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  • HIGHFIELD HISTORY GCSE WORKBOOK RUSSIA DEPTH STUDY: Russia in Revolution 1917-1924 BIG Question: How did the Bolsheviks manage to maintain control of Russia? (GRADE C Booklet) Revolutions are always verbose. Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
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  • 2 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924OUTLINE OF LEARNING TitleLesson ObjectivesHomework I April to October 1917 Recall the April Thesis Explain the reasons for the collapse of the Provisional Government The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk II The Bolshevik Revolution Describe the events of October 1917 Explain why the Bolsheviks exaggerated the storming of the Winter Palace III The Russian Civil War Explain why there were divisions in Russia after the Revolution Explain the purpose of a political cartoon Civil War cartoon question IV War Communism Explain why War Communism was used Judge the success of War Communism V The role of Trotsky Describe Trotskys Civil War career Judge the reliability of a written source VI The end of the Romanovs Recall the events surrounding the deaths of the Romanov family Explain why the Romanovs were assassinated Revision VII The NEP Describe the NEP Compare the NEP with Communism VIII The death of Lenin Evaluate the impact of Lenins death on Communism Explain what Lenin had wanted for the future of the USSR
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  • 4 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 Vladimir Lenin (political leader of the Bolshevik Party) Throughout 1917, how popular were the Bolsheviks the Soviet MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT What was the April Thesis? What were the July Days? What was the Kornilov Affair in August?
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  • 5 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 Alexander Kerensky (leader of the Provisional Government) The Provisional Government The Tsar and his family MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP When did the popularity of these groups change? Can you identify why these groups became more or less popular? who or what do you think was to blame for the failings of the Provisional Government?
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  • 6 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 General Peter Wrangel went to St. Petersburg after the February Revolution and the creation of the Provisional Government. The first thing I noticed in Petersburg was lots of red ribbon. Everyone was wearing them - soldiers, students, chauffeurs, cab-drivers, middle-class folk, women, children, and many officers. Men of some wealth and power as well, including old generals and former aides to the Tsar, wore it too. I expressed my astonishment to an old comrade of mine at seeing him also wearing one. He tried to laugh it off, and said jokingly: "Why, my dear fellow, don't you know that it's the latest fashion? I considered this ridiculous ribbon absolutely useless. Throughout my stay in the capital I wore the Tsarevich's badge, the distinguishing mark of my old regiment, on my epaulettes, and, of course, I wore no red rag. Edward T. Heald, letter to his wife (2nd May, 1917) The sudden burst of Bolshevik propaganda, which has developed during the past week, is made by Lenin who has just arrived from Switzerland. He came through Germany, and rumour is that he was looked after by Emperor Wilhelm (the German leader). As he entered the country through Finland, he assaulted the soldiers and workingmen along the way with the most revolutionary propaganda. One of the Americans who came through on the same train told us how disheartening it was. God knows what a task the Provisional Government has on hand without adding the trouble that Lenin can create. Soon after the February Revolution the journalist Harold Williams interviewed Alexander Kerensky. Last week's ridiculous April Thesis, issued in the name of the Council of Workmen's Deputies (the Soviet), calling on the soldiers not to obey their officers, Kerensky (leader of the Provisional Government) sharply characterized as an act of provocation. There had been a few instances of grave disturbance of discipline, but the Minister was confident that this phase would soon pass. He declared: "The general effect of the freedom will, I am convinced, be to give an immense boost to morale in the army, and so to shorten the war. After meeting George Lvov, the British diplomat, George Buchanan, sent a report on their discussions to the Foreign Office (8th April, 1917) Lvov (in the Provisional Government) does not favour the idea of taking strong measures at present, either against the Soviet or the Bolsheviks. I told him that the Provisional Government would never be in charge of the situation as long as they allowed themselves to be told what to do by the Soviet, he said that the Soviet would die a natural death, and the army will then carry on fighting in the war against Germany< even better than they did under the Tsar.
