Gender equality and empowerment of women through ICT

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Gender gaps in ICTThe role of ICT in supporting gender parityEricsson ConsumerLab 2017

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CAPITALS

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2017-02-27 1

Ericsson ConsumerLab annual research

1.1 billionREPRESENTINGPEOPLE100,000RESPONDENTS

20OF RESEARCHYEARS

40MORE THANCOUNTRIES

Jan 1st

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #TV Media 2016 Consumer Insights & Implications 2016-11-17 Ericsson AB 2016 2Purpose of slide:Show width and depth of ConsumerLab research

Ericsson ConsumerLab have been conducting consumer research since 1995, and we cover areas of interest both to the current and future portfolio. Our research is based on both qualitative in-depth interviews as well as quantitative surveys to many thousands of consumers worldwide.

1 million respondents in more than 70 countries since 1995100 000 respondents annuallyRepresenting 1.1 billion people in more than 40 countries15 Megacities studied Hundreds of hours spent with consumers every year

Hightlight Analytical Platform- where we store and analyze all our data!!!

Key Findings

Closing the ICT gender gap is perhaps not as difficult as could be expectedThe fast pace in technology development has resulted in wider availability of affordable devices and internet access. This is rapidly closing the gender gaps in ICT usage. At the same time, the gender gaps move from access and devices to services and content.

There is a golden relationship between the Global Gender Gap Index and ICT Gender Gap IndexIn countries where gender parity exists in education, economic and professional opportunities coupled with a high presence of women in ICT-oriented jobs, there is generally a low ICT gender gap.

The younger generation is the force for changeIn countries with high gender gaps, the young generation do things differently. They adopt ICT at almost equal rates. This could translate to a positive force for change in their lives and communities.

Broad availability of ICT tools and services are not guarantees to gender parityConsumers living in countries with available and affordable ICT solutions tend to have higher levels of ICT use and gender parity. In some developed countries, gender parity is only a reality for specific groups of women. More commonly, women have a limited online presence and less frequent ICT usage.

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Methodology

RUSSIACHINAJAPANNORWAYSWEDENPOLANDHUNGARYUKSPAINFRANCEITALYGERMANYLEBANONEGYPTUAEINDIATHAILANDVIETNAMINDONESIASOUTH AFRICAKENYAANGOLANIGERIACTE DIVOIRECANADAUSAMEXICOJAMAICACOLOMBIABRAZILCHILEWorldEconomicForumAdditional Sourcemarkets in ConsumerLab Analytical PlatformQuantitative analysis of historic data from

32Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) data

ARGENTINASource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #Quantitative analysis of historic data from 32 markets in ConsumerLab Analytical Platform (2000-2016)Canada, South Africa, Thailand, Colombia, Poland, Australia, Brazil, Spain, Sweden, Norway (from 2012) , Argentina, Jamaica (from 2012), UAE (from 2012), Hungary, France, USA, Italy, Mexico, China, UK, Angola (from 2012), Russia, Germany, Vietnam (from 2012), Indonesia, Japan, Nigeria (from 2009), Kenya (from 2009) , Cte dIvoire (from 2009), Egypt, India

Bases: Mature markets: --- 2000-2008: Population 15-69 y.o. --- 2009-2016: Online population 15-69 y.o.Emerging markets: Population aged 15-59 y.o. within SEC A-C.

Additional sourceWorld Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Index data (2000-2016)

2016-11-07 4TV Media 2016 Ericsson ConsumerLab Presentation Ericsson AB 2016

Measuring the gender gapsThe Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) is a measurement that applies to national data, scoring countries on their progress towards gender parity in four sub-indexes. The ICT Gender Gap Index (ICT GGI) focuses on the use and habits around ICT tools and services, with attention to age groups, occupation and household income.

The Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI), defined by World Economic ForumEconomic Participation and OpportunityEducationalAttainmentHealth and SurvivalPolitical Empowerment

The ICT Gender Gap Index (ICT GGI), defined by Ericsson ConsumerLabUse ofServicesDevicesUsedTimeSpentPlaceof Use

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #While the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) is a measurement that takes into account the entire population of a country, scoring countries depending on their progress towards gender parity in four different sub-indexes. The ICT Gender Gap Index (ICT GG) focuses on the use and habits around ICT tools and services, with a focus on age groups, occupation and household income.

