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  • 4

    NASA TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM

    x

    N.1S4 TM X- 53445

    April 20, 1966

    -N66 2 5 0 0 9 0 0 - . a 5 ITHRUJ (ACCESSION NUMBER)

    0

    > c (PAGES) (CODE1 - &

    i

    /(I~ASA'CR OR TUX OR AD NUMBER) TEQORI)

    HEAT T R E A T M E N T O F T I T A N I U M A N D T I T A N I U M A L L O Y S

    By F. F. Schmidt and R. A. Wood c

    Prepared Under the Supervision of the Research Branch, Redstone Scientific Information Center

    Directorate of Research and Development

    U. S. Army Missi le Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama

    NASA

    George C. Mursbdll Space Flight Center,

    GPO PRICE s CFSTl PRICE(S) $

    Hard copy ':IC) -? .ba Microfiche !V F! .7f

    ff 853 July 65

    https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19660015720 2018-02-02T18:06:48+00:00Z

  • I .c- TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM X-53445

    HEAT TREATMENT O F TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS

    F. F. Schmidt and R. A. Wood::

    This repor t reviews present heat treatment pract ices f o r titanium and titanium alloys. It descr ibes the methods, techniques, and equip- ment current ly employed in the thermal t reatment of titanium mate- r ia l s , and the necessary processing considerations and precautions that govern these t reatments . ing the principles used in titanium heat treatment is a l so discussed with respec t to alloy classifications, s t ructures , and hardening mechanisms.

    I The metallurgical background i l lustrat -

    +Principal Investigators, Battelle Memorial Institute, Contract No. DA-Ol-O21-AMC-l1651(Z)

    NASA-GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

  • NASA-GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHI

    TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM X-53445

    CENTER

    HEAT TREATMENT OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS

    BY

    F. F. Schmidt and R. A. Wood

    Prepa red for

    Manufactur ing Engine e r ing Labor at or y

    In Cooperation with

    Technology Utilization Office

    Under the supervision of

    Redstone Scientific Information Center U. S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama

    MsFC Order No. H-76715 Report No. RSIC-493

    Subcontracted to

    Battelle Memorial Institute 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio

    Contract No. DA-O1-02l-AMC-l1651(Z)

  • PREFACE

    This repor t is one of a s e r i e s of state-of-the-art repor t s being prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, under Contract No. DA-01-021-AMC-l1651(Z), in the general field of mat e r ia l s fabric a t ion.

    This repor t on heat t reatment of titanium and titanium alloys i s

    The detailed discussions involving the intended to provide information useful to designers , fabr icators , and use r s of titanium mater ia ls . metallurgical background, methods, techniques, equipment, and p re - cautions a r e considered to be reliable guides underlying cur ren t practice employed in the thermal t reatments of titanium and titanium alloys.

    The repor t summar izes information collected f rom books, techni- ca l conferences, repor t s on Government contracts , and interviews with technical personnel actively engaged in titanium heat treatment. A total of 27 references, most of which a r e year 1965, a r e cited.

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  • ..

    TABLE O F CONTENTS .

    SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . METALLURGICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM ALLOYS .

    Classification of Titanium Alloys . . . . . . . Structure of Titanium Alloys . . . . . . . .

    Alpha-Beta Alloys . . . . . . . . . . Beta Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alpha Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Hardening Mechanism in Titanium Alloys S t r e s s Relief and Annealing Titanium Alloys

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    TYPICAL THERMAL TREATMENTS AND PROPERTIES OF REPRESENTATIVE TITANIUM ALLOYS . . . .

    Alpha Alloy . Ti-5A1-2.5Sn . . Structure . . . . . . . Stress-Relief Annealing . . . Annealing . . . . . . . Therma l Stability . . . . .

    . Struc ture . . . . . . . Stress-Relief Annealing . . . Annealing . . . . . . . Strengthening Heat Treatments

    Strengthening Heat Treatments

    Alpha-Beta Alloy . Ti-6A1-4V .

    Hardenability . . . . . Solution Annealing . . .

