expatriate management

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  • Expatriate management

    Elena Tecchiati


  • Expatriate adjustment

    General or culturar adjustment

    Work adjustment

    Interaction adjustment

  • Predictors for adjustment

    Personal factors (e.g. learning orientation, self-efficacy)

    Job and organizational factors (e.g. support from coworkers, available resources, supervisory support)

    Nonwork factors (spouse adjustment as predicor of all facets of adjustment)

    Amount of time spent in the new country

  • Curve of adjustment

    U-curve of adjustment received support

    But a better prediction model could be

  • Work adjustment

    Enhanced by low role ambiguity, role confict, role novelty High role clarity and discretion Number of months on the assignment Amount of interaction with host nationals Openness to new experiences

  • Moderators

    Role discretion has a stronger influence on work adjustment at higher vs. lower management

    Native-language competences more useful For nonnative speakers of English going to English-speaking


    Than for English speaker going to non-English speaking countries

  • Correlations

    Interaction adjustment and general/cultural adjustment positive correlated with Extraversion Agreeblemess Opennenss to nex experiences Native language competence

  • Humps

    Psychological barriers

    Unwillingness to communicate with host nationals

  • Women expatriates

    Have better interaction adjustment despite disadvantages in selection for oversea assignments

  • Cross-cultural training

    Negative relationship with gneral adjustment Maybe because of the poor quality of the training Although perceived organizational support was positively

    associated with general adjustment

  • Other moderators

    Prior experience with a similar culture moderated the relationship between tenure (i.e. length of itme in the current assignemnt) and general adjustment

    Culture-general prior experience moderated the relationsip between tenure and work adjustment

  • Psychological well-being

    i.e. maintaining good mental health and psychological well-bein

    Includes in the process theory of expatrieate adjustment (Aycan, 1997) as another critical dimension of expatriate adjustment

    From a network perspective it is associated with Network size Network cultural diversity Contact frequency

  • Stress

    Adjustment reduces strain

    Coping with symptoms better results than problem-focused coping Expecially for those who hold lower power positions Work in culturally distant countries

  • Expatriate Attitude and Performance

  • Job satisfaction

    Enhanced with increasing task significance Job autonomy Job similarity teamwork

  • Organizational commitment

    Positive associated with Perceived value that organizations attach to international


    Low role ambiguity

  • Perceived organizational support

    To career developemt enhanced commitment to the parent company

    Support in financial matters enhances commitment to the local unit

  • Intention to withdraw from assignment

    Negatively associated with Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Participation in decision making Extraversion Agreebleness Emotional stability Perceived organizational support to work-family balance Low work-family conflict

  • Performance

    Positively related to Density and quality of ties with host country nationals Conscientiousness Self-monitoring Leader member exchange

    Negative related to Cultural distance

  • Source: Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior

    Gelfand, M.J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. (2007)

    The Annual Review of Psychology

    Pp. 492-494


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