Egyptian Art

Download Egyptian Art

Post on 18-Dec-2014

105 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<p>Egyptian Art</p> <p>The</p> <p>Metropolitan Museum</p> <p>of</p> <p>Art</p> <p>The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin www.jstor.org</p> <p>The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin / Winter1983/84</p> <p>'</p> <p>_</p> <p>_</p> <p>s</p> <p>,</p> <p>X</p> <p>,</p> <p>!,</p> <p>*; n</p> <p>--at t bJA Jga o</p> <p>+--o</p> <p>t tt t;sfn</p> <p>#</p> <p>s</p> <p>wtt : - tu -</p> <p>+.an-t e</p> <p>up</p> <p>v</p> <p>$</p> <p>;;,^</p> <p>g wt: Qg: -</p> <p>&gt;1btZl Xa s+ew &gt; s-e s t #s w #w X B% sWs t Fef e Xa z w g g</p> <p>h .9x t6%</p> <p>f '</p> <p>* t</p> <p>$</p> <p>*</p> <p>o</p> <p>Ag o</p> <p>i WN +</p> <p>tS aXh %++ -</p> <p>Wp</p> <p>b</p> <p>itWt -w</p> <p>t:8</p> <p>, .d</p> <p>i</p> <p>t}, . ,;',+&gt;:'4ftsffl*</p> <p>9</p> <p>2</p> <p>-</p> <p>%s,.S ! b'b.</p> <p>vwris+z#-+_E '_ 4__</p> <p>' _ .,.</p> <p>prcq, Ebt</p> <p>4s.i,4 , kW t. v .</p> <p>S</p> <p>A f/y.</p> <p>gB, ,,</p> <p>;</p> <p>Curator's</p> <p>Foreword</p> <p>instalthe marking Metropolitan's for somefiftyobjects thispublication Inselecting of by art, of collection Egyptian I wasimpressed theziches our lation its complete of yearsthrough fonnedoverthe pasthundred collection, The holdings. Museum's range Pieces and quality vatiety. outstanding and purchase, gifts,offers excavation, of made items from stonesculptures, everyday to gold from minute amulets colossal in is This for papyti thelifebeyond. variety shown thenew linen rushto painted and to in together order display are of whereobjects eachpeziod gathered installation, and art, ofEgyptian culture, history. thescope Newly visitors. to are Mostofthe itemsin thispublication wellknown Museum in last ofthenewgallezies June,theynowappear for or cleaned restored theopening these pages:sculpture, maybe absentfrom state. Somefavozites a refreshed items of a here, have and paintings, relief beenfeatured andonly sptinkling thesmall may objects be (The stonehasbeenincluded. smaller or of gold,faience, colored DailyLifeofthe Scott's and Guiele inNora published recently found theMuseum's in Associate The AncientEgyptians.) enttieswerewtittenby EdnaR. Russman, and Curator, myself. Assistant PeterDonnan, Curator, for occasion allofusinthe has of Theopening thenewgalleties beena momentous of and people the support thana thousand of the Through work more department. is collection nowonview. superb Wallace, entire the LilaAcheson Art of Department Egyptian Curator, Lilyquist, Christine</p> <p>pieceofelefrom 1.Carved a single from handle the phant tusk,this knife whose Carnarvon, of collection Lord Tutankhamun's discovered expedition witha fitted was tomb, onginally boss The flint slender blade. protruding longitudiside, onthereverse pierced that indicates the nally suspension, for A with knife notequipped a sheath. was of product thecraftsmanmagnificent is Egypt,thehandle shipofpredynastic animals, with decorated rowsofvazious on favored ivonesof especially a motif B.C.). penod(c.3600-3200 theGerzean bird a register wading and Intheupper wadby are a giraffe followed ninemore</p> <p>next,an withlongbeaks; ingbirds on treading twointerelephant