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1. FORWARD-LOOKING ATLAS Freight transport in North-Western Europe: bottlenecks, missing links, underused infrastructures and alternative routes FORWARD-LOOKING ATLAS Freight transport in North-Western Europe: bottlenecks, missing links, underused infrastructures and alternative routes Weastflows project - Action 1 - 3rd and 4th deliverables - April 2015 2. Introduction.........................................................................................................................p.5 1/ Reminder of key stakes involved in freight transport...............p.7 1.1 Infrastructures and inter-regional freight exchanges...........................................p.8 1.2 The European transport policy...................................................................................p.10 2/ Bottlenecks, missing and underused infrastructures...........................................................p.11 About the analysis of bottlenecks, missing and underused infrastructures...........................p.12 2.1 Threats and opportunities of the infrastructure network: a global approach.............p.13 2.2 Threats and opportunities of the infrastructure network: a regional approach..........p.14 3/ Alternative East-West routes................................................................p.17 3.1 Transport corridors and alternative routes..............................................................p.18 3.2 Northern alternative route.........................................................................................p.20 3.3 Southern alternative route.........................................................................................p.22 3.4 Complementary sections: the United Kingdom and Ireland..............................p.24 3.5 Complementary sections: Germany, Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands......................p.26 Conclusion Towards a redistribution of flows in North-Western Europe?.......p.31 Acknowledgements.....................................................................................................p.32 Map index.............................................................................................................................p.33 Already published.........................................................................................................p.35 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3. Data source powered by AURH Boudaries MBR and EuroGeographics,ESRI Map data OpenStreetMap contributors, ODbl AURH - 2015/04 4. Forward-Looking Atlas - North-Western Europe freight transport: bottlenecks, missing links, underused infrastructures and alternative routes - AURH - April, 2015 5 AURH has been a partner in the Interreg IV B Weastflows European project since 2011, with the following goals: identifying and describing the infrastructure network adapted to freight transport; assessing stakes involved in freight transport taking place in North-Western Europe; pinpointing issues such as bottlenecks and missing links and proposing remedies for them through alternative routes to facilitate exchanges. The mobility of passengers and freight is considered as a historic cornerstone in the construction of what is now Europe, and the quality of transport infrastructures remains a key asset in Europes attractiveness. The European transport policy is consequently at the intersection of economic, social, technological and environmental stakes which require a transversal approach in order to ensure optimal mobility for its citizens and freight in the E.U. In 2011, the European Commissions white book stated there would be highly increased traffic by 2050, up to 50% for passengers and 80% for freight. The Forward-Looking Atlas focuses on identifying and analysing bottlenecks and missing or underused infrastructures, to determine alternative routes to the main transport corridors defined by the European Commission. Our goal is to favour modes with low environmental impacts, to avoid congestion, to use infrastructures that are currently underused and to identify preferential East-West directions. This report includes three parts: the first one is a synthetic analysis of the stakes involved in freight transport in NWE; the second targets bottlenecks, missing or underused infrastructures; the last part proposes and analyses routes which complement those proposed by the European Commission (TEN-T corridors). This partnership-based undertaking is the third stage in work done by AURH for Weastflows and continues and concludes the two atlases previously published: The Atlas of freight transport infrastructures in North-Western Europe, published in June, 2013; The Analytical Atlas, published in September, 2014. We hope that Weastflows, generally speaking, and this report, in particular, will participate in improving knowledge on the infrastructure network at the North-West European level as well as the comprehension of stakes involved in modal changes, fluidity and sustainable development. The Geographical Information System designed for the Weastflows project Work undertaken by AURH corresponds to a geomatics approach, with a Geographical Information System dedicated to freight transport. Primary data in the infrastructure network is the base of the system. This includes roadways, railways, inland waterways, sea transport as well as multiple mode hubs, such as ports, railroad stations and airports. This network is coherent in all of North-Western Europe and is standardised with the TEN-T classification as well as capacitive knowledge (morphology of the roadway network, electrification of railways, ECMT classification of inland waterways, depth of ports). Complementary information has been included, such as maritime liaisons, and some key regional information, in particular concerning railways. This selection was mapped out on the Atlas of the main freight transport infrastructures in North-Western Europe, analysed in the Analytical Atlas and simplified into hubs and modal sections in The Forward-Looking Atlas in order to allow their combination to map out key routes. A set of useful data was thus drawn up on congested areas and routes as well as underused and missing infrastructures in order to complete the analysis of the infrastructure network. This was a transnational and collaborative approach between the projects partners and observers. We have also drawn up a set of data concerning European corridors and alternative solutions. All of this information, which can be accessed through an open license or open data, feeds into the GeoWeastflows interactive cartography platform (http://geo.weastflows.eu) as well as the shared reference data set. INTRODUCTION 5. 1/ Reminder of key stakes involved in freight transport 1/ Reminder of key stakes involved in freight transport 6. Forward-Looking Atlas - North-Western Europe freight transport: bottlenecks, missing links, underused infrastructures and alternative routes - AURH - April, 20158 0 50 10025 Km Data source Eurostat - 2012 Boudaries MBR and EuroGeographics,ESRI AURH -2014/05$ North Range 900 Mt Atlantic Coastline 29,8 Mt Coastline of the British and Irish Isles 500 Mt Paris London Dublin Brussels Amsterdam Luxembourg Shetland, Scotland Shetland Infrastructure densityMaritime port traffic North-Western Europe corresponds to 817,000 km2 of area, with over 173 million inhabitants who are unevenly distributed. Ireland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Northern part of France, the Western part of Germany and the Southern part of the Netherlands make up this area, which has a huge coastline. Sixty-five ports total freight traffic that exceeds 1.5 billion tonnes, headed by the Northern Range ports, in particular Antwerp and Rotterdam, which are the key inbound sea ports for Europe. This port network is backed by a terrestrial network of infrastructures exceeding 90,000 km, broken down as follows: 46% of roads, 42% of railways, 12% of navigable inland waterways. The grid analysis of infrastructure density per type allows us to highlight six regional areas which concentrate on stakes linked to modal changes and flow massification: the Glasgow - Edinburgh route, the centre of the United Kingdom, Greater London, the Benelux - Rhine River Basin area, the Seine River Valley and the Sane River Valley. The Benelux -Rhine River Basin aggregate, as well as the Seine River Valley, are the only regions in North-Western Europe where modal transport changes can massively take place both by inland waterways and by rail. For further information on stakes involved in freight transport in North-Western Europe, consult the Analytical Atlas, published in September, 2014. Infrastructures and inter-regional freight exchanges1.1 Analyse croise des infrastructures* Europe du Nord-Ouest lments de contexte Concentrations multimodales Concentrations bimodales Concentrations mono-modales Concentration forte de rseaux routier, ferroviaire et fluvial Concentration forte de ports et de terminaux ferroviaires Concentration forte de rseaux routier et ferroviaire Concentration forte de rseaux ferroviaire et fluvial Concentration forte de rseau fluvial Concentration forte de rseau routier Pas de donnes** Rgion dinfrastructure de transport Concentrations cumules dinfrastructures * seules les infrastructures adaptes pour le transport de marchandises ont t prises en compte pour cette analyse ** labsence de donnes peut signifier quil ny a pas dinfrastructure ou quil ny a pas dinfrastructure adapte pour le transport de marchandises Cross analyses of infrastructures network* North-Western Europe Contextual information Multimodal concentrations Bimodal concentrations Single mode concentrations High concentration of road, railway and inland waterway networks High concentration of ports and railway terminals High concentration of road and railway networks High concentration of railway and inland waterway networks High concentration of inland waterway net