himeji castle : japan’s “white crane castle”

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Japanese Castles: Symbols of S amurai Authority & Wealth for Fortification & Administration. NCTA Intersections Workshop: East Asia & STEAM The University of Pittsburgh June 22-24, 2011 Amy Swartz aswartz@wrsd.org Warrior Run High School Turbotville , PA. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Himeji Castle

Himeji Castle :Japans White Crane CastleNCTA Intersections Workshop: East Asia & STEAMThe University of PittsburghJune 22-24, 2011Amy Swartz aswartz@wrsd.org Warrior Run High SchoolTurbotville, PA

http://thundafunda.com/33/World-tour/Himeji%20Castle,%20Himeji,%20Japan%20pictures.html Japanese Castles: Symbols of Samurai Authority & Wealth for Fortification & AdministrationJapanese Castles: earliest date to the 6th century fortification and protection; later castles, such as Himeji = symbolize power

Himeji Castle considered Japans grandest, finest symbolizing strength and beautyDate 1609Egret, Crane, Herron One of the few to escape earthquakes, civil war, and firebombingDesignated as a national treasure 1931 & a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993Under renovation until spring of 20151

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ease.com/~randyj/alljapan.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ease.com/~randyj/japanmap.htm&h=963&w=1011&sz=210&tbnid=EG-yAPyBvdHiPM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=88&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dmap%2Bof%2Bjapan%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=map+of+japan&usg=__JCqwaaTqyBDckH1wqJXWSOI1wfY=&sa=X&ei=bmf-TZOrDofm0QG354WwAw&ved=0CDIQ9QEwBQ&dur=487 Himeji is a city located in the Hyogo Prefecture in western edge the Kansai Region of Japan pop. 535,000 (Atlanta, GA)

2Key Questions:How did the feudal structure of Japan and European influences give rise to castle construction during the late 16th and early 17th centuries?How were castles designed, who built them, and what materials & techniques were used in their construction?What were the economic, political, cultural impacts of the castles?What caused the decline of castle construction?

Feudalism in Japan

http://3-b-s.eu/social%20structure%20of%20japan.htmlDaimyo controlled a collection of domains, including the peasants inhabitantsA domains value was not based on its size, but by the amount of rice it could produce. The minimum for daimyo status 10,000 koku (= 5.2 bushels of rice which could feed one man for one year)1192 - Two leading bushidan claimed descent from the imperial family

Image: Samurai made up approx. 5% of the populationOver the 12-15th cent. The military government of the shogun became more like the imperial court. Emperor- spiritual leaderThe daimyo class evolved into the highest ranking samurai supported the shogun

Daimyo stats:1598 204 domains with an income of 10,000-50,000 koku; 4% with an income of 500,000+ koku1 daimyo Tokugawa Ieyasu 2.5 million koku!4European Influences: Trade, Christianity & . . . .Portuguese arrived in Japan in the 1540sTradeCounter Reformation spread CatholicismSt. Francis Xavier Jesuit missionary to Japan

Its often assumed that the Portuguese influenced Japanese castle construction, but there is little evidence of their instruction or aid. Rather castles of the era evolved as a product of accelerated warfare and the formation of greater daimyo domains and power.5. . . . the Arquebusshogun2.heavengames.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EdoJapaneseArquebuse.jpgTransition to Unification (1560-1603)

Oda NobunagaToyotomi Hideyoshi

Tokugawa Ieyasumoderntokyotimes.com


If a bird wont sing:Nobunaga would say, Kill it.Hideyoshi would say, Make it want to.Ieyasu would say, Wait.During the last half of the 16th century, three daimyo unified Japan.

Oda Nobunaga 1560 wins a key battle and use force to control conquered territoriesKeys to success: brutal battle tactics (1575 first to use volley fire with the arquebus (European 1st use tactic in 1590s), strict rules/punishment over areas he controlled. He was the first to embrace the use of firearms which brought changes in castle design.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi one of Nobunagas best generals completed unification after Nobunaga was betrayed by another generalKeys to success: born to a poor farming family, rose through the ranks of Nobunagas army; preferred negotiation. Ruled until his death in 1598; 5 regents were to rule until his son, Hideyori came of age

Tokugawa Ieyasu one of the 5 regents took control in 1600; know as a talented administrator with a loyal followingKeys to success: He conceded to Hideyoshi when Nobunaga died; he waited and then established a stable system for the Tokugawa shogunate to rule Japan for over 250 years (until the Meiji restoration)--- Once he consolidated power in 1615 he limited the number of castles to one per domain to ensure peace and his rule.

7Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868)


Castles: LocationProximity to capitalAccess to major routes/highwaysBlocked other domains

Himeji located on a key route to the western provincesMitchelhill, Jennifer, and David Green. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2003. PrintCastles: Purpose & Design ComparedThrough the early 16th centuryEarly versions military strongholds built during expansion (families lived in the area below the castle; used the castle only when their safety was threatened.)

*Mountain Castles the defensive properties of the terrain were key; wood construction, residential quarters & a moat

Conjectural reconstruction of residence area of Asakura CastleNishi, Kazuo, and Kazuo Hozumi. What Is Japanese Architecture? Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1996. Print.Mountain sites became too removed for governance and regulating commerce >>>flat-land mountain castles10Castles: Purpose & Design ComparedUnification & the Edo Period: Late 16th century - 1800*Flat-land Mountain Castles built on low rises located within flat plains.-administrative rule vs. military defense-distinguished from earlier types due to their massive stone foundations, multi-storied tenshu or donjon (keep) and general size and grandeur.

Himejis Evolution1333 simple fort on Himeyama Hill1581 Hideyoshi built a castle with a three story tenshu (main tower/keep) 1601-1609 current main structure was built by Tokugawa Ieyasus son-in-law Ikeda Terumasa with an expenditure of labor believed to have totaled 25 million man days

Himeji garrisoned from 500-4000 family members and samurai soldiers throughout its tenure.Castle LayoutPerimeters were circular or pentagonal in shape to optimize defenseExpansive grounds with fortified outworks were necessary to protect the mostly wooden structures.Series of 3-7 compounds built of various levels were protected by stone walls, moats, and towers.A maze-like effect was created by the walls, moats, gates, etc. to purposefully confuse the enemy.

Himeji is 152 feet high and its grounds span 576 acres

Mitchelhill, Jennifer, and David Green. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2003. Print.

Himejis layout is one of the most complex with zigzags and winding paths through numerous gates and courtyards.13Once the castle layout was determined, the moats were dug first. The excavated earth was used to build ramparts to support the stone walls.Dry or filled with water or fine mudExterior moats were the widest and deepest.Sides were lined with stone to prevent erosion in either a U-shape or box shapeMoats

Mitchelhill, Jennifer, and David Green. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2003. Print.Himejis Three MoatsParts of the central moat and all of the inner moat survive (the outer moat is now buried) The moats have an average width of 66 feet, a maximum width 113 feet, and a depth of about 8.9 feet. The Three Country Moat is a pond, with one purpose of storing water for use in fire prevention.

Stone Walls

Stonemasons originally came from Ano in central Japan and were known for their skill in building temple walls.The walls had to withstand heavy weight, survive earthquakes and remain stable through high rainfall. Many over 400 years old still exist today and are a testament to the skill of the stonemasons.

16Two Types of Stone Walls

Mitchelhill, Jennifer, and David Green. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2003. Print.Used around the compound & main towerStability to reach to 100 feet highImpervious to cannon fireUsed for the bases of towers, gatesInner core was usually 3-6 feet deepStone Walls

Various stones were used, based on availability.No mortar was used dry walls allowed for movement during an earthquakePlacement of cut stones or field stones, with smaller pebbles as infill, and cracked stones to fill gaps locked the stones together.Large or decorative stones were used for gateways or the base of the main tower.Particular attention was paid to the corners, typically using chiseled cut stone to ensure proper angles & fit, greatly improving stability of the structure.As castle heights increase, the curved wall helped lessen the strain on the lower stones by distributing the weight over a wider area and made it more difficult for the enemy to climb.Construction Costs and WorkforceDaimyo were expected to provide stones and labor for construction in accordance with their income.Often stones in castles would bear the marks of the individual daimyo or stonemasons, indicating the stones or sections of wall they had been responsible for.Procuring the stones was a key responsibility of the official in charge of the castle fortification. If stones were in short supply, often temple ruins and grave yards were plundered.Stones were moved by ship, sled, or rolled on a series of logs. Smaller stones were carried in slings and ropes, with pulleys and poles used for positioning.

Nishi, Kazuo, and Kazuo Hozumi. What Is Japanese Architecture? Tokyo: Kodansha Internat