grammar unit english 9. parts of speech definition: a way of categorizing words in isolation ...

of 75 /75
Grammar Unit English 9

Author: samson-cooper

Post on 25-Dec-2015

216 views

Category:

Documents


2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Grammar Unit English 9
  • Slide 2
  • Parts of Speech Definition: a way of categorizing words in isolation Eight: Noun Pronoun Verb Adverb Adjective Conjunction Preposition Interjection
  • Slide 3
  • Sentence Parts Definition: a way of identifying words in sentences based on their function or relationship to other words in the same sentence Every word is NOT a sentence part!
  • Slide 4
  • Step 1 Identify prepositional phrases
  • Slide 5
  • Prepositional Phrases Preposition + Object of Preposition (noun or pronoun that follows the preposition) Position word Shows the position (relationship) of one object to another
  • Slide 6
  • Slot Test for Prepositions The bird flew __________ the clouds.
  • Slide 7
  • Slot Test for Prepositions It must answer a question Example of a prepositional phrase: I went by the store. By what? The store. Therefore, by the store is a prepositional phrase Non-example: I went by and bought some food. By what? There is no answer. Therefore, there is no prepositional phrase!
  • Slide 8
  • Rules of Prepositions Subject/verb pairs are NEVER found in a prepositional phrase. The words of and with are ALWAYS prepositions (if used correctly) To find subject/verb pairs, simplify sentences by identifying and eliminating all prepositional phrases
  • Slide 9
  • Generate Preposition List Complete Prepositions Worksheet #1 Fill words into your preposition list in your Grammar Notes packet
  • Slide 10
  • Step 2 Identify the verb
  • Slide 11
  • Verbs Three types helping verbs linking verbs action verbs
  • Slide 12
  • Linking Verbs Do NOT show action Link the subject with a noun or pronoun Link the subject with an adjective (describing word) OR
  • Slide 13
  • Linking Verbs Example sentences His mother is an accountant. links mother and accountant The winners of the game were they. Links winners and they Mary became sick after the high jump. links Mary and sick
  • Slide 14
  • Linking Verbs State of being verbs Differing forms of to be is am are was were be being been
  • Slide 15
  • Linking Verbs Verbs that are ALWAYS linking verbs To be (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been) To seem To become
  • Slide 16
  • Linking Verbs Verbs that are sometimes linking verbs To feel To taste To look To smell To sound To grow To remain To appear To stay
  • Slide 17
  • Linking Verbs Replacement Test To check if a verb is serving as a linking verb, replace it with a form of to be. If the sentence makes sense and the meaning is not changed, the verb is a linking verb! Example: Joe seemed angry today. Joe was angry today.
  • Slide 18
  • Linking Verbs Flip-Flop Test
  • Slide 19
  • Helping Verbs Help with creating tense Examples of helping verbs: isbehadshouldmust ambeingdowouldcan arebeendoescouldshall washasdidmay werehavewillmight
  • Slide 20
  • Helping Verbs Example sentences: I may go to the store today. She did not tell him about the test. I shall wait until dark.
  • Slide 21
  • Action Verbs expressing action - something that a person, animal, force of nature, or thing can do Examples: I jumped over a toad and landed on a frog. Our teacher gave us a huge test today. Jimmy thought about his project.
  • Slide 22
  • Step 3 Identifying the subject
  • Slide 23
  • Subject/Verb Pairs and Prepositional Phrases Identify the subject and verb of the following sentence: From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl.
  • Slide 24
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs Remember, you NEVER find a subject/verb pair in a prepositional phrase! First step: Cross off all prepositional phrases (PP) From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl.
  • Slide 25
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl. Whats left? came the screams
  • Slide 26
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs 2 nd Step: Locate the verb Remember verbs are action, linking or helping Verbs indicate tense Past, present and future Which word would change the tense of the sentence? came? the? screams?
  • Slide 27
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs 3 rd Step: Locate the verb Example: From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl. came is the verb!
