Guerilla Warfare & Special Forces Operations

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    DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FIELD MANUAL

    GUERILLA WARFARE

    AND

    SPECIAL FORCES OPERATIONS

    H E A D Q U A R T E R S , D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E A R M Y

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    *FM31-21

    F IEL D MANUAL HEADQUARTERS,

    D E P ARTME NT OF TH E ARMY

    NO. 31-21 WASHINGTON25, D .C., 29September1961

    GUERRILLAWARFAREANDSPECIALFORCES

    OPERATIONS

    Paragraphs Page

    P ART ONE . INTRODUCTION

    C HAPTER 1. FU ND AME NTALS ----------------------------------1-3 3

    2. RE S IS TANC E AND G U E RRI LL A WAR-FAR E -------------------------------------------------4-8 5

    P ART TWO. ORG ANIZATION FOR THE SP E CI AL

    FORCES EFFORT

    C HAP TER 3. J OINT U NC ONVE NTIO NAL WAR-

    FARE TASK FOR CE (J U WTF) ------------- 9-12 14

    4. AIRB ORNE SP EC IAL FORCES G ROUP

    S ect ion I . G enera l ----------------------------------------------13-18 18

    I I . The S pecia l Forces opera t iona l ba se -------19-21 26

    I I I . Con t rol of oper a t ions-----------------------------22-27 29IV. Control of administra t ive a nd tra ining

    Act ivit ies -----------------------------------------28-32 39

    C HAP TER 5. TH E ATE R SU P P ORT

    S ect ion I . Log ist ics ---------------------------------------------33-43 46

    I I . In t elligence -----------------------------------------44-46 54

    I I I . Com munica t ion s ----------------------------------47-52 58

    IV. In it ia l cont a ct --------------------------------------53-54 63

    P ART TH R EE . OPERATIONS

    C HAPTER 6. INFILTRATION ----------------------------------55-60 647. ORG ANIZATION AND D E VE LOP MEN T

    OF TH E ARE A COMMAND.

    S ect ion I . Orga niza t ion a l concept s ------------------------61-66 69

    I I . Res ist a nce elem en t s -----------------------------67-72 79

    I I I . S ecu r it y ----------------------------------------------73-80 86

    IV. In telligence in guerrilla w a rfa re opera tiona l

    a rea ------------------------------------------------81-83 93

    V. Communica tions in guerril la w a rfa re opera

    t ion a l a rea s --------------------------------------84-87 93VI. Logistics in guerrilla wa rfa re opera tiona l

    a rea s-----------------------------------------------88-94 95

    *ThismanualsupersedesFM31-21,8May1958.

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    Paragraphs Page

    C HAPTER 8. COMBAT EMPLOYMENT

    S ect ion I . In t roduct ion -------------------------------------- 95-100 103

    II . Of fen sive comba t oper a t ion s ---------------101-116 107

    I I I . In t er dict ion --------------------------------------117-126 130

    IV. D efen siv e opera t ions -------------------------127-131 137

    V. E mployment of unconvent iona l w a rfa re

    forces to assist conventional forces' com-

    ba t oper a t ion s -------------------------------132-139 145

    VI. E mploym ent of U W forces a ft er link-up 140-147 164

    C HAP TER 9. P SYCH OLOGI CAL OP E RATIONS IN

    SU P P ORT OF U NCONVE NTIONAL

    WARFARE -----------------------------------148-152 169

    10. DE MOB ILIZATION --------------------------153-166 177

    AP P E N D I XI . RE FE RE NCE S ------------------------------------------- 183

    II . CATALOG U E S U P P LY SYS TE M ------------------ 188

    I I I . ARE A STU D Y G U ID E --------------------------------- 234

    IV. ARE A ASS E S S ME NT---------------------------------- 244

    V. G LOS S ARY OF TE RMS ------------------------------ 249

    I NDEX --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 252

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    PARTONE

    INTRODUCTION

    CHAPTER1

    FUNDAMENTALS

    1. PurposeandScope

    a. This manual provides guidance in Special Forces and

    unconventional warfare operations for commanders and staffs at all

    levels. The ba sic concepts of unconvent iona l w a rfa re a re presented in

    a manner designed to acquaint the reader with Special Forces

    orga niza tion, concepts, a nd meth ods of opera tions t o fulfill the Army 's

    responsibility for t he conduct of unconvent iona l w a rfa re.