Afncan leadsa fileofthreelions, cobras twined threeoxenand themstand andbelow date its lion. another Despite early and ennces already size, small thehandle art of charactenstics themonumental of into of division figures reliefs: Egyptian perspecformalized registers, separate and spacing, ngidonentative,careful ofthe the tion.Indeed, conventions relief two-dimensional representations durtimes ofpharaonic wereformulated PenodoncereingthePredynastic mace such objects as palettes, monial handles. P.D. and heads, knife3</p> <p>t-X-=-t</p> <p>::,2.w..</p> <p>began make images stonein to cult in thelatePredynastic Pexiod, however, themore ptimitive beastsstillreigned. Thisrecumbent deityis carved lion in glittenng, semitranslucent quartz. The hard stone,treacherously veined and crystaled, have may encouraged the sculptor suppress to anatomical details. Hehascarved taillooped the along the spine,ina manner peculiar archaic to Egyptian representationslions,and of hasdeliberately exaggerated sizeof the thehead.1bus, theproportions may suggesta cub,butthesculptor's intention,judging from sirnilar works, was rather convey senseofmassand to a power. Since thereseemsto beno mane, divine the beastis perhaps a lioness, forerunner numerous of later lion-headed goddesses. E.R.R.</p> <p>4</p> <p>'</p> <p>,A</p> <p>i,,</p> <p>: n</p> <p>C</p> <p>,</p> <p>,</p> <p>C</p> <p>_&gt;</p> <p>\</p> <p>:&gt;.</p> <p>F0</p> <p>t</p> <p>s</p> <p>it</p> <p>v</p> <p>h</p> <p>S r-^ , #.</p> <p>} -i</p> <p>&gt;.</p> <p>, * ,_=_L</p> <p>-</p> <p>|</p> <p>Wz'tf-</p> <p>''w*</p> <p>'Sf5:-|</p> <p>st.+</p> <p>s</p> <p>i;w)^ '*;4''-''</p> <p>J' a* " * '.</p> <p>r.ew</p> <p>*.</p> <p>*&gt;</p> <p>}</p> <p>* t e **-W* v -</p> <p>\</p> <p>J+.'</p> <p>T</p> <p>&gt;</p> <p>sts</p> <p>'I</p> <p>6. Xlth thegrowth govemment of and temple bureaucracies during course the ofDynasties and6, more more 5 and people wereableto commission tombs andtombsculpture. sculptors The ofthehugecemetery Saqqara at responded developingstyledevoid by a of individuality extremely but competent andattractive. statueofthegraThis naryforeman Nykairau hiswife with anddaughter a goodexample. is The facesofallthreearenearly identical. Thetombowner Nykainu,however, definitely pndeofplace. holds His</p> <p>nakedlittle girlhangson to one leg, whilehis wife Nykainebty nestles besidethe other,in a charrliingly femininebut clearlydependent pose. The fnnge of curlson her forehead represents her ownhairbeneathher heavy wig. Thegreatdiscrepancy size ofthe in figures,common OldKingdom in art, was modified laterpenodsbut never in entirelyabandoned. Nykairau had severaltombstatues.Another, the in Metropolitan Museum, showshimas a scnbe. E. R. R.</p> <p>7. Bold relief brilliant distinand color gliishthisunusually well-preserved relief Nebhepetra of Mentuhotpe II (c.2060-2010 whois portrayed B.C.), weanng White the Crown Upper of Egypt,a jeweled broad collar, a and whitegaament inplace a shoulheld by derstrap. Uncommon hasbeen care taken withthefinedetails thehiero of glyphs, subtle the shading theking's of eye,andtheminiature patterning the of rectangular infront theldng's panel of face.Thegoddess Hathor, whose damaged figure adomed the with horned diskstands thenght, sun at declares