Economic participation and opportunityWith economic participation women gain equal opportunity to financial independence, enter the workforce and have the opportunities to gain positions of economic power.Educational attainmentEducational attainment is the basis for ensuring high and equal literacy rates as well as enrolment rates to primary, secondary and tertiary education.Health and survivalHealth and survival indicators relate to even sex ratios at birth, female healthy life expectancy, marital status as well as family planning and care. Political empowermentPolitical empowerment enables equal access to political representation in the political system, while voting, lobbying and mobilizing empowers both genders to support policies and causes that they believe in.2016-10-25 5

Closing the gender gapsSelf-reported ratio between men and women on their daily internet usageFigure 1: The progress to achieve gender parity by individual countries along the Global Gender Gap Index and sub-indexes

Source: Global Gender Gap Index 2016Note: Green diamonds correspond to subindex averages

Global Gender Gap IndexEconomic Opportunity and Participation subindexEducational Attainment subindexHealth and Survival subindexPolitical Empowerment subindexUnited KingdomUnited StatesMexicoIndiaSaudi ArabiaYemenPakistanIndiaIcelandRwandaUnited StatesChinaNigeriaNorwayChadNigeriaNepalCambodiaChinaIndiaUnited StatesNigeriaIcelandFinlandNorwayFranceSenegalUnited Arab EmiratesScore (0.01.0 scale)0.00.20.40.60.81.0

There is still a long road ahead in achieving gender parity in the four sub-indexes to the Global Gender Gap Index. The spread of the countries along the sub-indexes provide an indication of the most challenging areas to achieve gender parity. However, the gender gap in ICT has continued to shrink at an impressive rate since year 2000. Much of this can be attributed to the introduction of smartphones and affordable internet access through mobileSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017Base: Internet Population aged 15-69 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, UK and USA

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #While the score and pace of countries differ when it comes to approaching gender parity in the various sub-indexes measured by the WEF, the ICT gender gap has continued to shrink at an impressive rate since year 2000. Much of this can be attributed to the introduction of smartphones and affordable internet access through mobile. However, each individual country scores differently along the ICT gender gap index as well, where the road to gender parity in ICT is related to factors beyond access.

Educational attainment and health and survival gaps are closing, there is a bigger spread of countries in the economic and political empowermentPolitical empowerment is generally the index affecting the gender gap negativelyThe Internet usage gap has decreased dramatically under this time period from 4 times more men than woman using Internet daily in the year 2000 to 1,1 in 2016

2016-10-25 6

Climbing the ICT gender gap ladderACCESSDevices and ConnectivitySERVICESFrequency of use,Types of servicesCONTENTEducation, Shopping,Banking, EntertainmentVALUES

The ICT GGI is not merely an attempt to understand the usage or non-usage of devices and the internet, but relates to how they are used and the results of that usage. It is a measurement for understanding the equal opportunity to access and use of services and content.When personal values among both genders are in support of open-mindedness, curiosity, honesty and self-reliance, the values tend to have a positive effect on gender parity in ICT.

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #The gender gap in ICT is not merely a matter of using or not using devices and the Internet, but relates to how they are used and the results of that usage. It also relates to the maintaining of equal opportunity to access and use of services and content to value for each individual. In every step of the ladder, the importance of personal values follow; when the personal values among both genders are in support of open-mindedness, curiosity, honesty and self-reliance, then one of the fundamental aspects to progress towards gender parity has been set.