    b. Thorough understanding of the ideas established within this

    ma nua l w ill prepare t he comma nder a nd st a ff officers for subsequent

    decisions and staff actions which affect special forces planning and

    operations.c. Detailed methods and techniques of Special Forces operations

    a re discussed below. C lassified informa tion perta ining t o all levels of

    Special Forces operations is found in FM 31-21A.

    2. DefinitionofUnconventionalWarfare

    Unconventional warfare consists of the interrelated fields of

    guerrilla w a rfa re, evasion a nd esca pe, a nd subversion a ga inst h ostile

    states (resistance). Unconventional warfare operations are conducted

    in enemy or enemy controlled territory by predominately indigenous

    personnel usually supported and directed in varying degrees by an

    external source.

    3. DelineationofResponsibilitiesforUnconventionalWarfare

    a. The responsibility for certain of these activities has been

    delegated to the service having primary concern. Guerrilla warfare is

    th e responsibility of the U nited St a tes Army .

    b. Within certain designated geographic areascalled guerrillaw a rfa re opera tiona l a reasthe U nited St a tes Army is responsible for

    the conduct of all three interrelated fields of activity as they affect

    guerrilla w a rfa re operat ions.

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    c. The milit a ry opera t ions of resist a nce movement s a re

    customa ri ly supported a nd accompanied by polit ica l an d economic

    activitiesbot h over t a n d cla n d es tin eof ind iv idua ls and g roups

    integrated,oractinginconjunctionwithguerrillas.Theseveraltypes

    of ac t iv it ies a re inter locking . The term unconvent iona l wa r fa re is

    used in t his m a nua l t o d en ot e a ll of t he U n it ed S t a tes Ar my 'sa ssocia ted responsibi li t ies in the conduct of guerr i lla wa rfare . The

    termguerr i l la warfare is used todenote theprimaryovert mil i tary

    activitiesoftheguerrillaforces.

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    CHAPTER2

    RESISTANCEANDGUERRILLAWARFARE

    4. Resistance

    a.General. R es is t ance is t he cornerst one of guer r illa wa r fa re.

    U nderground a nd guerr illa w a rfa re st em from a resist ance

    movement.

    b.Defi n i ti on. Resista nceisdefineda sth ea ctofoppositionofone

    in dividua l or gr oup t o a n ot her . A r esist a nce m ovem en t is t he

    or ga n ized elem en t of a disa ffect ed popula t ion w h ich r esist s a

    governm entoroccupyingpow erw ithm eans, va ryingfrompassive t o

    violent ly a ct ive. Resist ance movement s begin t o form w hen

    d is sa t i sf a ct ion occurs among s t rong ly mot iv a t ed ind iv idua l s who

    cannotfurthertheircausebypeacefulandlegalmeans.

    c. TheN at u r eofResistance.

    (1) Resista nce, rebellion or civil w a r begins in a na t ion w here

    polit ica l , sociologica l , economic or rel ig ious division ha s

    occurred. Divis ionsof this natureare usual ly causedbya

    violationofrightsorprivileges,theoppressionofonegroup

    bythedominantoroccupyingforce,orthethreattothelife

    andfreedomof thepopulace. Resistancealsomaydevelop

    inanat ionwheretheoncewelcomedliberatorshavefailed

    t o improv e an in t olerab le socia l or economic s it ua t ion .

    Resistancecanalsobedeliberately inspiredfromexternal

    sources aga ins t an assumed gr ievance. Res is t ance can be

    act iveorpassive. Passiveresistancemaybein theformof

    smolder ing resentment which needs only leadership or a

    meansofexpressiontomaturetoactiveresistance.

