girls & stem: making it happen

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  1. 1. Girls & STEM: Making it Happen Sylvia Martinez sylvia@inventtolearn.com Twitter: @smartinez sylviamartinez.com
  2. 2. Invent To Learn: Making,Tinkering, and Engineering in the Classroom www.InventToLearn.com Maker tools, materials, & tech Tinkering mindset Engineering design How to make the case for making in the classroom robotics e-textiles 3D printing Arduino Scratch Raspberry Pi programming electronics sensors laser cutters STEM/STEAM
  3. 3. National Girls Collaborative Project ngcproject.org/exemplary-practices-overview Engaging Girls in STEM Access & Equity Collaboration Evaluation & Assessment One Stop for Resources All resources: sylviamartinez.com/stem-girls
  4. 4. Sobering Statistics about Women and STEM Jobs "Women have seen no employment growth in STEM jobs since 2000" - Forbes. Women leave STEM jobs at a signicantly higher rate then men - often citing gender issues
  5. 5. Solving the Equation: The Variables for Womens Success in Engineering and Computing - American Association of University Women (AAUW)
  6. 6. Securing Australias Future STEM: Country Comparisons - Australian Council of Learned Academies
  7. 7. Common issues There are no women in computer science because there are no women in computer science. Culture Economics Stereotypes Stereotype threat Lack of encouragement Discrimination
  8. 8. Solving the Equation: The Variables for Womens Success in Engineering and Computing - American Association of University Women (AAUW)
  9. 9. Discrimination Solving the Equation: The Variables for Womens Success in Engineering and Computing - American Association of University Women (AAUW)
  10. 10. Leaky bucket Solving the Equation: The Variables for Womens Success in Engineering and Computing - American Association of University Women (AAUW)
  11. 11. 2001
  12. 12. Generation STEM: What girls say about Science,Technology, Engineering, and Math - Girl Scouts of the USA (2012) (Girls 14-17)
  13. 13. Teacher bias Statistically, teachers give boys more opportunity to gure out the solution to a problem by themselves while telling the girls to follow the rules. Teachers are also more likely to accept questions from boys while telling girls to wait their turn. Teachers rate girls ability in math lower than boys, in spite of grades & test scores
  14. 14. Teacher Attitudes Math anxiety impacts student learning Elementary education majors have some of the highest levels of mathematics anxiety Female teachers math anxiety disproportionally affects girls math achievement (elementary study; 90% of elementary teachers are female) Beilock, Sian L., et al. "Female teachers math anxiety affects girls math achievement." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.5 (2010): 1860-1863. Gresham, Gina. "A study of mathematics anxiety in pre-service teachers." Early Childhood Education Journal 35.2 (2007): 181-188. Teachers Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st- and 2nd-Graders Spatial Learning
  15. 15. More boys than girls perform at the very highest levels in spatial reasoning and math ability tests However, girls get better grades in math and science Test scores tend to under-predict girls success in college math courses. Females who have high math abilities are more likely than males with high math abilities to choose careers in non-math intensive areas.This preference shows up as early as adolescence. Females who have high math abilities are also more likely than males who have high math abilities to also have high verbal abilities, giving them more choices of majors/careers to pursue. Given the barriers, maybe this is a reasonable choice! Womens underrepresentation in science: Sociocultural and biological considerations. (2009) Effective STEM Programs for Adolescent Girls: Three Approaches and Many Lessons Learned (2013)
  16. 16. Leaky pipeline + leaky bucket
  17. 17. What can we do?
