
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  • Conquered Province Theory This was the most extreme view; from Thaddeus Stephens; Southern states had acted criminally and treasonous; The constitution or due process did not apply to themcongress should deal with them harshly; Treat them as conquered provinces and exert international laws of occupation and martial law.
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  • Forfeited Rights Theory This is the theory implemented; declared Ordnance of secession Null and Void; draft new state constitutions; Secession did cause them to forfeit their rights as American citizens; Had to reapply for status; Congress would ensure every southern state had a Republican form of government; ratify the 13 th amendment; Military Governors would over see occupation and enforce Martial lawthis was the undercarriage of the Reconstruction Acts of 1867.
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  • Radicals in Power Passed the Freedmans Bureau Bill and the Civil Rights Acts of 1866 (citizenship) Johnson vetoed both(invasion of states rights)they overrode the vetoes; Convened the Joint Committee of 15 essentially charged with the radical oversight of reconstructionthe radicals now had their way with the South. It created the Tragic Era, The Dreaded Decade and the Age of Hate!!
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  • Myths of Reconstruction Harshness of Radical caused two perceptions: 1) Infuriated the South even more than normal; 2) began to create sympathy in the North for the abused Southerners. However, carpetbaggers (northerners) and scalawags (turncoat southerners) and African American malfeasance was not much of a true issuemostly myth.
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  • Myths Contd Like all myths some truth, but there is always some corruption in politics; Black office holders very small portion of political appointments, never held a political majority; The South was not exactly occupied
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  • Myths Contd the southerners were allowed to lay down arms and return as citizens; Pardoned, allowed to vote, hold office, and in many instances retained their pre-War land holdings Many of the ex-Confederate Civil Leaders were never brought to trial, they were returned to full citizenship, most of their property, except the slaves, was returned to them; Moonlight and Magnolia
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  • Occupation Myth
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  • by 1868, Military rule had ended in all southern states except for Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi;( 15 th amendment passed in 1868) In these states military occupation ended by 1870sounds as if 1877 wasnt much of a compromise at all; Compromise of 1877ended reconstruction, left the Freedmen unprotected, allowed for the rise of the KKKmostly because the North had tired of the War;
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  • Compromise of 1877 Disputed vote totals in SC, Miss, Fla and Ore20 electoral votes. Hayes Needed these to secure the Presidency North compromised: Southerner on Hayes cabinet, state control of federal jobs in the state, internal improvement monies for infrastructure, support for Texas and Pacific railroad, removal all troops, and economic support for industrial improvements.
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  • Black Reconstruction Emancipation came to Slaves in different ways; First the Emancipation Proclamation; Second during the war as Union forces entered an area; Third, when the war was over after the Confederacys collapse; Fourth, during reconstruction when occupying Union forces declared them free; Regardless Freedom was a precious commodity.
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  • Black Reconstruction Many African Americans took to the roadssome in search of family membersmany because it was a new experience; Many however, stayed put; the South was all they knew; they were born here, worked here, suffered here, made a family hereit was as much their land as it was the old slave owners land
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  • Black Reconstruction One former slave, even though offered decent wages to stayreplied, I cant, if I stay, I will never know Im free Taking a full name was very important(14 th amendment and due process and equal protection clauses demanded)symbolized freedom and individuality Names were equated with prominent people many just took the last name of their former owners Kept their first name regardless it