    (2) Some people join a res is t ance movement because of an

    inna t e des ire t o surviv e. Ot hers may join t he res is t ance

    forces because of deep ideolog ica l conv ict ions. Bu t a l l,

    regardlessof init ial motivat ion, a reboundt ogether to fight

    a ga inst a commonenemy.Pa rt ofthepopula t ionassists the

    resista ncemovement a sfightersinth eguerrillaforce;some

    assistaspart-timeguerrillasorinciviliansupportagencies

    know as auxil ia ry unit s ; whi le others a re members of theunderground.

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    d . I n fl uencin gFactor s.

    (1)Envi ronment.

    (a) Ter r ai n . The physica l loca t ion of t he resist a nce

    movement has a grea t inf luence upon i t s organiza t ion

    a nd ta ct ics .B ecause theyprovidesuitablea reas for the

    securityofopera t ions, mounta ins,sw a mps, lar geforestsorjunglesnurtu reovertorguerrilla typeresista nce.Fla t

    pla ins a reas and la rge towns or ci t ies a re more ap t to

    lead to underground res is t ance ac t iv it ies a l though the

    possibili tyoforganizingaguerrilla force in theseareas

    shouldnotbeoverlooked.

    (b)Cul tu ra l .A peoples' cultura l environment a lso ha s i ts

    effectsonresistancemovements.Theurgetobeararms,

    escape,andfighttheenemyisdependentonthecultural

    background of the people. Men f rom rura l or peasant

    en vir on men t, n ot subject ed t o t igh t gover nm en ta l

    control, ha ve moreopportunity toshow their ha tred of

    theenemyoccupat ionbyovert andviolent meanssuch

    as guerr i l la warfare . People froman industr ia l izedand

    highlyurbanizedculturewill resist withsuchact ivit ies

    assabotage,propaganda,passiveactsandespionage.

    (c) Con t r olofpopu l at i on. Whenanoccupyingpowerisable

    t o exercise close a nd st r ingent cont rol over t hepopu la t ion , t h e r esist a n ce m ovem en t is con du ct ed

    primarilyinsecrecy.Whenthepoliceandmilitaryforces

    of t he occupying pow er a re diver ted or ot herw ise

    ineffectual, theresistancemovementmaybeconducted

    withprimarilyovertguerrillaactions.

    (2)Mot ivat ion. B esides t he geogra phica l a nd cult ura l

    environment influencing guerrilla w a rfa re, the sociologica l

    clima t e produces many mot iv a t ing f a ct or s which hav e a

    pr ofou nd effect u pon t h e r es ist a n ce m ovem en t . S t r on gin div id ua l m ot iva t i on is es sen t ia l t o t h e for m a t ion of a

    resistanceforce.Althoughsomeindividualmotivesarenot

    idealand,ifopenlyexpressed,maydoharmtotheguerrilla

    effort , thefollowingareexamplesofwhat someof the true

    motivesmaybe.

    (a) I deology. I n guerr illa un it s some in dividua ls h a ve

    developedst rongideologica lmotivesfort a kingupa rm s.

    These ideolog ies t a ke root in two broad areas poli t ics

    and religion . The indiv idua l tends to subordina te h is ownpersonalitytotheseideologiesandworksconstantly

    a nd solely for the "cause. " In some resista nce f ighters,

    thismotiveisextremelystrong.

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    (b)Economic. Manyindividuals joinresistancemovements

    t o keep fr om st a r vin g or t o keep fr om losin g t h eir

    liv elih ood . An or ga n iz ed r esis ta n ce for ce m a y exer t

    economic influence on individuals w ho fa i l to support

    theirmovement.

    (c) Per sonal gai n. P ersona l ga in is the mot iva t ing force of som e volu nt eer s. An in divid ua l, so m ot iva t ed , m a y

    cha ngesides if hebelieveshecan ga inmorebyfighting

    fortheopposingforce.

