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Realized niche. Fundamental niche. Character displacement in beak size in poulations of Galapagos finches. # prey predator kills; on predator efficiency = c, # prey, # predators. Efficiency of converting kills to new predators. Death rate of predators in absence of prey. # kills. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1

Fundamental nicheRealized niche1Figure 13.13a

2Figure 13.13b

3Figure 13.18

4Figure 13.19

Character displacement in beak size in poulations of Galapagos finches5Figure 13.20

# prey predator kills; on predator efficiency = c,# prey, # predators

# killsEfficiency of converting kills to new predatorsDeath rate of predators in absence of prey

Type I functional responseDaphnia magna consuming yeast cells

Type IIFunctional responseParasitoid that attacks cocoons of pine sawfly

Type III functional response

Cryptic coloration in the flounder, which is capable of changing their color and pattern rapidly to match bottom sediments.13Figure 14.14

Cryptic coloration the walking stick, which feeds on leaves.14Figure 14.15

Aposematism:Monarch

Batesian mimicry:ViceroyMllerian mimicry

Effects of grazing by beetle (Gastrophysa viridula) on dock plant (Rumex crispus)

Interaction between herbivory and pollutionN pollutants: decrease C:N ratio >> more palatableCombined stress of herbivory and pollution may be synergistic

SymbiosisClose association between individuals of two or more speciesIncludes parasitism and mutualismParasitism: member of one species (parasite) feeds on, but usually doesnt kill member of another species (host)Mutualism: an interaction between individuals of two or more species in which the growth, growth rate, and/or population size are increased in reciprocal association18

19Figure 15.2

20Figure 15.4Volatile fatty acids: 57 gMicrobial cells: 128 gMinerals: 43 gRumen dry matter: 343 g960 g alfalfaMethane, CO2369 g feces(50 g bacteria; 319 g food residue 4.7 L total volume 20% volume = microorganisms21

Rhizobia-legume mutualism22

Roots of Red Clover with Adhering Bacteria23

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Spring Wheat Rhizosphere with Fungi and Bacteria. 25

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27

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29Figure 15.9Paramecium/Chlorella symbiosis

30

Cleaner-customer mutualism

Indicator indicator:honeyguideMutualism b/t bird and honeybadger or humans31

Deep Sea Pompeii Worm Alvinella pompejana Close-up showing the bacteria-coated filaments that cover the body of this hydrothermal vent worm. 2004 Peter Batson/Image Quest Marin

Beltian body

protoeukaryoteKrebs cycle-containing bacteriumpromitochondrioneukaryotespirochaetecyanobacteriachloroplastsmitochondriaflagellate35

Lokta-Volterra

Mutualism??36