gluten free pasta

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Gluten free pasta

Gluten free pasta


- Gluten is a family ofproteinsfound in grains likewheat, rye, spelt and barley.-Of the gluten-containing grains, wheat is by far the most commonly consumed.-When flour is mixed withwater, the gluten proteins form a sticky network that has a glue-like consistency-This glue-like property makes the dough elastic, and gives the product the ability to rise when baked. It also provides a chewy, satisfying texture.

Interestingly, the name glu-ten is derived from this glue-like property of wet dough.

Glutenin gliadin gives elasticity

Celiac disease is:a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food.-People suffering from celiac disease dont tolerate gluten (0.01 to 0.5 % of the population) - General tendency of consumers towards low allergen and gluten free nutrition

Pasta is probably the simplest cereal-based product. consists of a mix of flour or semolina with water and may also contain egg.

can be classified according to some of the following parameters: water content, processing type and/or shaping.

High protein content, as well as a strong gluten network, is required forobtaining pasta with a proper cooking performance. During cooking of pasta,two main phenomena take place:

gluten network developed during mixingwater diffusion inside pasta and temperature rise lead to starchgelatinization.

Regarding processing, pasta is prepared by following

a hydration step,

mixing, (gluten network)

shaping/cutting and


During cooking, pasta undergoes complex modifications caused by heating and water uptake that determine different effects bothat the macroscopic and molecular levels. In traditional pasta made with durum wheat semolina, cooking resuls starch gelatinization withpartial disappearance of the crystalline zones of amylopectin, the leaching of amylose together with other soluble substances into the cooking water, - the coagulation of the gluten network. These phenomena take place at about the same temperature, and the rapid stiffening of a well-developed gluten network able to entrap swollen starch granules is the key factor for the quality of pasta.

A completely different situation occurs in gluten-free (GF) pasta:the viscoelastic gluten network is absent, the intensive heating applied during the different technological steps involved in pasta production has given ;-rise to important modifications to the starch organization,- leading to the creation of a new structure formed by retrograded or partially gelatinized and retrograded starch,

flours used for gluten free pasta

Flours and starches of gluten-free cereals like rice or corn Flours of pseudo-cereals like Amaranth, Buckwheat, Millet or Quinoa flours used.

Traditionally, gluten-free pasta is made from rice flour. Pasta of good technological properties has been obtained by using this flour. Usually, flour obtained from long grains is preferred since it presents high amylose content. Moreover, parboiled grains have good performance for pasta making,since during parboiling starch gelatinizes and the amylose-lipid complex isformed. These changes in starch structure limit ,starch swelling and amyloseloss during cooking of pasta.

Considering corn flour, researchers have shown that the lowerthe amylose content, the lower the pasta/noodle quality.

What are the challanges producing pasta from rice and corn?

Rice and corn contain proteins (~7 to 12 %) but, the proteins are not able to form a strong elastic network like gluten Therefore, for pasta from gluten free raw material starch needs to be gelatinized to act as glue.

Note different microstructure of natural rice and of rice pasta (protein is stained green).

When rice flour is used as the only ingredient for pasta production, it requires additives or particular processing techniques to modify in a suitable way the properties of macromolecular components (starch and proteins) relevant to the structure of the final product. Either gelatinization of the rice flour or steaming of the pasta may improve the textural properties of the final product and a process was developed for rice-based pasta, in which extrusion-cooking of the starting flour was followed by conventional pasta-making processes

Extrusion-cooking causes starch gelatinization followed by retrogradation, forming a rigid starch network andimproving the cooking quality of the product.

Amaranth proteins in amaranth-enriched rice-based pasta improve the textural properties of the product

Maize is recommended as a safe food for celiac patients since it possesses no gluten and can be used in the production of pasta. When maize is the only material used in pasta production, it requires new and desired starch organization able to substitute for the gluten network in the final product .

The addition of an aliquot of pre-gelatinized flour or starch that promotes,the formation of a starch network( during the drying cycle )capable of improving pasta quality is a way to modify or improve the rheological properties of a formulation.

Industrial short goods line for the production of gluten-free pasta

Wheat pasta and corn pasta are very different in terms of microstructure


Additive Poly-C-one -Promotes starch (amylose) complexation and yields pasta with high firmness, low cooking loss and low stickiness -Acts as lubricant and reduces stickiness of pasta at the die during cutting. -Poly-C-one is a specially designed emulsifier E471 (mono- and diglycerides of food fatty acids) -Amount to be added 0.5% 1% of flour quantity

Additive Beta-Carotene -Optional additive for rice or white maize flour to give pasta of yellow color -Amount to be added 0.02% of flour quantity

Additive Curcumin -Optional additive for rice or white maize flour to give pasta of yellow color -Amount to be added 0.2 % of flour quantity

Ultrastructural organization of the uncooked durum wheat pasta and GF spaghetti samples.

Abbreviations used: R, rice spaghetti; C, corn spaghetti; CS, corn starch basedspaghetti; M, spaghetti obtained from a mixture of ingredients; S, durum wheat pasta.



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