    Therma l Stability . . . . . Aging Heat Trea tments .

    Beta Alloy . Ti.13V.llCr.3Al . . Struc ture . . . . . . . Stress-Relief Annealing . . . Annealing . . . . . . .

    Hardenability . . . . . Solution Annealing . . .

    Thermal Stability . . . . .

    Strengthening Heat Treatments

    Aging Heat Treatments .

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    iii

  • TABLE O F CONTENTS (Continued)

    - Page

    TITANIUMHEAT-TREATMENT PRACTICE. . . . . . . 30 Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    Effect on P r o p e r t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3

    37 Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contamination Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 F u rnac ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 Heat-TreatmentTechniques. . . . . . . . . . . 49

    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . 55 REFERENCES

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    LIST O F ILLUSTRATIONS

    Title

    Pr incipal Types of Titanium-Alloy Constitution Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microstructures of Fully Annealed Titanium. .

    The Effect of Solution-Treatment Temperature on the Microstructures of the Alpha-Beta Alloy Ti-4.4% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Representative Hardness Curve for an Alpha-Beta Alloy Quenched F r o m Alpha-Beta Field and Aged at 800 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Cooling Rate on Phase Relationships and Proper t ies of a Typical Heat-Treatable Titanium Al loy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Time and Temperature on the Relief of Residual Stress in Ti-5A1-2. 5Sn. . . . . . . The Phase Relationships for Ti-6A1-4V . . . . Effect of Time and Temperature on the Relief of Residual Stress in Ti-6A1-4V . . . . . . . End-Quench Hardenability Curves for Ti-6A1-4V . The Effect of Aging on Hardness of a Ti-6A1-4V Specimen End Quenched F r o m 1550 F . . . . . The Effect of Section Size on the Tensile Propert ies of Ti-6A1-4V . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Effect of Solution Temperature on Tensile Proper t ies of Ti-6A1-4V . . . . . . . . . The Effect of Delayed Water Quenching F r o m 1750 and 1550 F on the Tensile Propert ies of Ti-6A1-4V. . .

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    V

  • LIST O F ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)

    Figure Title Page

    14. The Effect of Aging Time at 900 F on the Tensi le Proper t ies of Ti-6A1-4V Solution Trea ted at 1550 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    15. Phase Diagram of B- 120VCA With Variable Chromium Content (Ti-13V-Cr-3A1-0. 502) . . . . . . . . 28

    16. Phase Diagram of B- l2OVCA With Variable Aluminum Content (Ti-13V-11Cr-A1-0. 5 0 2 ) . . . . . . . 28

    17. TTT Diagram for Ti-13V-11Cr-3A1-0. 1502 as Deter- mined by Metallographic Techniques . . . . . . 28

    18. Effect of Solution Tempera ture on the Annealed and Annealed-Plus-Aged Hardness of Ti-13V-l lCr-3A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    19. Effect of The rma l Exposure at 600 F on the Tensi le Proper t ies of Annealed-and- Worked Ti- 13 V- 1 1 C r . 3A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0

    20. Effect of Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen on Tensi le Proper t ies of Iodide Titanium. . . . . . . . . 32

    21. Effect of Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen on Vickers Hardness of Iodide Titanium. . . . . . . . . . 32

    22. Effect of Inters t i t ia ls on Toughness of Iodide Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    23. Charac te r i s t ics of Hydrogen Embri t t lement in Alpha Alloys, F r o m Data on Iodide Ti tanium. . . . . . 34

    24. Oxidation Rates of Titanium in Oxygen in the 800 to 1100 F Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    25. Comparison of the Metal Losses of Commerc ia l Titanium, Ti-5A1-2. 5Sn, and Ti-4A1-4Mn Heated in Air for 8 Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    vi

  • c LIST O F ILLUSTRATIONS ( C ont inu ed )

    Figure Title

    26. Summary of Hardness-Penetration Data for Unalloyed Titanium Heated for Various Times in Air at 1600 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    27. Technique for Estimating the Depth of Contamination of Commercial Titanium F r o m Combinations of Time and Tempera ture of Exposure to Air . . . .

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