  • Slide 28
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs Locate the subject Ask who/what + verb? Who/what came? From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl. Verb
  • Slide 29
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs Who/what came? The screams came. Therefore, screams is the subject From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl. Verb Subject
  • Slide 30
  • Identifying Subject/Verb Pairs Keep in mind: Subjects MUST indicate number One or more than one In our example: From the dark of the night came the screams of the young girl. screams is plural
  • Slide 31
  • Imperative Sentences Identify the subject/verb pair Example: Take the roast from the oven.
  • Slide 32
  • Imperative Sentences Identifying the subject/verb pair Example: Take the roast from the oven. Has anyone ever seen a roast take something out of the oven? NO? So who/what is the subject?
  • Slide 33
  • Imperative Sentences Its YOU! Imperative sentences are commands. Therefore, the understood subject is you
  • Slide 34
  • Imperative Sentences Is the following example an imperative sentence? Example: Mark, leave the room immediately!
  • Slide 35
  • Imperative Sentences Yes, it is. Mark is a noun of address Mark is not the subject Notice the comma following the name This indicates that Mark is not the subject, just a means of getting his attention
  • Slide 36
  • Subject/Verb Patterns Complete Subject/Verb Pairs Worksheet #1 and #2
  • Slide 37
  • Sentence Patterns English language has six basic patterns S-V S-(a)V-DO S-(a)V-IO-DO S-(l)V-PN S-(l)V-PA V-S (inverted sentence)
  • Slide 38
  • Sentence Patterns Legend S=subject V=verb (a)V=action verb (l)V-linking verb DO=direct object IO=indirect object PN=predicate noun PA=predicate adjective
  • Slide 39
  • Sentence Patterns Practice identifying sentence patterns using previous prepositional phrase exercises
  • Slide 40
  • Direct Objects Always follow an action verb and receive the action of the verb. Verb + who or what?
  • Slide 41
  • Direct Objects Example: I throw the eraser. Follow the steps (strategies): 1. Any prepositional phrases? 2. Verb? 3. Subject? 4. If action verb - Direct Object?
  • Slide 42
  • Direct Objects Example: I throw the eraser. Follow the steps (strategies): 1. Any prepositional phrases? none 2. Verb? throw 3. Subject? Who throws? I 4. Type of verb? action Direct Object? (If there is an action verb) eraser
  • Slide 43
  • Direct Objects Complete DO Practice #1 to find direct objects. Also, identify sentence patterns for each sentence.
  • Slide 44
  • Indirect Objects Always fall between an action verb and a direct object. An IO receives the DO. Look for a noun or pronoun in between the actoin verb and the direct object. Make sure it RECEIVES the DO!
  • Slide 45
  • Indirect Objects Example: I throw Ben the eraser. Follow the steps (strategies): 1. Any prepositional phrases? none 2. Verb? throw 3. Subject? Who throws? I 4. What type of verb? action Direct Object? eraser 5. Indirect Object?
  • Slide 46
  • Indirect Objects Example: I throw Ben the eraser. Follow the steps (strategies): 1. Any prepositional phrases? none 2. Verb? throw 3. Subject? Who throws? I 4. Type of verb? action Direct Object? eraser 5. Indirect Object? Ben
  • Slide 47
  • Indirect Objects Does the following sentence have an indirect object? Example: I throw the eraser to Ben.
  • Slide 48
  • Indirect Objects Does the following sentence have an indirect object? NO! Example: DO I throw the eraser to Ben.
  • Slide 49
  • Indirect Objects Use IO Practice #1 to find indirect objects. Identify sentence patterns. All sentences with IOs should be: S-V-IO-DO.
  • Slide 50
  • Direct Objects and Inidirect Objects Use DO and IO Practice #1 to find direct objects and indirect objects. Identify sentences patterns. You should NEVER find an IO following a DO! Some sentences will not have DOs.
  • Slide 51
  • Predicate Nouns Always follow a linking verb and equal or rename the subject.
  • Slide 52
  • Predicate Nouns Example: I am a teacher in this classroom. Follow steps: 1. prepositional phrases? 2. verb? 3. subject? 4. Type of verb? linking predicate noun? Notice we have changed to a LINKING VERB!
  • Slide 53
