health of cavalry horses
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The Asclepzad. No. 10, Vol. III.THE article on the Cardiac Pulmonic Balance is most
originally thought out by Dr. Richardson, and well worthyof perusal. " The Poverty of Wealth" is an amusingnarrative, showing that the motto of the Journal of PublicHealth and Sanitary Review ought to have been NationalWealth is National Health," and bearing generally on thevalue of hygiene and sanitation in promoting health.Antonio Scarpa is the subject of the biographical notice andportrait. " The life of Scarpa is eventful only through hislabours. He is from the beginning to the end of his careerthe professor; his genius, observation ; his force, industry;his fame, purity-purity in exactitude, patience, exposi-tion, initiative, direction." In the Opuscula Practicathere is a page or so on a " Proper Temperature for MentalWork." Here it is stated that if the temperature 1 eunequal, study is unequal; and that the best degree oftemperature for mental work is 64: F. or 18 C. If thetemperature falls much below this, there is a relaxedstate of body and mind, which soon leads to fatigue andexhaustion. No doubt Dr. Richardson is right, but wethink allowance should be made for idiosyncrasies. We arenot all gifted with the perennial energy of the author ofThe Asclepiad, and it is most likely that some of our dullbrains are incapable of experiencing the variations in sur-rounding temperature in the manner above alluded to.Likewise we are disposed to join issue with the author inthinking, with the poet Cowper, that composition is ratherexhausting in its nature.
New Inventions.A SOLID CATHETER.
THE instrument shown in the woodcut is intended tocombine the weight of a solid metal bougie with the advan-tages of a catheter. It consists of a silver catheter, intowhich, in place of the ordinary stylet, a soft metal rodflttina 1-.ha tnha ia nU1QAiI rioht. iin tn t,hA fnfl lin t1i TVDDf!-
cut the rod is not represented long enough).The effect of this is to render the catheter prac-tically solid, and the weight is equally dis-tributed through its whole length. After intro-duction the rod is withdrawn, and a hollow
catheter remains. The rod appears straight when
withdrawn; but in the catheter, owing to its softness, itfollows the curve as dotted in the woodcut. As an instanceof the difference of weight made by the rod, I have weigheda No. 9 catheter, selected at random from my set, whichweighs without the rod 6 dr., and with the rod 15 dr.The rods can easily be fitted to any metal catheter.
VALENTINE MATTHEWS, M.R.C.S., L.S.A.Suffolk-street, Pall-mall, S.W._
A NEW DISINFECTOR.WATERCLOSETS should require no disinfection; they
should be so constructed that their contents are completelyremoved, and that they are thoroughly cleansed and filledwith clean water. The use, therefore, of a disinfector pre-supposes a defective apparatus, which should be exchangedwithout delay for one more perfect; but if circumstancesshould render this impossible, and the best have to be madeof faulty apparatus, the use of a disinfector is then necessary.Mr. H. E. Pollard, of Duke-street, Adelphi, has sent us theSweet Home Patent Disinfector which is an ingeniouslyconstructed receptacle made of earthenware, and containing ipermanganate of potash crystals; it is intended to be fixed Iwithin the pan as close to the flush as possible, and on each
occasion of use of the closet water passes into the disinfectorand washes round the pan of the watercloset solution ofpermanganate. It has the advantage of being very simplein its construction, and gives no opportunity for theretention of dirt, and will be found useful under thecircumstances we have mentioned.
HEALTH OF CAVALRY HORSES.
THE very satisfactory condition of the horses, as shown.
in the Annual Statistical Report of the Army Veterinary
Department for the year ending December 3lst, 1885, re-: flects great credit upon the branch of the service so ably.
and efficiently conducted by Mr. Fleming. It appears thatthe average strength of the horses employed in the United
Kingdom during the year was 11,778; the admissions intohospital from sickness and injury amounted to 589 per 1000;the deaths to 187; the number " cast" to 910; and the con-stantly non-effective from sickness or injury to 38 per 1000of the strength. The admissions and casting were consider-ably lower, but the death-rate was 15 per 1000 higher thanin the preceding year. The table showing the averagenumber of days each horse was ineffective is a valuableaddition to the return. The reduction in the number ofcases was most marked in those from skin disease, sprainsand accidental punctures, contusions, contused and punc-tured wounds, and collar-chain gall. There was a consider-able increase in the cases of catarrhal fever, influenza,and strangles. The two classes-diseases and accidents ofthe locomotory apparatus, and surgical diseases and acci-dents-furnished upwards of three-fifths of all the admis-sions, and together amounted to 366 per 1000 of the strength.The increase in the mortality compared with that of 1884was chiefly due to an outburst of glanders and farcy amongthe horses of the 5th Lancers after their return to Englandfrom Suakim, where the diseases are believed to have beencontracted. The regiment arrived in England on June 13th,and on the 15th the first case of glanders was reported;between that date and July llth 7 cases of farcy and 4 ofglanders occurred; since then the regiment has been entirelyfree from the disease. Mr. Fleming observes that " tothe prompt and energetic measures adopted (immediatedestruction of the diseased, complete segregation of thosepresenting any suspicious symptoms, close inspection ofevery horse two or three times a day, picketing out in theopen a horses length between each horse, and the mostscrupulous care with regard to watering, cleansing, dis-infection,&c.) must be ascribed the wonderfully rapid stamp-ing out of what threatened to be a most serious invasionof glanders." Only one other case of glanders occurredduring the year, in the Royal Artillery at Shorncliffe; itwas due to infection brought into the barracks by an officersprivate horse kept in a stable attached to his house." Promptmeasures were at once taken, and the disease did not spread.The most fatal class of diseases was that of the respiratoryapparatus, which gave rise to 60 deaths, or upwards of a ,fourth of the whole mortality; and next to it stand diseasesand accidents of the locomotory apparatus, by which 58deaths were caused.An interesting table is given of the admissions and deaths
by ages, which shows that the highest percentage of sick-ness occurs among the five-year-old, and next to it amongthe four-year-old horses, while the highest death-rate underfifteen is among the four-year-olds. Among the causes ofcasting " old age " furnishes much the largest number, 457out of a total of 997 being returned under that head, but noinformation is given as to the exact ages of the horses so" cast." We would suggest that the addition to Table G. ofa column for the "casting" would add much to its value.The average price realised for "cast" horses was onlyae9 19s. 1d., being aeI 6s. 1. less per horse than in 1884, aresult probably due to the depression in trade and agricul-ture. Mr. Fleming has given us a very interesting report,in which he has gone more into detail than previously, andwe most sincerely congratulate him and his staff upon thesuccessful result of their labours which he has been able torecord.