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DESCRIPTIONFoodborne Illness. Jennifer Kitchen November 12, 2013. Foodborne Illness. Food Poisoning! 6 Common Bacteria 3 Common Toxins Reportable Conditions Shigella symptoms and prevention Listeria symptoms and prevention Food Safety The Right Way to Wash Your Hands!. Food Poisoning! . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Foodborne Disease Presentation
Foodborne IllnessJennifer KitchenNovember 12, 2013
Foodborne IllnessFood Poisoning!6 Common Bacteria3 Common ToxinsReportable ConditionsShigella symptoms and preventionListeriasymptoms and preventionFood SafetyThe Right Way to Wash Your Hands!
Food poisoning. What is it? We will discuss some of the bacteria that cause illness, the top 3 toxins found in food, and conditions that must be reported by health care providers. Then we will go over two specific foodborne illnesses, shigella and listeria. We will finish the presentation with general food safety tips and the proper way to wash hands.2Food Poisoning! Foodborne illness unsafe storage, handling, or preparation(Schlenker & Roth, 2011)eating foods that contain bacterial toxins viral, chemical, or toxic substances(Frazier and Dryzmkowski, 2009)
Infectious diseases can be spread through food or beverages. Foodborne illness can be caused by improper handling, storage, or preparation. When cooked foods, especially meats and dishes which have meat or dairy ingredients, are left out for too long a period they may start growing bacteria or forming toxins. Cross-contamination, when a food, such as meat, touch another food, such as vegetables, spreads microbes that can cause foodborne illness. A disease-causing microbe can cause toxins (poisons) in food, which when eaten causes illness, or a microbe can enter the body and the bodys reactions to the microbe itself can cause an illness (Frazier and Dryzmkowski, 2009).The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick each year from foodborne illness (2010). Foodborne illnesses can sometimes be life-threatening. It is estimated that 3,000 Americans die of foodborne diseases annually (CDC, 2010). This could be prevented by proper food storage, handling, and preparation. 36 Common Bacteria that Cause Foodborne IllnessesE. coli 0157:H7SalmonellaCampylobacterVibrioShigellaListeria (Schlenker & Roth, 2011)
E. Coli 0157:H7 is a bacteria commonly found growing on ground beef, many of you have probably heard of this one.Another very common bacteria, Im sure you may have heard of, is Salmonella. We find this one in raw eggs, undercooked meats (especially chicken), and bad mayonnaise.Campylobacter is found in under cooked meats and raw milk, while Vibrio is found in raw seafood, especially oysters (Frazier and Dryzmkowski, 2009). Many bacteria can be found in raw or undercooked foods or foods that are left out and go bad.I will speak of Shigella and Listeria in more detail a little later.
43 Most Common Toxins Found in Food Staphylococcus aureusClostridium botulinumClostridium perfringens (Schlenker & Roth, 2011)
Here are some big names for toxins that can make us ill.Staphylococcus aureus, is a toxin which can form in cooked meats, cheese, pasta, cream buns, and custard pies (Frazier and Dryzmkowski, 2009).You may have heard of Botulism That is the name that Clostridium botulinum is commonly known by. This toxin is found in uneviscerated (not fully cleaned) cured fish, preserved or fermented meat, and preserved vegetables (Frazier and Dryzmkowski, 2009). Do not worry about your canned foods unless the can is damaged (dented, swelling, cracked, or rusted cans may be unsafe).Clostridium perfringens is caused by a bacteria releasing a toxin in the intestines and is found in cooked meats and vegetables soups which are made in bulk (Frazier and Dryzmkowski, 2009). Leaving prepared food out on the counter to long can cause you or your family to become ill.