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  • 7 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 Albert Rhys Williams described the arrival of troops to put down the Bolshevik uprising in July, 1917, in his book, Through the Russian Revolution. On the third day the troops arrive. Bicycle battalions, the reserve regiments, and then the long grim lines of horsemen, the sun glancing on the tips of their lances. They are the Cossacks, ancient foes of the revolutionists, bring dread to the workers and the joy to the middle class. The avenues are filled now with middle-class crowds cheering the Cossacks, crying "Shoot the rabble". "String up the Bolsheviks". A wave of reaction runs through the city. The Bolshevik papers are closed down. Fake documents saying that the Bolsheviks are German agents are handled to the journalists. Leaders like Trotsky are thrown into prison. Lenin is forced to flee, everywhere there are assaults and murder of working class men. During the summer of 1917 George Buchanan became concerned about the survival of the Provisional Government. Ministers of the Provisional Government are working themselves to death, and have the best intentions; but, though I am always being told that their position is becoming stronger, I see no signs of their asserting their authority. The Soviet continues to act as if it were the Government. The military outlook is most discouraging. Nor do I take an optimistic view of the immediate future of the country. Harold Williams, Daily Chronicle (29th September, 1917) The Kornilov Affair has intensified mutual distrust and completed the work of destruction. The Government is shadowy and unreal. The power now lies in the hands of the Soviets, and therefore the influence of the Bolsheviks has increased enormously. Kerensky has returned from Headquarters, but his prestige has declined, and he is not actively supported either by the right or by the left. Arthur Ransome was in Russia during the October Revolution. Before the end of August it was obvious that there would be a Bolshevik majority in the Soviets. During the 'July Days' the weakness of the Government had been obvious. Kerensky had been weakened by the double failure, military and diplomatic and defeats in the War. Both these failures had brought new strength to the Bolsheviks, and a swing to the left wing was inevitable. TOP TIP for a C Grade All of the sources are in order of when they happened. Can you work out who likes and who dislikes the Provisional Government?
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  • 8 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 1918 Russia fought against Germany during World War I. However, in February 1918 Russia surrendered to Germany. The Russian army had collapsed and the Russians were forced to sign a peace treaty against their will. Below are three sources about the Brest-Litovsk Treaty of March 1918. (A treaty is a peace agreement between countries.) Source A: A map of Russia. The shaded area shows the amount of land they were forced to hand over to Germany. Source B: Russias losses in numbers. This was what Russia had to hand over to Germany under the terms of the treaty: 34% of its population 32% of its agricultural (farming) land 54% of its industry (manufacturing) 26% of its railways 89% of its coalmines A fine of 300 million gold roubles Source C: The diary entry of a German army officer named Herbert Sulzbach from the 3rd March 1918. The final peace treaty has been signed with Russia. Our conditions are hard and severe, but our quite exceptional victories entitle us to demand these...there is still some justice left. [in the world].
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  • 9 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 3rd March 1918 Medal Positive Comment ATL Mission Way to Improve Student Comment What will you do next time? Activity: Imagine your are a Russian politician at the signing of the Brest Litovsk Treaty. Write your own diary entry for the 3rd March 1918. In it include The key terms of the Treaty How you would feel about it (Upset? Angry?)
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  • 10 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 Describe the events of the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 What did the Krondstadt sailors do? What did the Red Guard do? What did the Womens Death Battalion do? Describe the events of the Bolshevik Revolution according to the film Oktyabr by Eisenstein (1927) Explain why there are such differences between these two versions
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  • 11 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 Who were the Reds and the Whites? Why were they fighting? What happened in the Russian Civil War? Why did the Reds win? Why did the Whites lose? SOURCE QUESTION OPPOSITE - Why was this cartoon produced? What is the message of this cartoon?
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  • 12 RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1917-1924 What can you see in the cartoon? What inferences can you make about the cartoon? What is the message of this cartoon? Medal Positive Comment Mission Way