emergency relief logistics (erl)
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DESCRIPTIONEMERGENCY RELIEF LOGISTICS (ERL). GROUP MEMBERS : Audra-Jade Morrison Bevon Forbes Ryan McPherson. Florida International University Logistics Engineering EIN 5346. INTRODUCTION. Several denotations for ERL Emergency Relief/Aid Logistics Emergency Management Logistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
GROUP MEMBERS:Audra-Jade MorrisonBevon ForbesRyan McPherson
Florida International UniversityLogistics Engineering EIN 5346
Several denotations for ERLEmergency Relief/Aid LogisticsEmergency Management LogisticsHumanitarian Relief/Aid LogisticsDisaster Relief/Aid Logistics
Definition of ERL
Emergency relief logistics is the processes and systems involved in mobilizing people, resources, skills and knowledge, to help vulnerable people affected by disaster.
Definition of DisasterDisaster is defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover.
ClassificationMan-madeNaturalTable showing classification of disastersSource: Wassenhove, Van L.N (2006). Blackett Memorial Lecture - Humanitarian Aid Logistics: Supply Chain Management in Higher Gear. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 475-489. Fontainebleau, France.
Number of Disasters 1970-2008 Of 311, catastrophic events in 2008, 137 were natural and 174 were man-madeMost of 240,500 people who died of catastrophes in 2008 are from Asia
Source: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. Natural Catastrophes and Man-made Disasters in 2008, Nov 2, 2009.
Source: http://www.scl.gatech.edu/research/humanitarian/GTHHL-Intro_to_humanitarian_logistics.pdfThree phases in the disaster management cycle:
Emergency logistics requires:
Delivery of the appropriate supplies in good condition, when and where they are needed.
A wide range of transport.
Limited, rapid, and specific deliveries from outside the area.
A system of prioritizing various relief inputs.
Storing, staging, and moving bulk commodities.
Coordination and prioritization of the use of limited and shared transport assets.
Possible military involvement in logistics support
Acquiring equipmentStockpiling suppliesDesignating emergency facilitiesEstablishing training facilitiesEstablishing mutual aid agreementsPreparing a resource inventory
Providing utility maps to emergency respondersProviding material safety data sheets to employeesMoving backup equipment in placeArranging for medical support, food and transportationArranging for shelter facilitiesProviding for backup powerProviding for backup communications
Characteristics of ERL Supply Chain:
The ultimate humanitarian supply chain management has to be able to respond to multiple interventions often on a global scale , as quickly as possible and within a short time frame. Therefore supply chains need to be multiple, global, dynamic and temporary.Source: Wassenhove, Van L.N (2006). Blackett Memorial Lecture - Humanitarian Aid Logistics: Supply Chain Management in Higher Gear. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 475-489. Fontainebleau, France.
Donors and Suppliers Recipient AgencyDelivering AgencyPeople in NeedGovernmentCompaniesFoundations
GovernmentNGOs -Red Cross - World VisionGovernment agenciesMilitaryGlobal and local NGOsLocal organizationsStakeholders in the ERL supply chain:
Decentralized supply chainSource: Gatignon, A., Wassenhove, van L.N., Charles, A. (2010). The Yogyakarta earthquake: Humanitarian relief through IFRCs decentralized supply chain. International Journal of Production Economics. Pre-positioning and pooling of relief items
Quicker response during the emergency phase
Cheaper than the centralized model
The IFRC selected three locations for RLUs:
Dubai - Europe, the Middle East, and Africa,Kuala Lumpur -Asia and Australia,Panama - Americas
Example IFRC decentralized supply chain
Provide various mobile support for on-site management of response activities. Three broad categories:operational support elementscommunications equipment and operatorslogistics support
U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) transportation fore-casting simulation tool also applied to emergency relief operations
Simulation of movements to eliminate bottlenecks and increase resources where needed.