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Search for inspirationLearning, curiosity,open-mindednessBe genuineHonesty, authenticity,self-relianceEqual opportunitiesEquality, justice, social responsibilityFun-seekingHaving fun, enjoying life, pleasureLove is allyou needRomance, friendship, enduring love

Successis keyStatus, wealth, powerStick to the traditionsRespecting ancestors, tradition, cultural purityIts my destinyFaith, duty, traditionalgender rolesAppearanceis everythingLooking good, public image,self-interestValues positively impacting the ICT GGIValues negatively impacting the ICT GGI

Values matter Personal values are shared beliefs about what is good, right and desirable in societyThey have an impact on our actions in daily life and have a positive or a negative relationship to the ICT GGIThe strength of values is dependent on age, occupation and socio economic class

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #The values we hold, the shared beliefs about what is good, right and desirable in society, has an impact on our actions in daily life. They also have a positive or a negative correlation to the ICT gender gap index, where certain personal values can even act as barriers to gender parity. While certain values may be strong or less relevant among a population, the importance of them are not necessarily shared by everyone. In countries with a high ICT gender gap, personal values grouped as Stick to the traditions, Its my destiny and Appearance is everything tends to be of importance across age groups, occupation and household income levels. However, the younger generation and students tends to be slightly less interested in upholding traditions, neither do those with university education, white collar workers and those living in mid- to high income households. In countries with a low ICT gender gap, personal values grouped as Be genuine, Love is all you need and Search for inspiration tend to be strong across age groups, occupation and income levels. In a few of the countries with low ICT gender gap, the personal values grouped as Stick to the traditions and Its my destiny tends to be strong among those aged 50+ and those non-working or living in low-income households.2017-02-27 8

How the gender gap is manifested

Services UsedWomen are more avid users of communication services such as voice calls, IM, social networking and e-commerce. In countries with a low ICT gender gap, women have an increased online presence, also performing activities such as banking, product info search and general browsing.Time SpentThe lower the ICT gender gap, the higher the online presence of women.Women in Colombia spend on average >10 min more online than men, daily. In Cte dIvoire women spend on average ~40 min less online than men, daily.Devices and LocationIn the majority of countries, men are the prominent users of laptops for online access. Their online presence is extensive at work and when out and about. Women are prominent users of mobile phones and tablets, the home environment being where majority of online activities happen.

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #Services usedFor women, the most commonly used services tend to be communication services such as voice calls, IM, social networking and e-commerce. In countries with low ICT gender gap, women also frequently use productivity apps and services, have a high online presence and performing activities such as banking, product info search and general browsing.

Time spentIn countries where women spend less time online than men, their hours tend to be focused on communication services primarily. While women in Colombia tend to spend over 10 min more online than men on average per day, in Cte dIvoire women spend almost 40 min less time per day online than men.

Devices and locationIn the majority of countries in our study, men tend to use laptops for online access to a greater extent than females. Their online presence is also more prominent at work and out and about. Whereas women have a stronger online presence on mobile phones and tablets, with the home environment being where the majority of online activities happen.

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Four country groups and patternsACHIEVERSSHIFTERSDEVIATORSASPIRERSThe ICT Gender Gap IndexThe Global Gender Gap Index

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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AchieversACHIEVERSSHIFTERSDEVIATORSASPIRERSHigh level of ICT use and time spent online across age groups, occupation and household incomeLow to non-existent gender gap, with a balanced use for most types of servicesA position most common for developed countriesCountries with high female workforce participationCharacteristics:South Africa: despite low levels of ICT use and less time spent online for both genders, there is gender parity for particular groups in the society. The group yet to reach gender parity is women in low-income households, where their ICT and service use is lower than their male counterparts.Exception:

NORWAYSOUTH AFRICAPOLANDCANADACOLOMBIASWEDENUKUSASPAINFRANCEITALYCHILEARGENTINAJAMAICASource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #South Africa: despite low levels of ICT use and less time spent online for both genders, there is gender parity for particular groups in the society. The group yet to reach gender parity is women in low-income households, where their ICT and service use is lower than their male counterparts.

