Educational Leadership and Management Theories

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Educational Leadership and Management Theories

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<ul><li><p>Educational Leadership and Management Theories </p><p>Richelle C. Alba </p><p>Ph.D. EPM I </p><p>Mindanao University of Science and Technology </p></li><li><p>I. Instructional Leadership </p><p>Instructional leadership encompasses "those actions that a principal takes, or delegates to others, to promote growth in student learning" (Debevoise, 1984, pp. 14-20) and comprises the following tasks: </p><p> 1. defining the purpose of schooling; </p><p> 2. setting school-wide goals; </p><p> 3. providing the resources needed for </p><p> learning to occur; </p><p> 4. supervising and evaluating teachers; </p><p> 5. coordinating staff development </p><p> programmes; </p><p> 6. and creating collegial relationships </p><p> with and among teachers. (Wildy &amp; </p><p> Dimmock, 1993, p. 44) </p></li><li><p>Collaborative Leadership </p><p>Chrislip and Larson in 1994, Collaboration needs a different kind of leadership; it needs leaders who can safeguard the process, facilitate interaction and patiently deal with high levels of frustration. </p><p>Hank Rubin author and President of the Institute of Collaborative Leadership has written "A collaboration is a purposeful relationship in which all parties strategically choose to cooperate in order to accomplish a shared outcome." </p></li><li><p> You are a collaborative leader once you have accepted responsibility for building - or helping to ensure the success of - a heterogeneous team to accomplish a shared purpose . Your tools are: </p><p> (1) the purposeful exercise of your behaviour, </p><p> (2)communication, and </p><p> (3) a collaborative partner </p><p> (4) the structure and climate of an environment that supports </p><p> the collaborative relationship. </p><p> David Archer and Alex Cameron, identify the basic task of the collaborative leader. They say "Getting value </p><p> from difference is at the heart of the collaborative </p><p> leader's task. They have to learn to share </p><p> control, and to trust a partner to deliver, </p><p> even though that partner may operate </p><p> very differently from themselves. </p></li><li><p>Transactional Leadership </p><p> It focuses on the basic management process of controlling, organizing, and short-term planning. </p><p> Involves motivating and directing followers primarily through appealing to their own self-interest. </p><p> The power of transactional leaders comes from their formal authority and responsibility in the organization. </p><p> The main goal of the follower is to obey the instructions of the leader. The style can also be mentioned as a telling style. </p><p> The leader believes in motivating through a system of rewards and punishment. </p></li><li><p>Transformational Leadership </p><p> Leadership is proactive. </p><p>Work to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas. </p><p> Transformational leaders motivate and empower employees to achieve companys objectives by appealing to higher ideals and moral values. </p><p>Motivates followers by encouraging them to transcend their own interests for those of the group or unit. </p><p> Transformational leaders has the key to unlock what is in order to discover what can be. </p></li><li><p>Behavioural Theory </p><p> Theorists define leadership as a set of behaviours, evaluating the behaviour of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. </p><p>David McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well-developed positive ego. </p><p> To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. </p></li><li><p>Moral Leadership </p><p> Moral Leaders aim to serve. Instead of showcasing their own skills, Moral Leaders tend to develop the capacities of others. </p><p> Moral Leadership is not about rank any person holding any position can be a Moral Leader, but such individuals are always characterized by a deep sense of ethics, are driven by core ideals (such as justice) and are motivated by the pursuit of a higher purpose. </p><p> Moral Leadership is also about particular capacities and skills. </p></li><li><p>Situational and Contingency Theory Assumes that different situations call for different characteristics; that no </p><p>single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. What an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. </p><p> Building upon the research of Lewin et al., academics began to normalize the descriptive models of leadership climates, defining three leadership styles and identifying which situations each style works better in. </p><p> 1. The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis </p><p> but crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-to-day </p><p> management: </p><p> 2. The democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require </p><p> consensus building; </p><p> 3. finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of </p><p> freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not "take charge", they can be </p><p> perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems. </p><p>Thus, theorists defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation, which is sometimes classified as contingency theory. </p></li><li><p>Functional Theory </p><p> Functional leadership theory (Hackman &amp; Walton, 1986) is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviours expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness. </p><p> This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion (Fleishman et al., 1991). </p><p> While functional leadership theory has most often been applied to team leadership (Zaccaro, Rittman, &amp; Marks, 2001), five functions of a leader environmental monitoring, organizing subordinate activities, teaching and coaching subordinates, motivating others, and intervening actively in the group's work. </p></li><li><p>Integrated Psychological theory </p><p> The Integrated Psychological theory of leadership is an attempt to integrate the strengths of the older theories (i.e. traits, behavioral/styles, situational and functional) while addressing their limitations, largely by introducing a new element the need for leaders to develop their leadership presence, attitude toward others and behavioural flexibility by practicing psychological mastery. Integrated Psychological theory began to attract attention after the publication of James Scoullers Three Levels of Leadership model (2011). </p></li><li><p> The three levels in his model are Public, Private and Personal leadership: </p><p>- Public leadership focuses on the 34 behaviours involved in </p><p>- influencing two or more people simultaneously. </p><p>- Private leadership covers the 14 behaviors needed to </p><p>- influence individuals one to one. </p><p> Personal leadership is an inner level and concerns a </p><p> persons growth toward greater leadership </p><p> presence, knowhow and skill. </p><p> (1) Technical knowhow and skill </p><p> (2) Developing the right attitude toward other </p><p> people which is the basis of servant </p><p> leadership </p><p> (3) Psychological self-mastery the foundation for </p><p> authentic leadership. </p></li><li><p>Leadermember Exchange Theory </p><p> Focus on the interaction between leaders and individual followers. </p><p> This interaction is viewed as a fair exchange whereby the leader provides certain benefits such as task guidance, advice, support, and/or significant rewards and the followers reciprocate by giving the leader respect, cooperation, commitment to the task and good performance. </p><p> However, LMX recognizes that leaders and individual followers will vary in the type of exchange that develops between them. </p><p> LMX theorizes that the type of exchanges between the leader and specific followers can lead to the creation of in-groups and out-groups. </p><p> In-group members are said to have high-quality exchanges with the leader, while out-group members have low-quality exchanges with the leader. </p></li><li><p>Neo-emergent Theory </p><p> The neo-emergent leadership theory (from the Oxford school of leadership) espouses that leadership is created through the emergence of information by the leader or other stakeholders, not through the true actions of the leader himself. </p><p> In other words, the reproduction of information or stories form the basis of the perception of leadership by the majority. </p><p> It is well known that the great naval hero Lord Nelson often wrote his own versions of battles he was involved in, so that when he arrived home in England he would receive a true hero's welcome. </p><p> In modern society, the press, blogs and other sources report their own views of a leader, which may be based on reality, but may also be based on a political command, a payment, or an inherent interest of the author, media, or leader. </p><p> Therefore, it can be contended that the perception of all leaders is created and in fact does not reflect their true leadership qualities at all. </p></li></ul>

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