theaccompanying aI in text,</p> <p>have united TwoLands you the for according whatthesoulsof to Heliopolis decreed." have Although the words purely are conventionalthe in context a religious of ceremony, Mentuhotpe is indeed II remembered the as founder theMiddle of Kingdom the and conqueror reunified who Egyptafter theturbulent Internediate First Penod.Theblock discovered was in 1906-7 Edouard by Naville therliins in ofMentuhotpe's fimerary temple at western Thebes. sceneonginally This decorated southem the outer ofthe waSl vestibule ofthesanctuary.P.D.9</p> <p>8, 9. Adequate provisioning the for werediscovered a small in chamber of afterlife a paramount was concern to Mekutra's inwestern tomb Thebes durEgyptians everysocial occupa- ingits reexcavation theMuseum of and by tional class.While funerary offerings Expedition 1920. in andactivities everyday weremost of life Theservant beasing girl provisions often portrayed relief in duiing Old from ofMekutra's the one estates carved is Kingdom, painted small models placed to halflifescalewithremarkable seninthetomb became increasingly preva- sitinty.Hereyesarelarge,hernoseis lentduring FirstInternediate the rather wideandflat,andhermouth is Period a more as effective ofperway drawn ina tightsmile features back petually ensuting necessities the and charactezistictheroyal of styleoflate pleasures life.Theelaborately of Dynasty Despite stiffness the 11. the of painted models Mekutra, chancellor conventional of a sttiding stance, slim her whoserved bothMentuhotpe and II torsois modeled unusual with subtlety, III, arethefinest preserved from andthefigure further is enlivened by ancient Egypt.Made painted of and theblilliant colors hercostume of and gessoed wood, linen,andcord, they jewelry. herhead balances tall On she a</p> <p>pannier containing bread, vegetables, andchoice ofmeat,andshecaaries cuts a saclificial byits wings. duck Intheunderworld ineveryday as life, theNilewasthehighway commerce for andtravel, tivetine and craft were therefore necessary equipage the for deceased. Mekutra's traveling is boat faithfully recreated. cabin covThe is eredwithwoven matting decorated and withshields painted imitation cowin of hide; curtains rolled over mat are up thewindows. thecaptain As makes hisobeisance, Mekutra before sits the cabin door, inhaling fragrance a the of lotusbudandenjoying music a the of singer a blind and harpist. P.D.ll</p> <p>@: Ig W| | 0 Fm | X | _ S_car;ries | in oftne a most ana Theban oculpture aSpor| |g g | W VxMo, S i_ = _ _ it Dyna ty 11into nmsn in aeiails (seeX torso i 1s a the fi, realm inat</p> <p>i</p> <p>Xw)KLiX</p> <p>B|</p> <p>g_g | XR</p> <p>m__</p> <p>weSm_&gt;</p> <p>strength the exhibitsblocky Cairo in</p> <p>i</p> <p>B!</p> <p>:</p> <p>iRE</p> <p>=</p> <p>WlE</p> <p>12</p> <p>t</p> <p>t )</p> <p>'</p> <p>s</p> <p>*?</p> <p>. -</p> <p>au'wtute;al</p> <p>j)- a e</p> <p>+,'f'ie"-..t sq sv* S '</p> <p>/* s -</p> <p>W;v*o#? SvS d\*r '.$ &lt; ;* * s &lt; * -</p> <p>.</p> <p>'</p> <p>:</p> <p>..</p> <p>. 'r</p> <p>.;. .</p> <p>}</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>t</p> <p>:</p> <p>. +</p> <p>ffi</p> <p>b f s zi</p> <p>-.l</p> <p>fw</p> <p>' -</p> <p>F:v#W sX^ :*B* s; X i #</p> <p>-w;</p> <p>v</p> <p>S</p> <p>t</p> <p>le_ d</p> <p>&gt;</p> <p>+</p> <p>*'&gt;,;&gt;&gt;* t*-;,;,: A 0 W</p> <p>&amp;te,,.