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ShiftersACHIEVERSSHIFTERSDEVIATORSASPIRERSSlightly lower ICT usage levels and time spent onlinefor both gendersNo gender gaps in ICT usage and habits among the younger generation, students and within high income households A position most common for developing countriesCharacteristics:UAE: high levels of usage and time spent online, while gender gaps would typically exist among the older population as well as within low- and mind-income households. The gaps exist in usage of most types of services Angola: lower levels of usage and time spent online for both genders, but gender parity exist among students and within high-income households. A gender gap is more prominent among the age groups of 45+ as well as mid- and low-income households with regards to usage of most types of servicesException:

MEXICOTHAILANDBRAZILUAEANGOLAHUNGARYINDONESIALEBANONSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #UAE: high levels of usage and time spent online, while gender gaps would typically exist among the older population (50+) as well as for women from low- and mind-income households with regards to the habits of using most types of services Angola: lower ICT use levels and time spent online for both genders, but gender parity has been achieved among students and women in high-income households. A gender gap is more prominent among middle-aged and older women from mid- and low-income countries with regards to the habits of using most types of services

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AspirersACHIEVERSSHIFTERSDEVIATORSASPIRERSLow scores on the GGGI, coupled with a negative ICT GGIOverall low levels of ICT usage and time spent online for both gendersA position most common for developing countries where access to devices and connectivity is a challengeCharacteristics:China: higher levels of ICT usage compared to other countries in this group. Gender parity in ICT use and habits exist among the younger generation, students and within high income households. However, a clear gender difference in the services used, where IM and social networking is the most used services among womenVietnam: the highest score on the GGGI compared to other countries in this group, but with lower levels of ICT usage and time spent online by both genders. Gender parity in ICT use and habits exist among the younger generation, students and within high-income households for specific types of servicesException:

CHINAINDIAVIETNAMNIGERIACTE DIVOIREKENYAEGYPTSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #China: higher levels of ICT use compared to other countries in this group, with gender parity existing among the younger generation females, students and women from high income countries. However, a clear gender difference in services used, where IM and social networking is more prominent among womenVietnam: higher score on the Global Gender Gap Index compared to other countries in this groups, but with lower levels of ICT use and time spent online. Gender parity exist among the younger generation of female students and women in high-income households for specific types of services

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Values that align with Be genuine and Love is all you need tend to re-appear across the three groups, but do so to different extent The values along the main groups

Among Achievers the value groups with positive impact on the ICT GGI tends to be regarded at similarly high levels across age, occupation and household income groupsSearch for inspirationLearning, curiosity,open-mindednessBe genuineHonesty, authenticity,self-relianceEqual opportunitiesEquality, justice, social responsibilityFun-seekingHaving fun, enjoying life, pleasureLove is allyou needRomance, friendship, enduring loveSuccessis keyStatus, wealth, powerStick to the traditionsRespecting ancestors, tradition, cultural purityIts my destinyFaith, duty, traditionalgender rolesAppearanceis everythingLooking good, public image,self-interest

In similar fashion, the value groups with negative impact on the ICT GGI tends to be highly regarded across age, occupation and household income groups among AspirersASPIRERSSHIFTERSACHIEVERSSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017Base: Online population aged 15-69 in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, UK and USA

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #While values that align with Being genuine and Love is all you need tend to re-appear across the three groups, they do so to different extent. Among Achievers, the value groups with positive correlation to the ICT gender gap index tend to be valued at similar levels across several age groups, occupations and household compositions.

Among Achievers, the value groups with positive correlation to the ICT gender gap index tend to be valued at similar levels across several age groups, occupations and household compositions. Whereas value groups with negative correlation to the index tend to be of less importance, or of some importance to the older generation and those non-working or living in low-income households.

For the Shifters and especially Aspirers, the value groups with negative correlation tend to be highly valued by the majority. Value groups such as Be genuine, Love is all you need and Search for inspiration tend to be of interest mainly among the younger generation, students and those living in high-income households.

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Service use along the main groups

Usage of Services Online & Mobile

Voice CallsBrowseInternet

SMSContact

E-mailContactIMContact

SocialNetworks

VideoCallsOnline Stream Music

VideoClipsGPS

Online Gaming

Mobile BankingGPSWomen have a more extensive daily usageWomen and men have an equal extent in daily usageMen have a more extensive daily usage

