Graduate Training Program How To Prepare, and Prepare for Your Qualifying Exam

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Graduate Training Program How To Prepare, and Prepare for Your Qualifying Exam. General Procedures : taken by the end of 2nd year, certainly by October of 3rd year choose the right committee members be sure you meet with your committee members often before the exam to have - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Graduate Training Program</p><p>How To Prepare, and Prepare forYour Qualifying Exam</p></li><li><p>General Procedures: taken by the end of 2nd year, certainlyby October of 3rd year choose the right committee members be sure you meet with your committeemembers often before the exam to haveapproval of specific topic area ANDgeneral outline of Specific Aims read, read, read ---- and then read somemore</p></li><li><p>Purpose of the Exam: whether the student is qualified and competent to continue research on a specific project leading toward the PhD potential for independent thought comprehension of generalities and specifics of the research area (and everything related to that area) ability to identify a critical (and significant) problem, and then critically and logically approach the problem (i.e. What are the knowledge gaps andcritical questions to be addressed?, What are the critical experiments to answer the questions?) committee to advise on the path for the project - as such, the exam itself should be viewed as, in part,a learning experience</p></li><li><p>About the Project: should address a significant issue, yieldingpublishable results a good and innovative idea linkage to the particular discipline (e.g.immunology, genetics, toxicology, etc)and human health have a clearly focused and mechanistic hypothesis (i.e. not descriptive)</p></li><li><p>Common Problems: overly ambitious lack of significance and/or some linkage to human health (I.e. dont let a committee member say So what?) lack of a focused hypothesis --- and in some cases ANY hypothesis lack of focused aims that will test the hypothesis lack of a logical research plan questionable reasoning in approach using approaches that will only test the hypothesis indirectly, or will not give you the data you need poor writing that is not thorough and detailed lacking good scientific method/approaches did not read, read, read.. </p></li><li><p>Keys to Success: know the research area -- read, read, read get help from each of your committee members - have each committee member approve the general outline of your proposal write clearly, to the point, but be detailed and thorough engender enthusiasm in your reader (i.e. committee) clearly indicate what is novel and important be logical, scientific, and specific - dont use jargon dont over-interpret - realize the limitations of each experiment, and alternate approaches use accepted (state-of-art / novel) and optimized scientific methods / approaches discuss your hypothesis/hypotheses with other colleagues</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal: ariel, 11 font, 1 inch marginsE.1. Abstract: summary of the proposed project be sure states the critical issue(s) to be tested, whyimportant, the central hypothesis, and generalapproaches to be used Briefly answer- What to do?- Why do this?- How do this?- Evidence when done? (expected results)- Why anyone cares?</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal:E.2. Specific Aims: (1 page) state long-range goal of the research identify critical knowledge gaps and why importantto address these - What will be the expectedscientific impact of the work? statement of central hypothesis listing of 2-4 specific aims: for EACH aim state concisely and realistically thehypothesis to be tested, and the rationale for EACH aim briefly (1 sentence) state what theAim will accomplish NOTE: This is probably the most important part ofthe written exam. It sets the tone for the rest and gives a logic to follow in the remainder of the document.</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal:E.3. Background and Significance (3 pages): logical development of background relevant to theproblem, global to more specific. state concisely what is known (Hint: A positive statement about knowledge as the beginningof a paragraph. This is a take home message.) identify critical knowledge gaps and needs, and why it is important to fill these relate these needs to the specific hypothesis youare testing relate these needs and your hypothesis to somepublic health benefit Innovation: clearly state what is innovative</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal:E.4. Preliminary Studies: students not expected to have a large amount ofdata the data shown should demonstrate the problemand/or the feasibility of the research only show the most important and relevant data;simple graphs/tables with precise legends(Hint: Give a positive statement as the title of the graph/table) most faculty like the graphs/tables incorporatedinto the text (but can include at end of section;but dont exceed page limits) contributions of others specifically stated</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal:E.5. Experimental Design &amp; Methods (10 pages): discuss in detail the experimental design andprocedures to be used to accomplish SpecificAims this should be in a logical progression, givetentative time-table describe new methods and advantages over oldermethods describe expected data, limitations of interpretation,and alternative approaches (recognize that an experiment could have more than one possible outcome, as well as interpretation)</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal:E.5. Experimental Design &amp; Methods (cont.): Developing rationale for approaches, a logical flow of experiments, and critical interpretation are more important than some details (i.e. buffers, etc). But you need to KNOW details, and be able to justify details such as choice of cell line, pH, concentrations of agents, times of analysis. YOU MUST KNOW THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR EACH METHOD AND APPROACH USED. Hint: sub-sections for 1) Rational &amp; Hypothesis, 2) Strategy, 3) Experimental, 4) Expected Results Possible Difficulties, Alternate Approaches for each Aim. Indicate how data will be analyzed (i.e. statistics, and Power calculation to be sure have enough N)</p></li><li><p>The Written Proposal:E.6. Bibliography: names of all authors, title, book or journal, volumenumber, inclusive page numbers, year ofpublication.</p></li><li><p>After You Finish Writing: Have someone else read the proposal beforesubmitting to your mentor. Have your mentor read the proposal WELL before you submit to the Deans office and rest of your committee. Dont ignore the feedback you are given. You must submit the proposal to your committee at least 2 weeks before the exam date. </p></li><li><p>Preparation for the Actual Exam Day: KNOW EVERYTHING there is to know about your areaarea of research Anything you learned in classes is also free game forquestions - BUT the committee will likely only go after these if related to your research area, and knowledgeof this is important for your experimental designand/or interpretation of data. Get a good nights sleep, relax, and have fun -- really.</p></li><li><p>The Day of the Exam: exam lasts 2-3 hours (but be prepared for 4-5) judged on - written presentation of proposal- ability to critically evaluate a research area, propose a relevant hypothesis, and design critical experiments- grasp of fundamental issues and theoretical basisfor experimental approaches- logic of experimental design &amp; scientific method- how to critically interpret data (dont over-interpret)- knowledge of alternate approaches be ready to listen, learn, and share knowledge</p></li><li><p>The Day of the Exam (cont.): If you dont understand the question, ask to repeat If you dont know the answer, logically think about howto get the answer, I.e. I dont recall the specific detailsor I dont recall if anyone has ever examined that - butthese are the types of studies I would do to addressthat issue. Dont BS -- the committee will know andthe hole that is being dug will get deeper. If you have some knowledge that may be contrary towhat a committee member indicates, dont be afraidto respectfully indicate that -- the committee membermay not know the research area as well as you do. Be confident (not flippant or impudent). Realize thatknowledge gives confidence (i.e. read, read, read). If you are not confident, the committee will know. Dontbe intimidated </p></li><li><p>After the Exam:</p><p> If you have followed ALL of the directions in thispresentation then CELEBRATE : ) (at least for acouple of hours then get back to work) realize that you still have to- do all of the studies that you indicated- change experimental plans as necessary; sometimes these should change- consult often with your committee- write manuscripts- prepare your thesis and take the final Defense(which is not a given for a PASS) if you have not followed the directions in this presentation seriously consider the options</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p><p>*WelcomeThanks fo r time and effortEager to show you our evolution, growth and new directions</p></li></ul>