Gender and gender role differences in smiling and communication consistency
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Sex Roles, VoL 19, Nos. 9/10, 1988
Gender and Gender Role Differences in Smiling and Communication Consistency 1
Amy G. Halberstadt 2 Vassar College
Cynthia W. Hayes Adelphi University
Kathleen M. Pike Yale University
This paper investigates gender and gender role differences in smiling and in communication consistency across verbal and facial channels. College stu- dents" conversations about their emotional experiences were analyzed for smil- ing frequency and duration, and verbal transcripts were rated for degree of positivity. Students also filled out a gender role questionnaire. Women smiled more than men, especially where discussing happy/positive topics compared to sad/negative topics. Masculinity interacted with gender to influence smil- ing behavior, but gender roles could not account for the gender differences in smiling. Gender differences in communication consistency also appeared; women were more consistent across channels than men were. Gender roles could not account for the gender differences in channel usage. A situational role interpretation is generated for future research.
This paper investigates gender differences in smiling behavior. It attempts to replicate the widely supported finding that women generally smile more
~Some portions of this research were presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological As- sociation, Philadelphia, April 1983.
The authors thank the Vassar College Research Committee for financial support, Karen Littell for data collection and preparation, Martha T. Mednick for sharing her unpublished work, and Judith A. Hall, Daphne Bugental, Anthony Weston, and Steve Ellyson for many helpful comments on the manuscript.
2To whom correspondence should be addressed at Department of Psychology, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York 12601.
0360-0025/88/11004)589506.00/0 1988 Plenum Publishing Corporation
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than men, and explores the degree to which gender roles can account for this difference between men and women. Second, it explores gender differ- ences in the relationship between verbal and facial channels of communica- tion: Do men and women differ in their degree of consistency across the verbal and facial channels, and if so, to what degree can gender role orientations account for the differences?
The gender difference in smiling is a clear and persistent effect; in a meta-analysis of 18 studies that reported the direction of the gender effect, females smiled more frequently in 17 studies, and significantly so in 12 of them (combined p _< 10-a; Hall, 1984). Many writers have hypothesized about the smiling gender difference, although the possibile functions and corre- lates of this difference have just begun to be explored (e.g., Hall & Halber- stadt, 1986).
One popular explanation for gender differences is that smiling behavior is influenced by psychological gender roles, and that women smile more than men because smiling is an integral part of the nurturant, expressive role that is socially appropriate for women to adopt (e.g., Frances, 1979; Henley & LaFrance, 1984; Weitz, 1976). Specifically, smiling ought to be associated with an interpersonal orientation, social warmth, and expressiveness, i.e., the characteristics traditionally associated with femininity.
Some related evidence suggests that this hypothesis is reasonable to test. Studies on perceptions of smiling have found smiling to be associated with perceived femininity and friendliness (Halberstadt & Saitta, 1987) and with warmth and politeness (Deutsch, LeBaron, & Fryer, 1987). Also, actual ob- servations of smiling in a laboratory study indicated that androgynous men smiled more than masculine men and feminine women smiled more than an- drogynous women (LaFrance & Cramen, 1980). These results suggest that femininity and smiling are positively associated for males, whereas mascu- linity and smiling are negatively associated for females. 3 Thus, in the present study, we examined the independent contributions of femininity and mascu- linity to smiling, and we considered these contributions in both men and wom- en. As reported below, however, the relationship were not as obvious as expected.
In terms of consistency between the verbal and facial channels, the first and most well-known study examined mothers' and fathers' communications to their children (Bugental, Love, & Gianetto, 1971). The positivity of fathers' facial expressions was consistent with the positivity of their verbal statements.
aln recent years, it has been noted that the use of gender role inventories has been severely over- extended (e.g., Deaux, 1984; Spence, 1984). Although gender roles cannot he expected to ex- plain all gender differences, they should be able to explain some differences, and the smiling difference, for the reasons described above, is a good candidate.