+ + $</p> <p>t</p> <p>'' *</p> <p>.s</p> <p>;a,4*</p> <p>*</p> <p>.</p> <p>A</p> <p>.</p> <p>&gt;</p> <p>s</p> <p>'</p> <p>';</p> <p>.,</p> <p>,:</p> <p>'</p> <p>+</p> <p>'s,</p> <p>+</p> <p>v</p> <p>.</p> <p>.,</p> <p>r</p> <p>x</p> <p>^</p> <p>i :. .</p> <p>4</p> <p>'</p> <p>l</p> <p>P*X0</p> <p>r.</p> <p>fa</p> <p>8</p> <p>wsitli\b-1t X</p> <p>-^f##t i: ft; l)</p> <p>11 Rarelyis the mtimate interrelationship Egyptianart, architecture, of anduaiting expressedon sucha monumental wale as in the colsal falconpanelsthat oncedecorated the encloWsure of the pyramid vall complex of Senwoswt I at Lishtv paneLs Ttle are pnml,v a hieroglyphic devicefor the portion(f the myaltitulaly that identifies kingurith the Horus,wrho ix depictal a; a falconwearingthe Double C2nwrn symbelizesthe livingrulerJ an(l TheHerux namew Senw}S&gt;t aIfi of pearson eachlBneltowther uith his coronation nameor hi&gt;; er&gt;;onalname.</p> <p>Beneaththe hielvgl*s ir; }); ; tlle of P dynastic Peri(xlan{lreI)lu nt; one se ithe mosten(ing motifslt Hpw})tian art. lbgether the;e element;((stllltiKse the royalsev#El,u h{}Se (K'((tII'I&gt;'nt't' in earlytt4n mzeorfls elilleifle^s ith the u inception kinvhiI)in the} of Nilez scllle^Nt (c. 3150Xc. ). A smalle .Ss}A i11 l f 1 hie glyphicscaleaI)}wsl&gt;; the lulief lxf 011 Mentuhotpeb (figo) </p> <p>Au</p> <p>_</p> <p>*s</p> <p>%</p> <p>'</p> <p>ss</p> <p>0_</p> <p>*Sss+</p> <p>_</p> <p>_</p> <p>a</p> <p>4\ 'S t</p> <p>v t} erSi'</p> <p>_gs:</p> <p>f</p> <p>27</p> <p>'</p> <p>-'"-</p> <p>"</p> <p>' "3</p> <p>1</p> <p>statue representing a couple, almost byside their about with anns each other, front a slab in of inscribed the on back finerasy with invocationseach for ofthem. ofthe surviveR Parts text but their names lost.The are statue was made the for tomb Thebes. atcoupleRs</p> <p>_</p> <p>_</p> <p>-</p> <p>|</p> <p>e.</p> <p>.</p> <p>. 1lK^</p> <p>_</p> <p>P</p> <p>|</p> <p>|l</p> <p>_</p> <p>ustogauge effACstusual tthel theWoman's yellow color contrasted the skin is withadnrdkheirsbldOcokfytheeh,nmabnesrdwrebeulfashiOngs ofthe The day. large and eyes taut smiles a hentage Dynasty art, are of 11 very influential beginning atthe of Dynasty asis evident thefaces 18, when ofthiscouple compared that are with of theservantinfig.8.E.R.R.</p> <p>q L5e 5S*'s!1</p> <p>*z--</p> <p>147</p> <p>(c. Nespekashuty 656 48.Thevizier in to B.C.) plarened be buredat Thebes of with a tombcovered relief thebest The quality. tombandits decoration however finished, werenever died the because owner prewhether to he or maturely because wasforced we the abandon project, donotknow. is in matter thisdetail traThesubject bearers offenng with ditional, female for to produce thetombowner blinging in But hisafterlife. whilethesubject tomb Sobekhotpe's (fig.2n ofeight graceful is yearsearlier maxle hundred</p> <p>coswigs,elegant of bymeans fancy brushstrokes, tumes,andtransparent poses, thissceneis rigid,withstolid and cut sharply outlines, flatrelief were drawings The planes. preliminary and more lively, a hintofthatvitaSity canbe seenintherightleg ofthe of woman theleft:thecontour the on in have legwould beendeleted thefinal of smoothing thestone.Thepreference B.C. century was fora intheseventh in crsplyexecuted formula, readable of limestone the thefinecrystalline Thebanhills. C.L.