diseases of the nervous system. alzheimer’s disease

Download Diseases of the Nervous System. Alzheimer’s Disease

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  • Diseases of the Nervous System

  • Alzheimers Disease

  • CausesIn addition to family history and age, risk factors for Alzheimers include Longstanding high blood pressureHistory of head traumaHigh levels of homocysteineFemale gender

  • SymptomsIn the early stages, symptoms often include:Repeating statementsMisplacing itemsHaving trouble identifying names or familiar objectsGetting lost on familiar routesPersonality changesLosing interest in things previously enjoyedDifficulty performing tasks that take some thought, but used to come easily (balancing checkbook)

  • SymptomsIn more advanced stages, symptoms may include:Forgetting details about current eventsForgetting events in his/her own life historyForgetting who he/she isProblems choosing proper clothingHallucinations, arguments, striking out, violent behaviorDelusions, Difficulty performing basic tasks like preparing meals and drivingDepression, agitation

  • SymptomsIn the final stages, symptoms may include:No longer understanding languageNo longer recognizing family membersInability to perform basic activities such as eating, dressing and bathing

  • TreatmentThere is no cure for AlzheimersThe most promising treatments are lifestyle changes, medications, and antioxidant supplements like vitamin E and ginkgo bilobaThere are drugs that are available to try to slow the progression of the diseaseMemantine is currently the only drug approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimers

  • Bacterial Meningitisis a serious infection of the fluid in the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain.

  • CausesMost commonly caused by one of three types of bacteria:Haemophilus influenzae type bNeisseria meningitidisStreptococcus pneumoniaeThese bacteria are spread by direct contact with the discharges from the nose or throat of an infected person

  • SymptomsHigh feverStiff neckHeadacheNauseaVomitingSensitivity to lightSleepinessConfusion In advanced disease, bruises form under the skin and spread quickly

  • ComplicationsAdvanced Bacterial Meningitis may lead to:Brain damageComaDeathHearing lossMental retardationParalysisSeizures

  • TreatmentBacterial Meningitis is treated in the hospital with intravenous antibioticsDoctors may also prescribe corticosteroids to protect a person from hearing damage as a result of bacterial meningitis.

  • Tourettes Syndromeis an inherited disorder characterized by involuntary utterances and body movements

  • CausesTourettes Syndrome is due to an imbalance of certain chemicals in the brainThe neurotransmitters that play a primary role in this imbalance are dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine

  • SymptomsMotor TicsQuick eye blinks or eye jerksLip lickingHead twitches or head jerksShoulder shrugsMuscle tensingVocal TicsGrunting barking and hissingSniffing, snorting or throat-clearing

  • TreatmentThere is no cure

    Certain medicines can help control tics, although no medicine can completely abolish tics