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In contrast, no relationship at all appeared for mothers, who seemed to smile without regard for the positivity of their own verbal messages. Interpreting this as evidence that women's smiling is less sincere and less trustworthy, Bugental et al. entitled their paper "Perfidious Feminine Faces," implying that the "popular notions with respect to the greater deviousness or duplici- ty of women" (Bugental, Kaswan, & Love, 1970) have justification. The im- age of women's smiling as nontrustworthy has become rather popular, and is reported in many articles and books on psychology and gender.
A decade later, in a study of alcoholic and nonalcoholic families, Jacob, Ritchey, Cvitkovic, and Blane (1981) found only a trend for wives to be more inconsistent than their husbands during discussions about their personal opin- ions on five topics. Noller (1982) found a nonsignificant gender difference in couples' discussions of their marriage when she controlled for their fre- quency of positive visual behavior and negative verbal behavior. However, no gender differences were found in two studies on families with delinquent and nondelinquent youths (Lessin & Jacob, 1979, 1984), or in a study of college students' role playing of a medical admissions interview (Mednick, Hillabrant, & Carr, 1987).
Given that the notion of women's perfidy remains popular despite these somewhat mixed results, we attempted to gather more data on gender differ- ences in communication consistency, and to employ gender roles as possible explanations, should a difference occur. A gender role explanation is a natural extension from Bugental et al. (1971), who suggest that women's greater smiling with critical or negative statements may allow women "to meet middle-class expectations of the good mother role" (p. 318) and/or to meet expectations of them as submissive or as compliant.
In summary, our goals were to assess the gender differences in smiling and in communication consistency, and to attempt to account for gender differences with gender role explanations.
Sixty-four students were videotaped while conversing for 15 minutes with one of eight confederates who were other students unknown to the sub- jects. After getting acquainted, each subject discussed topics s/he defined as positive or happy and as negative or sad, and listened to the confederate do the same. Students had consented to be audiotaped but were videotaped without their knowledge. After the session, students engaged in other tasks, were fully debriefed, and gave their consent for the videotapes to be used for research purposes. Twelve weeks later subjects were sent a gender role
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inventory to fill out; 43 subjects returned the questionnaire. Two of the authors recorded all smiles, their duration, and their corresponding verbal statements. Four verbal statements not accompanied by a smile were also recorded for each subject. Each verbal statement was rated by 10 of 40 judges on a 7-point scale for degree of positivity. Data were then intercorrelated and subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVAs).
Subjects and Confederates
Thirty-two male and 32 female undergraduates met for the first time with one of eight (four male, four female) undergraduate confederates chosen from another university so that partners would not previously be acquaint- ed. Half of the pairs were same gender and half were cross gender (see Hal- berstadt, 1986, for methodological details and for findings regarding family expressiveness).
The conversations were conducted in a pleasant laboratory room. The subject and confederate sat on opposite sides of a table, approximately four feet apart. The chairs were arranged so that when the subject looked at the confederate, a full-face recording was obtained by the camera behind the one-way mirror. Subjects were told that they were participating in a "pilot" study and that the "real" subjects would be family members who would ex- perience the same procedure, i.e., conversing about emotional experiences.
Subjects and confederates participated in three types of discussion for about 5 minutes each. In the first, which the confederate always began, the participants were asked to introduce themselves and get acquainted. In the second and third discussions, both of which the subject began and the con- federate finished, the participants were asked to discuss the most sad/nega- tive and most happy/positive experience that they could, while still feeling comfortable in the situation. The order of the second and third discussion choices was random, but blocked within both subject and confederate gender. The confederates' major task was to sit in the nonvideotaped position, and to participate in as natural a way as possible. 4
*We chose not to control the confederates' nonverbal behavior for three reasons. First, when one nonverbal behavior (e.g., smiling) is controlled, other related nonverbal behaviors (e.g., eye gaze, head nods, vocal spontaneity, restless movements) must then be monitored for signs of artificiality or compensation. Second, whereas controlling confederates' nonverbal behavior might increase the likelihood of finding predicted relationships, it simultaneously reduces con- fidence in the robustness and generalizability of these relationships. Third, because of the large number of confederates and their counterbalanced order across subject gender, we thought it unlikely that subsequent effects would be due to individual idiosyncracies in confederate behavior. Analyses with individual confederates supported this assumption.
