food safety governance in nepal opportunity and challenges

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  • 1.Presenter: Krishna Prasad Acharya B.V.Sc & A.H Intern IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan Welcome!!! 7th National Conference on Food Science and Technology (Food Conference 2014)

2. Food safety governance in Nepal: Opporttunities and challenges 3. FOOD SAFETY Where is food safety for him? 4. INTRODUCTION Food safety is defined as assurance that food will not cause harm to consumer when it is prepared and/eaten according to its intended use ( FAO/WHO,1997). Governance: Act of governing Food hygiene is important aspect of food safety. Five major principles of food hygiene as per WHO: Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests. Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens. Store food at the proper temperature. Do use safe water and cooked materials. 5. Why food safety?? Food safety Change in production and consumptio n pattern Incresing population and demand for safe food Greater public demand for health protetion Emergence of resistance microbes 6. Do we know??? Source: Natures education, 2012 7. PILLARS OF FOOD SAFETY GOVERNANCE Food safety governance Technical assistance Food security information Coherence between food security strategies, policies, rules and regulation Setting standard and promotion of knowledge 8. RISKS OF FOOD SAFETY Microbial risk: Infections Food poisoning Drugs and antibiotics risks: Haphazard use of Hormones, Drugs and Antibiotics in Animal Pesticides risks: Directly through application Indirectly through Toxic residues----- no appropriate withdrawl period 9. CONTINUE Miscellaneous risks: Urbanization Change in feeding habit emergence of pathogens and International trade Political--- Election target 10. PRESENT SITUATION Sector Deficit ( M ton) Milk 11.2 Meat 800000 Eggs 0 Crop Deficit ( Mt) Paddy 150000 Wheat and barley 130000 Maize 120000 Total 400000 Source: NVA 2013 FAO report 2010 11. FOOD SAFETY CONCERN 1)Intensive animal husbandry practice: Overcrowding of animal Increased prevalence of zoonotic diseases Increased use of antibiotics Development of antibiotics resistant new microbes Increased chance of pathogens in food Unsafe foods 12. 2) Changes in agronomic practices: Increased use of chemical fertilizer Untreated sewage Irrigation with contaminated water Disease pathogens in Ag. Products Unsafe foods 13. 3) Increase in susceptible population: Advances in medical treatment Increased longivity with immuno-compromised state and contracting chronic medical conditions Increased chance of contracting food borne illness 14. 4) Increase in travel: Person exposed to foodborne illnes of one location Person not exposed to food borne illnes of other location Meet by travel Contracts disease by non-exposed ones 15. 5) Changes in life style and consumer demand: Rise in urban living Increased trend of consumption of street foods Increased us of foods prepared outside Home Increased food borne diseases 16. 6) Increase in international trade: Rapid transfer of microorganisms from one country to another Unfamiliar food borne hazards reaching easily to consumer who are not immune Increased hazards on consumer 17. 7) Changes in food and agriculture technology: Advances in technology such as refrigeration for preservation of food Increased outbreak of listeria monocytogens Genetic engineering ( GMO) --- cancer development. 18. 8) Rapid population growth in urban areas Many people live in conditions of extreme poverty with poor sanitation Poor food safety 19. PRESENT SITUATION Carcass with house flies on it Flies on the table 20. Buffalo feeding on the waste of Sabji Mandi in Narayanghat. News on effect of antiibiotics in poultry 21. Unhygienic condition of slaughter house Unhygienic condition of poultry slaughter area Poultry dressing area 22. Lack of residue testing system in Nepal Washing of dish by contaminated water 23. Street food in Chitwan Drinking of remains in thrown off coca cola in Narayanghat 24. Unsafe Rasbary with Housefly Women spraying pesticides on pumpkin plant in saktikhor VDC of Chitwan 25. Carcass and viscera on same table ready for sale Meat in open space 26. PRESENT SITUATION CONTINUE. About 60% of foodstuffs comes from other countries such as India, China and so on. ( FAO,2012). Microbiological contamination of food and water is a major cause of deaths and illnesses due to diarrhea ( FAO country report 2010). 70 percent of deaths among children under 5 years of age are linked to biologically contaminated food and food borne parasites such as Diarrhoea and neurocysticercosis.( Joshi et al., 2012). About 40% of the population of country use contaminated water with marginalized community having 60% of total population using unsafe drinking water source and 50% of population using the water stored in unsafe container.