Usage of Services Online & Mobile

Voice CallsBrowseInternet

SMSContact

E-mailContactIMContact

SocialNetworks

VideoCallsOnline Stream Music

VideoClipsGPS

Online Gaming

Mobile BankingGPS

Usage of Services Online & Mobile

Voice CallsBrowseInternet

SMSContact

E-mailContactIMContact

SocialNetworks

VideoCallsOnline Stream Music

VideoClipsGPS

Online Gaming

Mobile BankingGPSASPIRERSSHIFTERSACHIEVERSSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical platform 2017Base: Online population aged 15-69 in Angola, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cte dIvoire, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mexico, Norway, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, UAE, UK, USA and Vietnam

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DeviatorsACHIEVERSSHIFTERSDEVIATORSASPIRERSCountries that are industrialized and developedHigh levels of ICT usage, but clear gender gaps in time spent online and the types of services most usedVarying scores on the GGGI, with negative ICT GGICharacteristics:Structural differences in these countries creates the deviation, as the high ICT gender gap cannot be explained by explorations into GDP per capita, nor the personal values of individuals. Gender parity has been nearly achieved for all three within the Educational attainment and the Health and survival sub-indexes. These countries are, economically, in a position to offer ICT tools and services to the wider public. While gender parity in Educational attainment promotes a high presence of women in the workforce, women are less frequent in technical, managerial, senior official or legislative roles. Women are also less frequent in jobs of political character, such as ministerial or parliamentary roles. Hence, women are less prominent in jobs where ICT would be a natural influence on the uptake of internet and service use.

RUSSIAJAPANGERMANYSource: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #Structural differences in these countries creates the deviation, as the high ICT gender gap cannot be explained by explorations into GDP per capita, nor the personal values of individuals. While for all three countries, gender parity has been achieved, or nearly been achieved, within the Educational attainment as well as Health and survival sub-indexes. These countries are also, economically, in a position to offer ICT tools and services to the wider public. While gender parity in Education and Health promotes a high presence of women in the workforce, women are less frequent in technical, managerial, senior official and legislative roles. In these countries women are also less frequent in jobs of political character, such as ministerial or parliamentary roles. This means that women are less prominent in jobs where ICT would be a natural influence on the uptake of internet access and services.2017-02-27 16

Young females and female students show clear tendencies to higher online presence and use of ICT tools and services Their usage of ICT tools and services are at similar levels as their male counterparts, in some cases even showing higher usage than the malesThe younger generation has a higher regard for open-mindedness and curiosity, no matter their gender The young force for change

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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The journey to gender parity in ICT

Economic EmpowermentProfessionalOpportunitiesPolitical ReformsEducationICTGender Gap

Gender parity in ICTis the result of

PoliticalEconomicProfessional

EMPOWERMENTTherefore, achieving gender parity in ICT is not merely a question of access to the technologyas such. It is an aid in strengthening progress towards gender parity in other aspects of society

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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Do not add objects or text in the footer areaEricsson Internal | 2017-02-27 | Page #The four groups that have been highlighted in this study show different patterns in how the ICT gender gap is manifested. While the ICT gender gap tends to be smaller in developed countries, the deviator group shows that other factors are at play in influencing the extent to which ICT tools and services are used. There are however interdependencies that emerge between different factors that have a positive correlation to the ICT gender gap. With education, the younger generation are introduced to a plethora of tools and services that aid them in their future career paths. With non-discriminatory economic and professional opportunities, more women can be introduced to technical, managerial and professional work where ICT may be a natural part of their daily life. With women present in politics, the opportunity of reforms presents itself in support of womens equal opportunities in access to tools and services to empower themselves.Therefore, achieving gender parity in ICT is not merely a question of access to the technology as such, but a matter of a series of positive chain reactions resulting from gender parity in other aspects of a society.

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Through the measurement of the GGGI by the World Economic Forum, gender parity in the pillars of society ensures a societal equality in health, education, economy and politicsICT is a strong baseline and provides part of the infrastructure of services and tools that can empower womens participation in these pillarsEqual access to ICT tools and services is not simply a matter of economic prosperity in a country, but the implementation of strategies to ensure access to ICT tools and services by allThe role of ICT in gender parity

HealthICT Tools and ServicesEducationEconomyPoliticsNational Economic DevelopmentGender Parity

Source: Ericsson ConsumerLab Analytical Platform 2017

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2016-03-31 20RNEA Strategy 2016 - Cascading

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