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After these discussions, and a questionnaire evaluation of the "pilot" session (see Halberstadt, 1984, for further information), the subject was fully debriefed in the confederate's presence. Subjects were also informed that they could have the videotape erased; one subject chose to do so and this subject was replaced. No subject guessed that his/her partner was a confederate.
Approximately three months later all subjects were asked by mail to fill out a gender role inventory [Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ); Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974]. This questionnaire is comprised of 8 unipolar male-valued (M) items, 8 unipolar female-valued (F) items, and 8 bipolar female-valued/male-valued (F-M) items) The M scale and M pole of the F-M scale are thought to measure instrumentality, self-assertiveness, and dominance. The F scale is thought to measure interpersonal orientation, warmth, expressiveness, and nurturance; the F pole of the F-M scale is thought to measure expressivity and emotional vulnerability (e.g., Lubin- ski, Tellegen, & Butcher, 1983; Spence, 1983; Spence & Helmreich, 1978). Forty-three questionnaires were returned, with highly similar return rates across subject and confederate gender.
Two of the authors (AGH and CWH) recorded all smiles (defined as "upward curvatures of the mouth with lips together or with teeth showing") and corresponding verbal statements from subjects' and confederates' descrip- tions of their happy/positive or sad/negative experiences. Each conversa- tion was coded for 2 minutes or until its conclusion if it was shorter than 2 minutes. Analyses indicated no significant or near significant gender differ- ences for subjects or confederates in overall amounts of time spent listening or talking. The minimum amount of data for all four conversations com- bined was 4.2 minutes; the maximum was 7.9 minutes.
The method of choosing smiles and transcripts was as follows: One rater judged the presence of smiles without audio input, so that the verbal com- munication accompanying the smiles would not influence her decision. When this rater signaled the presence of a smile, the second rater, wearing head- phones, recorded the verbal statement. Also, one verbal statement made without an accompanying smile was obtained approximately 30 seconds into each of the happy and sad stories told and listened to by each student. In the listen conditions, the verbal statement was made by the partner, and the issue was whether or not the subject smiled in relationship to what was be-
SAlthough Spence et al. (1974) originally called the bipolar scale a sex-specific scale and later refer to it as the M-F scale, we refer to it as F-M to indicate that low scores are associated with female-valued characteristics and high scores with male-valued characteristics.
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ing said to him or her. I f the subject was smiling 30 seconds into the story, the transcript f rom the next available nonsmil ing segment was recorded.
The 1120 resulting verbal statements were divided into four sets. 6 Each set included the statements of 16 subjects, b locked by confederate gender and subject gender and randomized within sets. Forty students from two un- dergraduate institutions (five from each school per set, half of each gender) rated the statements on a 7-point scale f rom very sad (1) to very happy (7).
Judges' mean ratings determined a statement's score. When a subject smiled more than once within a conversation (and most subjects did), his/her smiling scores were averaged for that conversation. It was intended that each subject have four scores for smiling (happy talk, happy listen, sad talk, and sad listen) and four corresponding scores for nonsmil ing expressions; not all subjects, however, smiled in every condit ion. 7
Two kinds of analyses were performed. First, we examined the frequen- cy and durat ion of smiling by gender to assess the concordance of this sam- ple with previous studies report ing more smiling by females than males. We also investigated the relat ionship between smiling and gender roles. Second, we examined the relationship between facial and verbal communicat ions; we wanted to assess whether or not women were less consistent across channels com- pared to men. We also investigated the relat ionship between communica- t ion consistency and gender roles. For...