    (d ) H at e. P eople who hav e los t lov ed ones due t o enemy

    a ct ion s m a y figh t a ga in st t ha t en em y a s a r esult of

    en gen dered h at red. U n con tr olled h a tred ca n pose

    problems for the sponsor beca use i t is di ff icul t to curb

    the fana t icism of such indiv idua ls and proper ly d irect

    theirefforts.

    (e) Secur i ty. I f the resista nce movement is s t rong or g ives

    theimpressionofbeingpowerful,manyindividualsjoin

    outofafeelingofpersonalsafety.Usually, thissituation

    occur s on ly a ft er t he r esist a nce m ovem en t is w ell

    organized and the enemy has been weakened by o ther

    act ions. Othersjoin inorder toescaperecruitment into

    theserviceoftheenemy.

    (f ) Ego. P ersona l mot ives such a s pow er, pr ide, a nda d ven t ur e oper a t e t o som e ext en t in a l l in divid ua l s.

    Dependingupon them ora l f iberof th e individual, these

    motivesmaysustainhimintimesofgreatstress.

    (g) Fear .Some individuals becomea part of theresis tance

    movementthroughnopersonaldesireoftheirown.They

    join t he m ovem en t out of fea r of r epr isa ls a ga in st

    themselvesortheirfamilies.

    (3)Chance for success. In a ddit ion t o mot iva tion a nd

    circumstancesofenvironment, a populat ionmust feel that there isult imatelyachanceforsuccessor therecanbeno

    effect ive resist a nce movement developed. Act ive

    part icipa t ion in a ny resista nce movement is influenced by

    itschanceforsuccess.

    (4)Guidance. Resist a nce m ovemen ts st a nd or fa ll on t he

    ca liber of t he lea ders a nd ot her individua ls in t he

    organ iza t ion. An understa nding of the environmental an d

    individual mot ivat ing factors wil l assis t great ly thosewho

    desire toobta in theoptimumfroma guerrilla organiza t ion.

    An a n a l ysis of t h ese fa ct or s pla y s a n im por t a n t pa r t in

    evaluatingpotentialresistanceforces.

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    5. GuerrillaWarfare

    G u er rilla w a r f a r e com pr is es com ba t oper a t ion s con du ct ed in

    en em y h eld t er rit or y by pr ed om in a n tly in digen ou s for ces on a

    mili t a ry or para mil it a ry bas is to reduce the combat ef fect iveness,

    industrial capacity, an dmoraleof theenemy.Guerilla opera t ionsa re

    conducted by rela t ively smal l g roups employ ing of fens ive t a ct ics .Guerrillawarfaresupportsothermilitaryoperations.

    6. CharacteristicsofGuerrillaWarfare

    a.General. Guerilla warfare ischaracterizedbyoffensiveact ion.

    G uerrillasrelyuponmobility,elusivenessan dsurprise.Ina dditionto

    thesetraits, thereareothercharacteristicsthatshouldbementioned:

    civiliansupport,outsidesponsorship,politicalaspects, legalaspects,

    tactics,anddevelopmentaspects.

    b. Su ppor tFactor s.

    (1)Civ i l ian suppor t. Th e su ccess of gu er rilla m ovem en t s

    dependsuponcontinuousmoralandmaterial support from

    t he civ ilian popu la t ion . The loca l communit y usua l ly is

    un der in ten se pressure fr om a nt i-guerr illa fa ct ion s.

    P unit ive mea sures such a s reprisa ls, t errorism,

    deporta t ion, restr ict ion of movement a nd seizure of goods

    andpropertyareconductedagainst supportersofguerrilla

    activity,makingthissupportdangerousanddifficult . If theloca l populace ha s a s t rong wil l to resis t , enemy reprisa ls

    ca use a n increa se in underground a ct iv it ies . The civi lian

    communit y may a ss is t t he guer r illa force by furn ish ing

    supplies, recruits, information; bygivingearlywarning; by

    support ing eva sion an d escape; a nd other act ivi t ies . After

    theguerrilla forcehasestablisheditsel...

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