Can be used in all three phases of the relief process:Mitigation -integrated with GIS can be used as inputs to logistic planning for response scenarios, evacuation routes planning and public education programsResponse help to identify routes that have become impassable.Recovery - used to carry out needs assessment by identifying the number, location and extent of damaged infrastructure in the recovery phase.Source: EU/UN/TheWorldBank (2010) http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/site_images/hi-res_10490.jpg
Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM)-Jamaica
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) United States of America
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and its affiliate bodies - International
United Nations (UN) and its affiliated bodies - International
ODPEM- JamaicaThe only government agency to provide disaster management functions in Jamaica. Its operations are designed towards primarily: National preparedness
Collaboration with other agencies and bodies to encourage and support disaster preparedness and mitigation measures
Providing early warning, emergency response, relief and recovery operations in emergency situations.
Providing training in all areas of disaster management.
ODPEM has five divisions. The Preparedness and Emergency Operations Division (PEOD) in particular has responsibility for preparedness and emergency response and recovery . It has three units:
Preparedness and emergency operations
ODPEM Preparedness and emergency operations unit Country is divided into 4 regions for preparedness and response. Each is assigned Regional Coordinators.
ODPEM Logistics unit - Some of the activities of the Unit include:
The adequate provision of relief supplies in the National Emergency Stores.
Under the Caribbean Disaster Emergency ResponseAgency (CDERA) warehousing facilities is provided for other territories.
The allocation and management of funds for relief operations
The inventory of basic comfort items
Meet needs of other relevant relief agencies during an emergency.
ODPEM Logistics unit cont:Maintains contact with the ports of entry
The monitoring of three regional stores in the parishes of St. James, St. Mary and Manchester.
ODPEM Telecommunications unit monitors the radio station based at ODPEM:Communicates with Parish Disaster Committees island wide via a VHF Radio Network.
Monitors wind speed and collects rainfall data in the corporate area via a weather station.
Communicates with international agencies via a two-way tower antennae that links the ODPEM station to overseas agencies.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) responsible for coordinating response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States that overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities.
Source: U.S. Military Engineering Corp ppt presentation
FEMA - Emergency Support Functions or ESFs 12 functions plus Military Support:Source: U.S. Military Engineering Corp ppt presentation
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies International
Largest humanitarian organization There are 186 National Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesCoordinates and directs international assistance to disaster victims.97 million volunteers ,300,000 employees, who provide assistance to some 233 million beneficiaries each year .
United Nations (UN) International
United Nations Joint Logistics Centre (UNJLC) is normally responsible for coordinating logistics in a humanitarian operation. Its activities include:Assess inter-agency logistics co-ordination in on-going emergencies.
Information Management (IM)
Maintaining a generic website www.unjlc.org which includes facilities for operational specific applications.
Development and maintaining reporting formats, GIS, mapping facilities
Working with WFP, OCHA and WHO/PAHO in assessing agency commodity tracking systems and identifying how these systems could best interface ;
Source: http://www.unjlc.org/tools/FOM/04a.htmUN Agency Responsibilities :
Demand analysisInventory planning and controlRegional coordination and synergiesIn-kind donations managementCollaboration among organizationsConstant communicationSocio-economic impact assessmentUnderstanding regional political, economic and socioeconomic conditionsUtilizing local capacity and capabilitiesHumanitarian operation evaluation
Emergency relief exercises are usually executed in complex environments due to:
Dependence on voluntary contributions
Involvement of many stakeholders
High levels of uncertainty (demand, supplies, assessment)
Degraded infrastructure and no established logistics community
Delivery constraints due to Government or military involvement
Politically unstable environment
In ERL time value is more important than transportation value.
Inventory management in relief operations is unique in that the time value of the commodities are much greater than the inventory carrying costs.
January 12, 2010 A magnitude 7 earthquake the biggest to hit Haiti for 200 years and according to some organizations one of the most complex relief operations in recent memory.The Damage:as many as 2