Grammar Handout

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<p>What is Grammar?Grammar is the system (arrangement/organization) of a language. It talks about the parts of speech (word categories according to function), syntax (the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences) and morphology (the study of the rules for forming admissible words and the admissible arrangement of sounds in words). It talks about the correct formation of phrases, clauses, and sentences. It talks about the correct usage of a language. Do we need to study grammar to learn a language? Basically, the answer is no. What is your tribes/countrys language? How did you learn to communicate using it? Did you study its grammar first before you learned how to communicate in your tribes/countrys language? Did Americans study grammar first before they learned how to communicate in English? Typically, the answer is no. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words (single units of languages understood by communicators), phrases (group of words standing together as a conceptual unit) and sentences (group of words that convey a complete thought). Nearly all people in the world speak their own, native language without studying its grammar. They did not start learning and using their language with the grammar in mind first. People, especially children, start to speak before they even know the word "grammar". Think of a typical 5-year-old American child. Can he speak in English? Yes. He might not be able to write but he can speak in English. He can convey a complete thought in English. Did he study grammar before learning how to speak in English? No. He learned English because first, people around him use English (i.e. he hears English and he sees [watches] English). Second, people around him use English to communicate with him. And third, he uses English to communicate with them, too. Basically, you need to do the same to learn English and be able to use it fluently. Now, what is grammars role? Why study grammar? If you are serious about learning a foreign language, grammar can help you to learn it more quickly and more efficiently." It's important to think of grammar as something that can help you, like a friend. When you understand the grammar (or system) of a language, you can understand many things yourself, without having to ask a teacher or look in a book. So think of grammar as something good, something positive, and something that you can use to find your way - like a signpost or a map. (1)</p> <p>Communicating through SentencesAn Introduction to Sentences How do people communicate? Lets begin with the end in mind. We can effectively communicate through conveying complete thoughts; through writing or saying groups of words that are arranged properly (grammatically correct) which we understand fully. These groups of words are called sentences. A sentence has two essential elements:</p> <p>1. The subject is the doer of the action or the one being talked about in the sentence. 2. The predicate is the information about the subject.</p> <p>Sample Sentences: Apples are delicious. The student is diligent. The boys ran into the street. God created the world. The telephone rang.</p> <p>Subject Apples The student The boys God The telephone</p> <p>Predicate are delicious is diligent ran into the street created the world rang</p> <p>Nature of Predicate being being action action action</p> <p>The predicate is a word or a group of words which describe what the subject is (state of being) or what the subject does (state of action). It is composed of at least one verb (word that expresses action or being, to be discussed in detail in The Parts of Speech and in Verbs in Focus). A word or a group of words cannot be a predicate without a verb. A sentence tells a complete message because it has a subject and a predicate. It begins with a CAPITAL LETTER and ends with a punctuation mark a period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation point (!).1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.</p> <p>The tree is tall. (You) clean your room! What is your name?* Paul and Jake helped Amy. The strawberries were made as jams. The man climbed the ladder. A stone fell on the floor. Did a man approach the guard?* Where do you live?* (You) watch out!</p> <p>*Questions usually have inverted structures, i.e. the predicate (verb) goes before the subjects. In many questions, the subject is in between the main verb and the helping verb (see Verbs in Focus). An English sentence can be composed of at least two words (a subject and a verb-which stand as a oneword predicate) and can still be correct. Lets examine the following sentences. 1.</p> <p>2. I speak. 3. You jump! 4. He runs.</p> <p>5. We communicate. 6. They listen.</p> <p>In the first sentence, the actor (subject) I performs/does the action (verb) speak. It is arranged properly with the subject followed by the verb (S-V Sentence Pattern, to be discussed in a separate chapter Sentences Explored) and is fully understood. Can you identify the subjects and the verbs of the remaining sentences? In the following examples, the subject is in bold type while the predicate is in italics.1. I am intelligent. 