hi 87a - how to build an accessible environment in developing countries : manual #1 - introduction...
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DESCRIPTIONComment construire un environnement accessible dans les PED: Manuel # 1 - Introduction et des normes d'accessibilité (Anglais) Auteur: David Vincent, LAST Ulrike, PAPON Lucile, Eric PLANTIER ROYON Pays: Cambodge Date: 2008 Public: Spécialisé Type: Ouvrage, Rapport Phnom Pemh: Handicap International France, le Cambodge Program, 2008. - 39 p. Cette série de manuels donne des techniques de construction Prenant en compte l'accessibilité des personnes en situation de handicap Dans des Pays en Développement. Il Est Destiné à des techniciens (ingénieurs, architectes, Société de construction ...). Toutefois, ce document reste intéressant pour les personnes sans connaissances techniques en leurs permettant de Comprendre les Principes généraux et normes les installations de CES. Ce Premier volume Définit le terme «accessibilité» et les normes techniques Utilisés pour la construction de la SCÉ. Avec l'aimable autorisation de Handicap International: URL de la source du document: http://www.handicap-international.fr/ © Droits d'auteur réservés et limites strictement. - Tous droits de traduction, reproducteur et d'adaptation réservés pour tous pays.
- 1. HOW TO BUILD AN ACCESSIBLE ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESBased on the CambodiaProgram's experienceManual #1 - Introduction &Accessibility standards Handicap International
2. HOW TO BUILD AN ACCESSIBLE ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESManual #1 Introduction & Accessibility standards 3. Published in: December 2008Published by: Handicap International France, Cambodia Program #6, St. 348, BKK3, Chomkarmon, Phnom Pemh firstname.lastname@example.orgContent developed by: Vincent DAVID, Cambodia, Accessibility and Infrastructures CoordinatorSupervised by: Ulrike LAST, Cambodia, Inclusion & Rights Coordinator Lucile PAPON, Cambodia, Program Director Eric PLANTIER ROYON, Head Quarters, Accessibility Technical AdvisorDesign, layout and translation: Eric JARLGANPhotographs and illustrations credits: Handicap International French SectionThe technical content developed in this set of manuals is the property of HandicapInternational. You can use its content, such as technical drawings, estimations, etc.freely, provided that you cite HI's manual as the source.Handicap International cannot be held responsible for any misuse of the content. 4. Table of contents Foreword 6 Introduction 9 Aim and targeted audience12 What is accessibility? 13 Common misconceptions and mistakes 14 Local accessibility planning 16 Accessibility and UN Convention18Handicap International approach20 Cambodian legal framework21 International standards23 Standards used by HI for the built environment 24Standardised vs. individualised approach 36 5. Handicap International French section ForewordForeword As Country Director of Handicap International in Cambodia, Im pleased to introduce the set of manualsHow to build an accessible environment. The primaryobjective of this guide is to promote the idea of and practicesfor an inclusive society as an integral part of thedevelopment of Cambodia. But what means an inclusivesociety? It means an environment that can be lived in, usedand enjoyed by everyone, regardless of age, gender and/ordisability. Surely, to accomplish such a society necessitates along breath and actions. The environment accompanying itwould be shaped by elements such as society's andindividual's attitudes, recognizing and accommodatingdifferences. Meaningful inclusion is for the benefit of all. Itenables each and everyone to participate in the social,economic, religious and cultural life equally and with dignity.Handicap International is fully committed to an inclusivesociety in which nobody is disadvantaged. An important partof making this commitment a reality is promoting theremoval of unnecessary physical barriers and hindrances toan independent life imposed on disabled people. What arethose hindrances and barriers? By account of disabled peoplethey are poor designs of buildings and places. Stairs are notan entry but preventing you from entering, if you are a wheelchair user. Sanitation facilities allowing for increased hygiene,if not constructed with disabled people in mind are causinghygienic problems to them. A separate ramp at the back ofthe building makes the one using it feel excluded andseparated from the mainstream. Too often such feedback andrequirements of disabled people are considered late in theday and separately from those of the others. We want tosupport disabled people to change that.A common misconception is that adapting or buildingaccessible environments is a costly exercise. Developers andkeys actors often use this argument to justify the absence ofaccessibility. From our perspective also the lack oflegislations or missing consideration given to disabled peopleare contributing to the widespread absence of inclusivedesigns.6 6. How to build an accessible environment Introduction ForewordCurrent challenges for inclusive environments in public spaces in Cambodia are for instance the lack of clear regulations for building and construction permits and that the legislation on disability remains in voting process only. However, the Royal Government of Cambodia by signing the UN Convention for the rights of people with disabilities in 2007 as well as the Biwako Millennium Framework showed strong signals of commitment and consideration for disabled people as equal citizens. With this manual we would like to