grammar present perfect and present perfect continuous

Download Grammar Present perfect and present perfect continuous

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Tom is looking for his key. He cant find it. He has lost his key. He has lost his key = he lost it and he still hasnt got it past now

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Grammar Present perfect and present perfect continuous Present perfect Tom is looking for his key. He cant find it. He has lost his key. He has lost his key = he lost it and he still hasnt got it past now Present perfect tense Singular plural I have studied we have studied You have studied you have studied She, he, or it has studied they have studied When we use the present perfect there is always a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now. Where is your key? I dont know. Ive lost it. (I havent got it now) He told me his name but I have forgotten it. (I cant remember it now) Is Sally here? No she has gone out. (she is out now) I cant find my bag. Have you seen it? (do you know where is it now? We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening. Ow! Ive cut my finger. The road is closed. There has been an accident. (From the news) The police men have arrested two men in connection with the robbery. Change Over Time We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time. You have grown since the last time I saw you. The government has become more interested in arts education. My English has really improved since I moved to Australia. Accomplishments We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time. Man has walked on the Moon. Our son has learned how to read. Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. Scientists have split the atom. You can use the present perfect with just, already, before (at the end of the sentence) and yet Just = a short time ago Would you like something to eat? No, thanks. Ive just had lunch. Hello, have you just arrived? We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected Dont forget to post the letter, will you? Ive already posted it. What time is mark leaving? Hes already gone. Yet = until now and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences. Has it stopped raining yet? Ive written the letter but I havent posted it yet. Before (at the end of the sentence): I havent seen him before. Life experience Dave: Have you traveled a lot, Jane? Jane: Ive been to lots of places. Dave: Really? Have you ever been to china? Jane: Yes, Ive been to China twice. Dave: What about India? Jane: No, I havent been to India. Janes life (a period until now) Past now When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now we use the present perfect (have been / have travelled etc.). Here Dave and Jane are talking about the places Jane has visited in her life (Which is a period that continues until now.) Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life) Weve never had a car. Have you read Hamlet? No, I havent read any of Shakespeares plays. Susan really loves that film. She has seen it eight times! What a boring film! Its the most boring film Ive ever seen. In the following example too the speakers are talking about a period that continues till now. (recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast) Have you heard from George recently? Ive met a lot of people in the last few days. Everything is going well. We havent had any problems so far. Im hungry. I havent eaten anything since breakfast. Its nice to see you again. We havent seen each other for a long time. Use the perfect with today/ this morning/ this evening etc. when these periods are not finished at the time of speaking. Ive drunk four cups of coffee today. (perhaps Ill drink more before today is finished) Have you had a holiday this year (yet)? I havent seen Tom this morning. Have you? Ron hasnt worked very hard this term. Note that we say It is the first time something has happened. Don is having a driving lesson. He is very nervous and unsure because it is his first lesson. It is the first time he has driven a car. (not drives) He has never driven a car before. Linda has lost her passport again. Its the second time this has happened. (not happens) This is a lovely meal. Its the first good meal Ive had for ages. Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. Thats the third time hes phoned her this evening. Use present perfect with superlatives (est most) She is the most beautiful girl Ive seen in my life. This is the funniest movie Ive ever watched. Present Perfect Continuous FORM [has/have + been + present participle] Examples: You have been waiting here for two hours. Have you been waiting here for two hours? You have not been waiting here for two hours. USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples: They have been talking for the last hour. She has been working at that company for three years. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? James has been teaching at the university since June. We have been waiting here for over two hours! Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days? USE 2 Recently, Lately You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning. Examples: Recently, I have been feeling really tired. She has been watching too much television lately. Have you been exercising lately? Mary has been feeling a little depressed. Lisa has not been practicing her English. What have you been doing?