2. Roger is a good athlete. 3. Henry Sy became the richest man in the 8. Ella and Bea are cousins. 9. John went home. 10. Bill and Joe fixed the bike. 11. The caller was my best friend. 12. A stray dog entered the kitchen. 13. The girl reads a book. 14. Carlo washed the car. 15. The boys played basketball.</p> <p>Philippines. 4. Andrew and Ella were in London last month. 5. The book is on the table. 6. The flowers are lovely. 7. Japan is a very rich country.</p> <p>Usually, predicates start with verbs. The predicates in the first eight examples show being. Those in the remaining seven sentences show action. The subject and the predicate are the essential elements of a sentence. If a group of words lacks a subject, a predicate, or both, then it is not a sentence.</p> <p>More on Subjects and PredicatesComplete Subjects and Simple Subjects The complete subject is a noun, a pronoun or a group of words which is the doer of the action(s) or the one being talked about in the sentence. It may include modifiers. The simple subject, on the other hand, is the important noun, pronoun or group of words that cannot be taken out of the complete subject. Examples1.</p> <p>My ever supportive friend provides me very good pieces of advice. Complete Subject My ever supportive friend Simple Subject friend</p> <p>2.</p> <p>The new teacher taught English to foreigners. Complete Subject The new teacher Simple Subject teacher</p> <p>3.</p> <p>What you told me is interesting. Complete Subject What you told me Simple Subject What you told me</p> <p>Compound Subject is composed of two or more subjects that have the same verb. The subjects are joined by conjunctions and or or. Examples1. My ever supportive friends and classmates provide me very good pieces of advice.</p> <p>Complete Compound Subjects My ever supportive friends and classmates Simple Compound Subjects friends, classmates2. The new teacher or the volunteer taught English to foreigners.</p> <p>Complete Compound Subjects The new teacher or the volunteer Simple Compound Subjects teacher, volunteer3. Anna and her young daughter left the house early.</p> <p>Complete Compound Subjects Anna and her young daughter Simple Compound Subject Anna, daughter</p> <p>Other Kinds of Subjects1. Dummy Subject the subject with no concrete reference. Examples: a. It is raining hard outside. b. It is dark inside the room. c. It is not obvious. 2. Hidden Subject the subject before the verb in imperative sentences. Examples:</p> <p>a.b. (You) stop! c. (You) please forgive me. d. e.</p> <p>(You) keep up the good work!</p> <p>(You) give me money.</p> <p>Complete Predicates and Simple Predicates The complete predicate is the verb or the verb phrase, as well as any modifiers and/or complements that tell what the complete subject is or does. The simple predicate (or simply the verb), on the other hand, is the important verb or verb phrase in the sentence. It cannot be taken out of the complete predicate. Examples1.</p> <p>The new teacher taught English to foreigners.</p> <p>Complete Predicate taught English to foreigners (what the subject did) Simple Predicate (verb) taught2.</p> <p>Karen is the smartest student in our class. Complete Predicate is the smartest student in our class (what the subject is) Simple Predicate (verb) is</p> <p>3.</p> <p>My teacher gave us a quiz on grammar and reading comprehension. Complete Predicate gave us a quiz on grammar and reading comprehension Simple Predicate (verb) gave</p> <p>Compound Predicate is composed of two or more verbs that have the same subject. They are also joined by a conjunction. Examples1. Anna left the house early but arrived late for work.</p> <p>Complete Compound Predicates left the house early but arrived late for work Simple Compound Predicates (verbs) left, arrived2. The new teacher taught English to foreigners and advised them to practice the</p> <p>language. Complete Compound Predicates taught English to foreigners and advised them to practice the language Simple Compound Predicates (verbs) taught, advised3. Bob went to the mall and ate dinner in a restaurant there.</p> <p>Complete Compound Predicates went to the mall and ate dinner in a restaurant there Simple Compound Predicates (verbs) went, ate</p> <p>The sentences below are skeleton sentences. That is, they are stripped down to only subjects, verbs, and connecting words. Using a pencil, go through them, encircling or writing the subjects and underlining the verbs. Then tell the nature of the verbs whether they sate being or action.1. Sarah laughed and joked. - action 2. Julia and Ben argued and fought. 3. The poet, the artist, and the teacher 6. 7. 8. 9.</p> <p>spoke. 4. After the game ended, we had lunch. 5. Laughter invigorates, and love binds.</p> <p>Pass your papers. Because it snowed, we stayed home. When the movie ended, we left. The philosopher and his ideas were exciting.</p> <p>10. As we watched and waited, the river</p> <p>13. As we listened, the storyteller entranced</p> <p>flooded.11. If you go, I stay. 12. Janice wrote and revised.