support concerned parties, such as the Royal Government of Cambodia, the private construction sector and/or civil society organizations to make adaptations to the built environment. Changes in our external environment can be achieved at a minimal cost with creative thinking and careful consideration of peoples needs. Improving access to the physical environment results in greater social equity; it is thus a question of choice: which society do we want for us and our children? Enabling disabled people to participate better in social, economic, cultural and religious activities by dismantling physical barriers will result in a more democratic and powerful society. Many thanks to the persons who contributed to it: Vincent David (Technical Referent), Eric Jarlgan (Concept and Design), Ulrike Last (Inclusion & Rights Coordination), Mr. Srun and the Battambang team for Cambodia mission; Eric Plantier Royon (Technical Referent) for head quarters Our donors The Canton of Geneva and the MAAIONG French Embassy SCAC in Cambodia. I hope that you will find this guide useful and encouraging for creating buildings and places which all people can use with dignity and confidence. Phnom Penh, November 2008Lucile Papon (Mrs), Country Director Handicap International French Section 7 7. Handicap International French section AcronymsAcromyms and abreviations8 8. How to build an accessible environment Introduction IntroductionIntroductionC ambodia is a country with a current population of approx- imately 14 million. It was devastated by almost 30 years of civil conflict, war and genocide. This has resulted in seri- ous losses of human resources and destruction of its physical & administrative infrastructure. The Kingdom, in a recovery process, has benefited from major international financial and technical support on infrastructures building, governance, health and education sectors, etc. Despite the lack of confirmed data (ref. 4.5%) Cambodia is often cited as a country with high numbers of disabled inhab- itants; added to the common forms of impairments (caused by diseases and malnutrition, accidents, motherhood & child- hood risks) and disability (caused by discrimination and neg- ative attitudes and physical barriers), is the plague of Mines/UXOs. The latter has deeply affected the population and the economical development.Despite their visibility and the commitment of the authorit- ies to build an inclusive society, people with disabilities still suffer severely from the every day lack of accessibility in their country. The mobility possibilities for people with disabil- ities remain very poor. The roads are not equipped for dis- abled people, especially not for people using wheelchairs, crutches or white canes. This includes the pavements, the traffic lights, and public roads due to obstructions, uneven and unpaved surfaces, steps, and such alike. Public transport- ation is not really existing, and private buses hardly access- ible. It is almost impossible for people in wheelchairs and people walking with crutches to get on a bus. Higher-level in- stitutions typically have several flights of stairs. The majority of public buildings, hospitals and schools are inaccessible as well. Most of the buildings do not have ramps, handrails or any other support systems. Corridors, toilets and bathrooms are often so narrow or tiny that they are inaccessible. Visu- ally and hearing impaired people are predominantly deprived when it comes to accessing information that is important to them. This lack of access to information has serious effects on people with disabilities welfare, safety, health, life oppor- tunities and the full enjoyment of their rights. Furthermore, 9 9. Handicap International French section Introductionnegative attitudes and discrimination have created a widerange of barriers. Those barriers have denied many disabledpeople opportunities to access employment, education, re-sources and/or even to participate in social and cultural prac-tices.The 15-year long ex-perience in Cambodiaprovideduswithample opportunities toobserve how the vi-cious circle of poverty disability exclusionendures when access-ibility is denied. In2004, Handicap Inter-national initiated ac-tions of constructinginclusive buildings forpeople with disabilitieswithin the Educationfor All project.23schools, play-grounds and waterpoints, 6 public Srey Andong Pi School in thebuildings(health Samlot district of Cambodiacenters...) and 56 in-dividualhomeswere targeted, adapted and made inclusive.Moreover, the comprehensive approach of HI lead towork on the environmental factors limiting the integration ofdisabled children. Environmental factors in focus for changethrough the different project are: physical ones (roads,stairs...), political ones (laws, stakeholders behaviors) orsocial ones (services, micro credit...). Partners in such actionare foremost people with disabilities and their organizations,next to the government and other civil society organizations. 10 10. How to build an accessible environment IntroductionIntroductionIn conclusion, when analyzing the Cambodian environment with regards to accessibility & disability, two main perspectives need to be considered: access to and accessibility of the built environment. Access to the built environment includes the possibility of all people to reach all places within the already built environment. Accessibility of the built environment includes the possibility of all people to maneuver and make use of the built environment as independent as possible. The present guideline will mainly focus on this second perspective: to contribute gua