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  • Slide 1
  • Dr. Taous Khan Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad, Pakistan Wastes from Various Sectors of Pakistan: Potential Raw Materials for Biofuels & Biomaterials
  • Slide 2
  • Generation of wastes is increasing due to: growing urbanisation & changes in life style ~1.6 billion metric tons of solid waste is produced per year A lot of money is used managing this waste Asian countries spent ~US$25 billion per year in early 1990s expected to rise to ~US$50 billion by 2025 Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University, Abbottabad 2 INTRODUCTION Mahar et al., Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, 5 -7 September 2007, Chennai, India. pp.34-41
  • Slide 3
  • Threat to our already degraded environment Advances in biotechnology, genetics, chemistry & engineering new manufacturing concepts converting waste materials to valuable fuels & biomaterials Kyungpook National University, Biochemical Engineering Lab 3 INTRODUCTION
  • Slide 4
  • Large amount of waste materials produced from various sectors of Pakistan industrial sectors agricultural sectors These materials are a source of: environmental pollution water pollution different diseases COMSATS University, Abbottabad 4 Wastes from various sectors of Pakistan
  • Slide 5
  • These materials are: rich in various elements including carbon & nitrogen can be used as substrate for microbial growth production of useful metabolic products Thus, these waste materials can be a good source for production of bioenergy & biomaterials their use can address several societal needs will lead to a new manufacturing paradigm Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 5 Wastes from various sectors of Pakistan
  • Slide 6
  • In America 2500 MW electricity generated by waste-to-energy plants Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 6 Wastes from various sectors of Pakistan
  • Slide 7
  • Three general categories of solid waste in Pakistan: biodegradable e.g. food & animal wastes, leaves, grass & wood non-biodegradable e.g., plastic, rubber, textile waste, metals, stones recyclable material e.g., paper, card board, and bones Physical Composition of Wastes Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 7
  • Slide 8
  • Physical Composition of Wastes Figure. Physical composition of solid wastes in Pakistan (% Weight). Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 8 Mahar et al., Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, 5 -7 September 2007, Chennai, India. pp.34-41
  • Slide 9
  • Figure. Various sources of waste materials from Pakistan. Wastes from various sectors of Pakistan Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 9 Waste Materials Wood Processing Industry Hotels & Restaurants Beverage Industry Food Industry Meat Industry Leather Industry Sugar Mills Household Agriculture Units
  • Slide 10
  • Figure. Various products that can be produced from waste materials from Pakistan. Potential Products from Wastes from various Sectors of Pakistan Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 10 Waste Materials BioethanolBiogasBiofertilizerEnzymesAntibiotics Biologically active compounds Bacterial cellulose Bacterial Polysacchari des
  • Slide 11
  • A case study Production of WSOS & BC from Wastes of Korean Breweries A case study Production of WSOS & BC from Wastes of Korean Breweries Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 11 WSOS & BC successfully produced from synthetic media Expensive process, hindering their commercial applications Alternate, cheaper culture media for production of these products Waste from beer fermentation broth large-scale availability from Korean breweries contains carbon, nitrogen, sulfur & ethanol
  • Slide 12
  • Composition of WBFB Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 12 Table. Detailed composition of the waste from beer fermentation broth.