( Wealthhungerlife project 2012). About 94% of the diarrhoeal disease burden is attributable to environment, and is associated with risk factors such as unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation and hygiene(Joshi et al.,2012). 27. MILK AND MEAT SAFETY Joshi et al 2004 reported human taeniasis upto 43% in syangja district and 18% in Tanahun district Ghimire et.al, 2013 reported 38.85% prevalence of campylobacter in pork meat of chitwan. Similarly more than 80% coliform contamination of raw meat of Kathmandu as indicted by Maharjan et.al.,2006. Ale et al reported upto 11.4% salmonella contamination in raw meat of Kathmandu valley. Ghimire 2013 reported upto 25.39 % prevalence of Enterococci in mince buff meat of Chitwan. None of the butchers use water sanitiser in chitwan (Ghimire 2013). Poudel A. reported that 10% of people dont boil the milk properly for consumption which is one of the cause of poor food safety of Nepal. ( B.V.Sc & A.H internship report 2013). About 10% of food item sold in Kathmandu are adulterated with major problem detection on bottle water, milk, oil and ghee( The Himalayan times 2012-08-19). Shah D.N & C.poudel 2009 showed the 1.27-4.27 *106 that indicates very poor quality of milk sold by dairies of kathmandu valley. In chicken isolates the highest rate of resistance was against A (100%), followed by Cp (95.31%), T (78.12%), Do (64.06%), Co (51.6%), Nf (6.25%) and G (4.68%).( Shrestha et.al., 2007) Even the canteen in government office sell stale and unhygienic foods , then what about 28. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: Increasing trend of use of ripening agents such as carbide and pesticides such malathion pose greater challenge to food safety. Farmers and retailers of pesticides do not have adequate knowledge regarding pesticide use and health safety (Giri 1998; Baker and Gyawali 1994; Dahal 1995) Koirala 2007 reported contamination of pesticides in root vegetables(11.9%) followed by leaf vegetables( 10.9%). There is high degree of adultration and sub-standarization of vegetable oil, Ghee , milk.( koirala et al.,2007) 29. HORMINES AND ANTIBIOTICS 50% of antibiotics are prescribed inappropriately ( DDA Nepal, 2011). Research report by khatiwada S. 2013 showed that 71% of drugs sale is by self prescription rather than qualified registered veterinarian. Powder form of antimicrobials used as feed premixes and poultry feed supplement with no any withdrawl period. Hormones such as Prostaglandins , Oxytocin and GnRH has been used hapazardly by both para-veterinarian and farmers themself thus posing greater risk on food safety.( Personnel communiction Dr. Bhuminand Devkota , Associate professor IAAS, Rampur , Chitwan) 30. SAFETY OF WATER: A total of 55-85% of drinking water sources are micro-biologically contaminated (OCHA, 2008). Wealth Hungerlife project in marginalize community of Nepal reported that more than 60 % of drinking water source are polluted and 50% of people in community drink water stores in unsafe container. About 94% of the diarrheal diseases is due to envirinment and is associated with unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation and hygiene(Joshi et al.,2012). Shrestha et., 2012 reported high level of arsenic( 0.143mg/dl) in deep water of Kathmandu valley. Raymajhi et al 2013 reported 150 peoples suffering from diarrhea in Shantinagar VDC of Nepal and positive confirmation of Vibrio cholera in water sample. Research by Bhattarai D., 2011 found out that 12% prevalence campylobacter in water used in slaughterhouse of Rupandehi district Recently there has been death toll of 9 people in Biratnagar due to contamination of water supply 31. OPPORTUNITIES OF FOOD SAFETY GOVERNANCE Greater public health demand for health protection. Increasing demand for safe foods. Liberalization of Agriculture by developed countries which opens the market Increased foreign investment for technological expertise Increased global food trade Major advantages on consumer with lower price Opportunities for public private partnership (PPP) Diverse ecological zone high potential to grow diverse agricultural crops throughout the year. 32. CHALLENGES Political instability Climate change and development of new and resistant microbes. Poor infrastructure facility Long food supply chain with more critical points in supply chain system. Poor co-ordination of government and private sector----- poor Public private partnership Improper surveillance Inadequate laboratory facility Lack of awareness among the illiterate and proper attitude among literate Poor enforcement of policy and lack of proper standard. Illegal trans-boundary movement of animal and plant products 33. WAYS AHEAD Awareness of consumer and other actors of supply chain Farmers field school on safety issues Coordinating team of public private partnership for close monitoring at the field level. Multidisciplinary networking within national and international networks to alleviate problem of food borne diseases. Laboratory cap

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