5CONDITIONS REPORTABLE BY ALL HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN COLORADOBotulism (Clostridium botulinum)ShigellosisListeriosisSalmonellosisE. coli 0157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E.coliGroup Outbreaks(Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), 2012)There are more than 250 known foodborne diseases, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites (CDC, 2010). Botulism and Group Outbreaks, known or suspected of all types including foodborne, waterborne or other illness, should be reported in 24 hours. Listeriosis, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Escherichia coli 0157:H7 , and Shiga toxin-producing E.coli are reportable within 7 days. (CDPHE, 2012)6ShigellaContamination by food handlers Vegetables grown in sewage contaminated fields Food contaminated by flies Drinking or swimming in contaminated water(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), 2012)
Shigellosis- an intestinal infectious disease that is spread primarily through consumption of contaminated food and water but can also occur via person-to-person contact or by handling contaminated surfaces (NIAID, 2012). Shigella lives in feces so hand hygiene, washing fruits and vegetables, and keeping preparation surfaces clean is important. Flies can breed in or came into contact with infected feces and spread shigella to food.Food handlers who are infected with Shigella and did not wash their hands properly after using the bathroom, can spread shigella through foods and beverages they prepare (NIAID, 2012). People who have shigella should not prepare food or beverages for others.Small children (under the age of five) are at highest risk for infection with shigellosis and many cases are spread in daycare settings or among families with toddlers (NIAID, 2012). Care needs to be taken when changing diapers and helping toddlers use the bathroom. Hands need to washed and surfaces (of changing stations, diaper bins, door knobs to bathrooms) should be sanitized.7SymptomsFeverTirednessWatery or bloody diarrheaNausea and vomitingAbdominal pain(NIAID, 2012)
Symptoms usually begin within 2 days after you come in contact with Shigella and usually get better within 5 to 7 days (NIAID, 2012). Laboratory tests are used to identify the presence of Shigella in stool samples and special tests are able to tell which type of Shigella is present, allowing doctors to know which antibiotics, if any, to use to treat the infection (NIAID, 2012). Mild infections often get better without treatment. Antidiarrheal medicines, such as Imodium, Kaopectate, Maalox, or Pepto, may make the illness worse. These medicines stop the diarrhea, but do not kill the bacteria in your intestine (NIAID, 2012). So, diarrhea is actually necessary to clear all the bacteria out.
8PreventionWash hands with soap and waterBefore preparing foods and beveragesAfter using the bathroom After changing diapersDisinfect diaper-changing areas Help young children wash their hands carefully Avoid swallowing swimming water(NIAID, 2012)Food handlers who are infected with Shigella and did not wash their hands properly after using the bathroom, can spread shigella through foods and beverages they prepare (NIAID, 2012). People who have shigella should not prepare food or beverages for others.Small children (under the age of five) are at highest risk for infection with shigellosis and many cases are spread in daycare settings or among families with toddlers (NIAID, 2012). Care needs to be taken when changing diapers and helping toddlers use the bathroom. Hands need to washed and surfaces (of changing stations, diaper bins, door knobs to bathrooms) should be sanitized.9ListeriaFound in soil and water and on animals Eating contaminated food Listeria hides in many foodsFound in a variety of raw foodsCan form on cooked foodsEven found in processed/packaged foods(CDC, 2013)
Listeriosis is a serious infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. This foodborne disease primarily affects older adults, pregnant women, newborns, and adults with weakened immune systems, but people not normally at risk can also be affected (CDC, 2013). Babies can be born with listeriosis if the mother eats contaminated food during pregnancy. Commonly found in soil and water and animals can carry the bacterium, contaminating foods of animal origin, such as milk and meat. Listeria can be found in a variety of raw foods and foods can become contaminated after cooking or processing. This bacteria can be found in raw meat, on fresh vegetables and fruits, in soft cheeses, processed meats (hot dogs and deli meat), and smoked seafood (CDC, 2013). Again, we see that proper cooking is important. Listeria is killed by pasteurization and cooking; however, in some ready-to-eat foods contamination may occur between cooking and packaging (CDC, 2013). At home it is important to keep foods separated (veggies in one drawer and deli meats in another drawer) and be sure to refrigerate leftovers in timely manner. Putting foods in more shallow dishes can help to cool food evenly so it can be out in fridge sooner than later.
10SymptomsFever Chills Muscle aches Stiff neck(CDC, 2013)
A pregnant woman who developes a fever and chills should consult her doctor immediately. If you are at risk (an older adult, pregnant woman, newborn, or immune compromised) and become very sick with fever and muscle aches or stiff neck, consult your doctor immediately. (CDC, 2013)Listeriosis is only diagnosable by a blood, amniotic fluid, or spinal fluid test, since it is found in the environment and all people are exposed to it regularly (CDC, 2013). Listeriosis is treated with antibiotics but even prompt treatment, doesnt always ensure survival, especially in older adults or persons with other serious medical problems (CDC, 2013).11PreventionRinse raw produce thoroughly Avoid cross-contaminationKeep kitchen clean and safeUse a refrigerator thermometerkeep fridge at 40F or lower _ keep freezer 0F or lowerClean up spills right away Cook meats thoroughlyStore foods safelyChoose safer foods(CDC, 2013)The CDC has a list of tips for prevention of listeria. Rinse raw produce (fruits and vegetables) thoroughly under running tap water before eating,