  18. 18. Girls more likely to: Girls are more likely to look to the teacher for clues on how to behave or what to choose Collaborate & strive for consensus Let others take credit Take the blame Decline to compete for scarce materials Take on organizational roles Be compliant and adapt
  19. 19. Stereotype Threat Is the threat (and resultant anxiety) of confirming a negative stereotype about one's group - including race, gender, and other identities. (Steele & Aronson, 1995)
  20. 20. Stereotype Threat
  21. 21. Solutions Discuss stereotypes; similar to growth mindset Role models, peer mentors, & non-gendered examples Real world problems and projects Focus on helping others Gender-neutral spaces Change how STEM subjects are taught
  22. 22. Problem Solving Dr. Seymour Papert defined two styles of problem solving: analytical and bricolage Bricolage - French for tinkering, using found objects, playfulness in creation Higher grades = more analytical Real world is both
  23. 23. Mastery styles Sherry Turkle Hard mastery - linear, rigid, abstract, solitary Soft mastery - non-linear, messy, concrete, collaborative Hard mastery - academic & rigorous... masculine Soft mastery - naive & lazy... feminine
  24. 24. "The bricoleur resembles the painter who stands back between brushstrokes, looks at the canvas, and only after this contemplation, decides what to do next." - Sherry Turkle
  25. 25. Top 10 Ways To Be a Male Advocate for Technical Women 1. Listen to women's stories 2. Talk to other men (privately & publicly) 3. Seek out ways to recruit women 4. Increase the number and visibility of female leaders 5. Mentor and sponsor women/have a woman mentor National Center of Women & Informational Technology - https://www.ncwit.org/resources/read-online-maleadvocate
  26. 26. Top 10 Ways To Be a Male Advocate for Technical Women 6. Notice and correct micro-inequities or instances of unconscious bias 7. Establish accountability metrics 8. Model alternative work/life strategies & balance 9. Make discussions of gender less risky" 10. Reach out to formal and informal women's groups National Center of Women & Informational Technology - https://www.ncwit.org/resources/read-online-maleadvocate
  27. 27. MakeHers: Engaging Girls and Women in Technology through Making, Creating, and Inventing intel.com/girlsintech
  28. 28. MakeHers: Engaging Girls and Women in Technology through Making, Creating, and Inventing intel.com/girlsintech
  29. 29. Fabrication
  30. 30. Physical Computing Low-cost, open source microprocessors & software Add interactivity to the real world Connect analog to digital world with sensors, cameras, bluetooth, wireless Internet of Things Raspberry Pi - $35 computer Arduino E-textiles
  31. 31. Sensor glove - CMU Interactive corset that teaches deep breathing techniques Wearable soundscape triggered by heartbeat
  32. 32. Imogen Heap
  33. 33. Programming Global call for teaching programming New languages for every goal and age Shareable code Key to unlocking educational value of making
  34. 34. Scratch is free and designed for learning with connections to robotics and modern materials
  35. 35. Scratch connects to robots and real world
  36. 36. Cardboard Construction Makedo Rolobox Hummingbird
  37. 37. MaKey MaKey
  38. 38. MaKey MaKey
  39. 39. Squishy Circuits Homemade dough Conductive/ Insulating Make circuits!
  40. 40. Conductive materials Conductive thread Copper tape, foil Conductive ink, paint, glue Conductive fabric Graphite pencils
  41. 41. Conductive materials Conductive thread Copper tape, foil Conductive ink, paint, glue Conductive fabric Graphite pencils DIYgirls.org
  42. 42. Iftechnicaltinkering,STEM,anddigitalfabricationarethe economicforcesthatwillempowerMakers,andwomenand peopleofcolorarenotparticipatingintheseactivitiesinavisible way,thatpowerwillremainunequallydistributed.Whengenderis discussedinrelationtothemakermovement,theconversation startswiththenotionthatMakingcreatesauniqueopportunity forinclusiveparticipation,andisquicklyfollowedbythequestion howcanwegetmorewomentoparticipate?Generally,the responsesfocusontransformingwomen,onareasthatneedtobe corrected,suchasraisingcondence,creatingmorewoman/girl friendlylearningenvironments,increasingabilityinmathand science,andsoon.Thewomenthemselvescausetheproblem; theylackcondence,theyareunabletolearninthenormalSTEM environment,theydonotembracetheirfullcapabilityinmathand science.Itisthewomenwhoaredecient. Power,Access,Status:TheDiscourseofRace,Gender,andClassintheMakerMovement-LaurenBritton Making is not a magic wand
  43. 43. Great materials + Inspiration
  44. 44. Next Generation Science Standards Signicant increase in integration of engineering and technology from previous science standards Elevates engineering design to same level of importance as scientic inquiry Two reasons given: Aspirational: Scientic challenges are motivating and young people want to make the world a better place Practical:The process of design is not the same as the scientic method.
  45. 45. Scantron mathface http://www.flickr.com/photos/schestok/414196453/ This is not science!
  46. 46. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science.Albert Einstein
  47. 47. Girls & STEM Embrace all learning styles Address stereotypes honestly and give all students tools to overcome them Real world projects Address teacher anxiety and biases Change how STEM subjects are taught
  48. 48. STEM For All Embrace all learning styles Address stereotypes honestly and give all students tools to overcome them Real world