  • Slide 13
  • Importance of Oligosaccharides Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 13 Medical Infectious & inflammatory diseases Metabolic & cardiovascular disorders Transplantation & neutralization of toxins Cancer immunotherapyFood Pre-biotics Bulking agents in diet foodsAgriculture Activation of plant cell machinery Fertilizers
  • Slide 14
  • Figure. Organic constituents of wood. Bacterial Cellulose Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 14
  • Slide 15
  • Pure, free from lignin, pectin & hemicellulose High degree of crystallinity & water retention value High tensile strength and moldability Biodegradable (eco-friendly materials) Bacterial Cellulose Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 15
  • Slide 16
  • Figure. Important applications of bacterial cellulose. http://www.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/houga/researches/2006m05a.jpg Applications of Bacterial Cellulose Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 16
  • Slide 17
  • Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 17 Gluconacetobacter hansenii PJK Gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from rotten apples Capable of producing water soluble oligosaccharides (WSOS) bacterial cellulose (BC) Gluconacetobacter hansenii PJK
  • Slide 18
  • Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 18 Figure. Proposed biosynthetic pathway for the simultaneous production of BC & WSOS from glucose by G. hansenii PJK Production of BC & WSOS by G. hansenii PJK
  • Slide 19
  • Figure. Schematic representation for the processing of WBFB. Pre-treatment of WBFB Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 19
  • Slide 20
  • Figure. Schematic diagrams of jar fermenters used for the production of WSOS and BC by G. hansenii PJK; 5 L jar fermenter (a) and 5 L jar fermenter equipped with a spin filter (b). (a) (b) Bioreactors Configuration Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 20
  • Slide 21
  • Figure 19. Selected pictures of the 2 L jar fermenter equipped with a spin filter; empty fermenter (a) and with 1.6 L of culture broth. (a) (b) Bioreactors Configuration Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 21
  • Slide 22
  • Figure. Schematic representation for the measurement of WSOS, BC and Cells from the culture broth.. Measurement of WSOS, BC & Cells Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 22
  • Slide 23
  • Table. Detailed fermentation conditions used for the production of WSOS and BC by G. hansenii PJK. Culture Conditions Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 23
  • Slide 24
  • Effect of dilution ratio Figure. Production of WSOS & BC by G. hansenii PJK in baffled flasks shaken at 100 rpm at 30 o C for 7 days, using the WBFB diluted with distilled water, in various ratios. WSOS & BC Production using WFBF Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 24
  • Slide 25
  • Effect of impeller speed Figure. Production of WSOS & BC by G. hansenii PJK in a 5 L jar fermenter (3 L working volume), an aeration rate of 1 vvm, a pH of 4.5-5.5 and impeller speeds of 300 rpm. WSOS & BC Production using WFBF Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 25
  • Slide 26
  • Effect of impeller speed Figure. Production of WSOS & BC by G. hansenii PJK in a 5 L jar fermenter (3 L working volume), an aeration rate of 1 vvm, a pH of 4.5-5.5 and impeller speeds of 500 rpm. WSOS & BC Production using WFBF Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 26
  • Slide 27
  • Effect of impeller speed Figure. Production of WSOS & BC by G. hansenii PJK in a 5 L jar fermenter (3 L working volume), an aeration rate of 1 vvm, a pH of 4.5-5.5 and impeller speeds of 600 rpm. WSOS & BC Production using WFBF Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 27
  • Slide 28
  • Table. Comparison of production of WSOS obtained in present study with products of related chemical nature reported in literature. [1]. Jung et al., Enzyme Microb. Technol., 37 (2005) 354. [2]. Courtois et al., J. Carbohydr. Chem., 12 (1993) 448. [3]. Michaud et al., Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 17 (1995) 369. [4]. Michaud et al., Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 16 (1994) 301. [5]. Heyraud et al., Carbohydr. Res., 240 (1993) 71. Overproduction of WSOS obtained in present study Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 28
  • Slide 29
  • Figure. Schematic representation of various techniques applied for structure determination of WSOS. Structure of WSOS Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 29
  • Slide 30
  • Figure. Chemical structures and fragmentation scheme of the major WSOS produced from WBFB. Structure of WSOS Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 30
  • Slide 31
  • Chemical structure of WSOS : Mixture of oligomers of glucuronic acid Molecular weights less than 1000 - Linked rather than Structure of WSOS Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS, Abbottabad 31
  • Slide 32
  • WSOS produced from WBFB: Glucuronan oligosaccharide Glucuronan polysaccharides: Carriers for various drugs Solvents, stabilizers, binders and swelling agents Medical properties of glucuronan polysaccharides Bleeding stoppage during surgery Prevention of post-surgical adhesions Antibacterial activity Bone regeneration Potential applications of WSOS Departm

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