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Green Cloud ComputingD.Subashini and G.R.PratheekshaDept. Of Computer Science and Engineering Panimalar Engineering College Varadharajapuram, Nasarathpettai, Poonamallee, Chennai-600 106 subashini.bujji@gmail.com

AbstractCloud Computing refers to IT services sold and delivered over the Internet. It is a cost-effective infrastructure for running High Performance Computing (HPC), web applications and enterprise. But, a serious issue is the constantly increasing energy consumption in data centres occurring as a consequence of high demand for cloud infrastructure. The massive energy consumption not only leads to high operational cost which reduces the profit margin of Cloud providers, but also leads to high carbon emissions which is an environmental issue. With cloud computing emerging as the future of computing, energy-efficient solutions must be found to mitigate the impact of cloud computing on the environment. Thus, in this chapter we present Green Cloud Computing as the best candidate to combat the environmental dangers posed by high energy consuming cloud computing. KeywordsGreen

Cloud providers are inclined towards reducing electricity cost rather than carbon emission. The cloud datacenters in the table below cannot be called as green. Table 1. Comparison of Significant Cloud Datacenters Cloud datacenters Google Estimated power usage Effectiveness 1.21 % of Dirty Energy Generation 50.5% Coal, 38.7% Nuclear Microsoft 1.22 72.8% Coal, 22.3% Nuclear 1.1% % of Renewable Electricity 3.8%

Cloud Computing, Green IT, Virtualisation, Power Usage EffectivenessI. INTRODUCTION Conventionally, business firms used to invest large amount of capital and time in purchase and maintenance of computational resources. With the advent of Cloud computing, ownership-based approach is moving towards subscription-oriented approach by providing access to scalable infrastructure and services on-demand. Users can store, access, and share any amount of information in Cloud. Small or medium enterprises need not bother about acquiring, and administering, their own computing infrastructure. They can concentrate on improving their core competencies by using a number of Cloud computing benefits such as ondemand computing resources, faster and cheaper software development capabilities at affordable budget. Besides, Cloud computing also offers enormous amount of compute power to organizations such as financial companies which require processing of tremendous amount of data generated almost every day. On the negative side, it is observed that the Cloud phenomenon may aggravate the issues of carbon emissions and global warming. The reason is that the collective demand for computing resources is expected to further increase drastically in the upcoming decades. Even the most efficiently built datacenter with the highest utilization rates will only reduce, rather than eliminate, harmful CO2 emissions, since

Yahoo

1.16

73.1% Coal, 14.6% Nuclear

7%

In spite of being one of the economically successful technological modernizations, cloud computing also raises significant questions about its environmental sustainability. Through the use of large shared virtualized datacenters Cloud computing can offer large energy savings. However, Cloud services can also further increase the internet traffic and its growing information database which could decrease the energy savings. We propose and recommend a Green Cloud framework for reducing its carbon footprint in wholesome manner without sacrificing the quality of service (performance, responsiveness and availability) offered by the multiple Cloud providers. Our proposal is of vital importance to users and organizations that are looking at Cloud computing as a solution for their administrative, infrastructural and management problems.

Benefits of Cloud Computing :

Fig.2 Cloud Computing Characteristics Fig.1 Cloud Computing and Environmental Sustainability II. CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud computing is an evolving paradigm that enables outsourcing of IT needs such as storage, computation and software through Internet. It makes for quick application development and testing for small IT firms that cannot spare huge capital on infrastructure. The companies can concentrate on the business quality while the managerial activities would be taken care by the cloud service provider. The main advantage is economy of scale which means when many people use same resource on a rented basis, cost per unit becomes less and resource utilization is improved manifold. Cloud computing relies on technologies such as virtualization, utility computing, pay as you go, no capital investment, elasticity, scalability, provisioning on demand, and IT outsourcing. While traditional IT service providers make a long-term contract and customize the environment specifically for one customer, the cloud service providers provide ondemand service little or no customization. The term cloud implies Internet, which is graphically represented as a cloud-shape in diagrams involving communication systems. The birth of cloud computing could be traced back to around 1950s, when expensive large scale mainframe computers became to be used on a time-shared basis by industries. As time-sharing concept became more commonplace, cloud computing took shape combined with forces of ubiquitos computing.. Amazon is a pioneer in cloud computing as it launched the first cloud computing environment in 2006 that serviced external customers, Amazon Web Services(AWS). Self-Service enables customer to request the service provider to access the resources directly and the service is automatically provisioned. Agility enables to incorporate new capabilities quickly and efficiently if changes are needed. Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users. Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic on-demand provisioning of resources on a fine-grained basis without users having to engineer for peak loads. Less Expenditure is obseerved as infrastructure is provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing varies based on usage metering. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere. Utilization and efficiency of systems that are often only 1020% utilized is improved manifold. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources.

Components of Cloud Computing:

Fig.4 Amazon EC2 Principles PaaS: Even though IaaS gives access to physical resources with some software configuration, for designing new applications user requires advanced tools such as Map Reduce etc. These services constitute another layer called Platform as a Service (PaaS), offering Cloud users a development platform to build their applications. Google AppEngine, Aneka and Microsoft Azure are some of the most prominent example of PaaS Clouds. In general, PaaS includes the lower layer (IaaS) as well that is bundled with the offered service. In general, pure PaaS offers only the user level middleware, which allows development and deployment of applications on any Cloud infrastructure. The major advantage of PaaS is the cost saving in development, deployment, and management cycle of new applications. The PaaS providers reduces risk in terms of upgrade cost of underlying platforms and allow Cloud users to concentrate on the application development. Examples of Platform as a Service include the Google App Engine, AppJet, Etelos, Qrimp, and Force.com, which is the official development environment for Salesforce.com. SaaS: The next layer in the stack is called Software as a Service (SaaS), although the term Application as a Service is more accurate. The service provider offer the customer the ability to run business applications that are hosted by the provider. The SaaS has its roots in an early kind of hosting operation carried out by Application Service Providers (ASPs.) The ASP business grew up soon after the Internet began to mushroom, with some companies offering to host applications securely and privately, for instance e-mail service( Yahoo mail). With SaaS, data centers for the business applications are engineered precisely to handle the workload as they run and thus the cost per user can be a fraction of what the cost would be in a normal data center. They can be built for massive scalability. Environments such as Facebook, eBay, Skype, Google Apps, etc. designed for massive scaling. eBay is the basis of over 500,000 small businesses,Skype is used by small businesses the world over.

Fig.3 Components of Cloud Computing Cloud computing is mainly composed of three layers which cover all the computing stack of a system, with an overarching administration and management level. Each of these layers offers different set of services to end users. IaaS: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is the lowest layer consisting of virtual or physical machines, storage, and data center space. It also includes the delivery of operating systems and virtualization technology to manage the resources. Cloud infrastructures can also be heterogeneous, integrating clusters, PCs and workstations. Moreover, the system infrastructure can also include database management systems and other storag