</p> <p>us.14. He cried while she packed. 15. Watch your spelling!</p> <p>In the following examples, separate the complete subject from the complete predicate using a slash bar ( / ). Encircle the simple subject(s) then underline and tell the nature of the simple predicate(s) whether it sate being or action. 1.2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.</p> <p>The teacher / laughed loudly. - action The flowers bloom in spring. The visitors ate dinner in the kitchen. Azkals scored the goal. Ms. Cruz collected the test papers. Our project won the first prize. Pedro is preparing for the exam. Many people died because of the war.</p> <p>10. I advise you to study hard. 11. The crowd applauded for his brilliant</p> <p>performance. 12. The ball is red. 13. The paintings are beautifully created. 14. The students name is Anna. 15. The flower smells fragrant. 16. The cake tastes good.</p> <p>Kinds of Sentences and their FunctionsExamine the following sentences. 1.2. The book is on the table. 3. Do you like coffee or tea? 4. Please give me money. 5. It was an exciting ride!</p> <p>What do you think of each sentence? You would notice that sentence 1 is making a statement, sentence 2 is asking a question, sentence 3 is giving a command, and sentence 4 is expressing a strong emotion. The four kinds of sentences are: Kind Function Sample Sentences1. Tom practices how to drive a car.</p> <p>Declarative Sentence</p> <p>Gives information; states an idea and ends with a period (.)</p> <p>2. Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. 3. Sue is beautiful. 4. Jerry is watching a very good movie.</p> <p>Interrogative Sentence</p> <p>Asks a question and ends with a question mark (?)</p> <p>1. What is your name? 2. Why are you happy? 3. Are you going to the city?</p> <p>4. Do you want to eat rice?</p> <p>1. Wow!</p> <p>Exclamatory Sentence</p> <p>Shows strong emotions and ends with an exclamation point (!)</p> <p>2. Ouch! 3. What a beautiful lady! 4. Thats silly! 1. Call your sister.</p> <p>Imperative Sentence</p> <p>Gives a command and ends with a period (.) or an exclamation point (!)</p> <p>2. Wash the dishes! 3. Lend me your ears. 4. Stop annoying me!</p> <p>Notice the beginning letters (CAPITALIZED) and the punctuation marks. In each sentence below, identify using a pencil encircle or write the subject(s) and underline the predicates. Next, identify whether it is declarative (DEC), interrogative (INT), exclamatory (EXC) or imperative (IMP). Use the abbreviations DEC, INT, EXC and IMP. Then tell the nature of the verbs whether it sate being or action.1. Stop and listen! Subject: you, IMP, 14. Was the English test difficult? 15. I don't believe it! 16. Never disturb nesting birds. 17. Tuck your pants inside your socks when</p> <p>action 2. Sleet and ice kept us housebound last weekend. 3. How much do these sweaters cost? 4. Those shelves smell like lemon oil. 5. Do you think my hair is too long? 6. Let me try it! 7. Did you notice the price of that saddle? 8. There is a Thai restaurant around the corner from us. 9. Hold that pose while I adjust the camera lens. 10. What a mess your room is! 11. Raise the flag at sunrise. 12. Tamara worked long hours to finish her painting. 13. Are you going to Richards party?</p> <p>hiking. 18. Our new neighbors moved in yesterday. 19. Define the word monsoon. 20. I think blue is my favorite color. 21. Move the picnic table to the shade. 22. Apricot jam is a good glaze for baked ham. 23. How clever of you! 24. Be alert to rapidly changing weather conditions. 25. Give me a chance! 26. Were you born in Montana, or did you move here?</p> <p>27. Could you help me with my homework</p> <p>tonight? 28. I cant believe it! 29. Please pass the honey. 30. Listen to me! 31. Wear protective clothing. 32. Kiss the Blarney Stone before you leave Ireland. 33. Thats a great idea! 34. Joachim dressed as a chocolate bar for the costume party. 35. Are you interested in going to a movie? 36. Jane wiped her hand across her forehead. 37. Clear expression is an art. 38. Have you ever seen purple cotton candy? 39. This years starting quarterback is a math genius. 40. Whos going to bring the noisemakers? 41. Did the squirrels eat all the tulip bulbs?</p> <p>42. Choose one and then pass the rest along. 43. Its a touchdown! 44. Please keep this to yourself. 45. I can do it myself! 46. Run away from trouble. 47. Leave the dance before midnight. 48. Have you ever ridden in a hot-air</p> <p>balloon? 49. Call 911 in an emergency. 50. This really makes me angry! 51. Be particularly careful with this antique clock. 52. We won! 53. Be careful! 54. Rhoda just set a record for the broad jump! 55. The dense grass felt like smooth carpet.</p> <p>Introduction to PhrasesA phrase is also a group of words, but unlike a sentence, it does not express a complete thought. It lacks either a subject or a predicate. It is not written with a capital letter and it does not end with a punctuation mark. A phrase is just a part of a sentence. It gives further meaning by naming, modifying, or explaining a word or a group...</p>