</p> <p>48</p> <p>wooden panel formed 49.TEscurved anthropoid theheadendoftheouter official, Doorthe coffin a temple of of keeper theHouse Amun, of Anundthebase,a Peldlerldlonsu. naw niches dooror band stylized of architectural motif, ways,a traditional final marks boxas themummgs the goddess home. Above, kneeling a of annsina gesture spreads winged her the head. protection around occupant's the of Sheis Amentet, goddess the West, where sunset andthedead the</p> <p>Amentet drawn is with werebutied. linear styleof authority, theprecise, in at in painting favored Thebes thesevB.C. carefully enthcentury Thecolor, the is applied within outlines, subordieven nateto thedrawing; theunearthly s}dn greenofthegoddess's seemssuS to dued compaxisonthecomplicated in ear. drawn branches herelaborately of a that It is noteworthy Peldlerldlonsu, was iVirly minor official, ableto comfor mand finework hisfimerary such equipment.E.R.R.</p> <p>49</p> <p>50.Carved graywacke, Metterof the nichStelais thefinest mostelabo and rateexample a genreofmagical of stelaethatoxiginated thelateNew in Kingdom. child The Horus standing on twocrocodiles thedominant is motif ofthesemonuments, which wereinsctibed magical thatwere with texts recited cureailments to protect to and against animal bites.Thegemlike vignettes thisstelaportray number of a ofgodscounteracting influences the of snalies, crocodiles, scotpions. and Above, sungodis worshiped four the by baboons a kneeling and Nectanebo II (360-342 B.C.), to whose reign the monument dated. textexplains is One thecentrality Horus magical of on stelaebyrecounting young the god's cureofpoisonous bythegod bites Thoth. Apparently erected a nein cropolis sacred bytheptiest of bulls Esatum, stelawasfound Alexthe at andria presented 1828 Prince and in to Metternich, whose by name is now it known. P.D. 51.Thiskneeling statue represents the Overseer Singers Amun Luxor, of of of Amenemopiemhat. histitleand Both hisname indicate hewasclosely that associated a cultofAmun Luxor with of inornearMemphis. statue The was designed a Memphite for temple, probably main the temple thecity's of major deities,PtahandSelimet, whoarenamed theinsctiptions. in Amenemopiemhat a cultobject holds of thecow-eared goddess Hathor. proThe portions hisfigure, musculatity, of its andsuchdetails theslanted as rdges of thecollarbone theshallow and depressiondown center thetorso the of represent conscious a attempt the in LatePenodto emulate classic the works theOld Middle of and Kingdoms. E.R.R.</p> <p>\ t j j g</p> <p>;SA;siUh -</p> <p>@'* 44. aM-xtY-z</p> <p>ie:/ -</p> <p>L':ser</p> <p>is #o</p> <p>SSefi</p> <p>MS</p> <p>'.t5,.</p> <p>..</p> <p>Z</p> <p>-p</p> <p>.</p> <p>I to</p> <p>S</p> <p>:_,,</p> <p>,,,f''</p> <p>,4it-</p> <p>-_E</p> <p>t</p> <p>K</p> <p>R</p> <p>o</p> <p>+-st</p> <p>middle wholly are</p> <p>modern.) of animal the</p> <p>first form, E.R.R. and century</p> <p>B</p> <p>it C.</p> <p>(80-30 53 Di is M thus 0</p> <p>1 0 that</p> <p>_</p> <p>A</p> <p>tiiprset{tSd</p> <p>1XIRod-</p> <p>MM a X @ S a a A</p> <p>] S_s</p> <p>u</p> <p>ur</p> <p>with bi...</p>