  • Predicate Nouns Example: I am a teacher in this classroom. Follow steps: 1. prepositional phrases? in this classroom 2. verb? am 3. subject? Who is? I 4. Type of verb? linking predicate noun? Is the sentence saying that I = teacher? Yes! Therefore, teacher is the predicate noun.
  • Slide 54
  • Predicate Nouns Example: PN My dad is the track coach at school. dad = coach PN Julie is the best volleyball player on the team. Julie = player
  • Slide 55
  • Predicate Nouns A sentence may contain a compound predicate noun Example: PN PN My best subjects are history and math.
  • Slide 56
  • Predicate Nouns Complete Predicate Nouns Practice #1 and #2 Identify the sentence patterns.
  • Slide 57
  • Predicate Adjectives Follows a linking verb and describes the subject
  • Slide 58
  • Predicate Adjectives Example: I am unhappy about the loss of my favorite team. Follow the steps: Prepositional phrase? Verb? Subject? Type of verb? linking Predicate Noun? none Predicate adjective?
  • Slide 59
  • Predicate Adjectives Example: I am unhappy about the loss of my favorite team. Follow the steps: Prepositional phrase? about the loss, of my favorite team Verb? am Subject? Who is? I Type of verb? linking Predicate Noun? none Predicate adjective? unhappy
  • Slide 60
  • Predicate Adjectives Remember, some linking verbs deal with the senses. If the verb can be replaced with is or are, it is being used as a linking verb Example: The peanuts taste salty. The peanuts are salty.
  • Slide 61
  • Predicate Adjectives Example: My dog is brown. Follow steps: Prepositional phrase? Verb? Subject? Type of verb? linking Predicate noun? none Predicate adjective?
  • Slide 62
  • Predicate Adjectives Example: PA My dog is brown. PA The shorts in the closet are blue.
  • Slide 63
  • Predicate Adjectives Complete Predicate Adjectives Practice #1 and #2 Identify sentence patterns
  • Slide 64
  • Noun Functions How a noun is used in a sentence Five functions: Object of a preposition A subject A direct object An indirect object As a predicate noun
  • Slide 65
  • Noun Functions Complete Predicate Adjectives/Noun Functions Practice #1 Identify sentence patterns
  • Slide 66
  • Noun Functions Complete Noun Functions Practice #1 and #2 Identify sentence patterns
  • Slide 67
  • Adjectives Modifies nouns or pronouns a, an, and the are ALWAYS adjectives Nouns must follow them Sometimes other adjectives or adverbs may follow too ALL possessive pronouns and possessive words function as adjectives
  • Slide 68
  • Adjectives Example: The green bananas were hanging from the damaged apple tree. Follow steps: Prepositional phrases? Verb? Subject? Type of verb? DO? Identify nouns and pronouns (OP, S, DO, IO, PN) and find words modifying them.
  • Slide 69
  • Adjectives Example: The green bananas were hanging from the damaged apple tree. Follow steps: Prepositional phrases? from the damaged apple tree Verb? were hanging Subject? What was hanging? bananas Type of verb? action DO? Were hanging what? Were hanging what? No DO. Noun/pronoun modifiers? the green, the damaged, apple
  • Slide 70
  • Adjectives Example: adj adj HVAV The green bananas were hanging from adj adj adj PO the damaged apple tree.
  • Slide 71
  • Adverbs Modify everything that is not a noun or pronoun Modify adjectives, adverbs and verbs Words ending in ly are adverbs, but not all adverbs end in ly The only way to be sure is to ID the word being modified! Tell where, when, how much, and to what extent
  • Slide 72
  • Adverbs Example: I was very distraught about the loss of my friendly brother in the extremely violent storm. Follow the steps: Prepositional phrases? Verb? Subject? Type of verb? DO? Or PN or PA? Adjectives? Adverbs?
  • Slide 73
  • Adverbs Example: I was very distraught about the loss of my friendly brother in the extremely violent storm. Follow the steps: Prepositional phrases? about the loss, of my friendly brother, in the extremely violent storm Verb? was Subject? Who was? I Type of verb? linking DO? No, not an AV Or PN or PA? PA distraught (describes I) Adjectives? the, my, friendly, the, violent Adverbs? very, extremely
  • Slide 74
  • Adjectives and Adverbs Complete Adjective and Adverbs Practice #1 Identify sentence patterns.
  • Slide 75
  • Conjunctions Connect elements Two types: Coordinate connect like elements, two phrases, two clauses, two sentences, two sentence parts and, but, for, nor, yet, so, or Subordinate subordinate one element to another before, after, because, if, when (just a few)