Development of an experimental platform for research in energy and electrical machine control

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  • RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Ali HMIDET, Rachid DHIFAOUI, Driss SAIDANI, Othman HASNAOUI

    Development of an experimental platform for research inenergy and electrical machine control

    Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

    Abstract This paper presents the development of a testbench dedicated for electrical machines and energycontrol, as realized by the research team of the PowerSystems and Electrical Machines Laboratory (RME) of theNational Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology(INSAT) in Tunisia. The principal components of theproposed test bench are explained, and the respectivecharacteristics are given. This paper focuses on mountinglow-cost sensors and developing reliable scientic results.The relevant obtained results in photovoltaic (PV) andwind energy elds, power measurement and control, aswell as alternating current (AC) machine drives arelikewise presented. These are supported by two signalprocessing controller boards based on TechnosoftMCK240 and dSPACE DS1104 kits. In the wind energyeld, some results relative to Self Excited InductionGenerator dedicated to supplying isolated sites arediscussed; in addition, water pumping is discussed forPV energy. In the AC drives area, the results of a closedloop control are presented using a developed direct voltagecontrol (DVC) scheme implemented on dSPACE DS1104.Maps and interesting details of some realized sensors arealso presented.

    Keywords test bench, induction motor, solar energy,wind energy, AC/DC/AC converter, sensors and powermeasurements

    1 Introduction

    The technology of digital signal processors (DSP) hasrapidly evolved, revolutionizing the eld of motor controland enabling more sophisticated and efcient controlalgorithms. Static power inverters with various congura-tions play a crucial role in the practical materialization ofthe proposed digital control schemes. Power electronics isthe principal key for exible energy modulation, voltage,current, and frequency adjustment. On the other hand,energy optimization, saving, and production is a strategictopic that takes into account the energy crisis and possiblestressed future international relations in petroleum and gasresources markets and exchange. Developments in solarand wind energy, for example, are high priorities for theinternational community. These cited factors are linkedclosely and are highly dependent on measuring, visualiz-ing, and checking installed equipments. Systems efciencyand reliability likewise result from good sensing.Scientic research and development teams and labora-

    tories around the world recognize that investigated subjectsshould be considered in the general concept previouslyoutlined. The proposed themes are constrained by practicalconsiderations that should be treated in a global environ-ment, including at least three fundamental components: theindustrial processes, the control unit, and the measurementand acquisition circuits. An immediate benet of takinginto account these components in the same investigatedsubject is the ability to build an adequate knowledgeprole for future researchers; in turn, this could lead to theacquisition of more powerful scientic and technologicalcapabilities. For example, power electronics is a complexsubject requiring students to grasp knowledge from a widenumber of areas, including solid state power devices,converter topologies, power systems, electrical machines,control theory, digital signal processing, instrumentation,analog to digital and digital to analog conversion, and soon.The power systems and electrical machines (RME)

    research group at the National Institute of Applied Science

    Received March 15, 2010; accepted April 22, 2010

    Ali HMIDET (), Rachid DHIFAOUI, Driss SAIDANIRME Research Group, National Institute of Applied Sciences andTechnology (INSAT), Rue de la terre BP676, 1080 Tunis, TunisiaE-mail: hmidet.ali@email.ati.tn

    Othman HASNAOUIHigh School of Sciences and Techniques of Tunis, 5 Avenue TahaHussein 1008 Tunis, Tunisia

    Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2010, 4(3): 366375DOI 10.1007/s11708-010-0106-x

  • and Technology (INSAT) of Tunisia was established sixyears ago, and its main domain of interest lies in powersystems and electrical machines. Various studies and drivesimulation programs have been developed, covering directtorque control (DTC) [1] and eld-oriented control (FOC)[2] of induction machine, wind energy conversion systems(WECS) [34], unied power ow controller (UPFC) [5]of conventional power systems, and so on. However, themost important part of the realized studies is yet to bevalidated experimentally. This is because the proposedsubjects are closely dened around specic problems andare not considered in a conceptual and practical manner. Ifevery single research team starts from scratch, builds itsown power electronics system, and utilizes its owninstrumentation, signal processing, and control systems,no enduring practical results could be obtained within areasonable period.To overcome these problems and to orient the future

    work of the RME research group to a general and globalstrategy accounting for the three fundamental components,including practical industrial processes, new digitaltechnology control and data, and measurements analysis,RME has focused its effort in the last two years to alaboratory supporting scientically treated subjects. Thelaboratory design is then realized in accordance withprincipal domains of interest that emphasize the followingtopics:1) electrical machines and energy sources to illustrate

    industrial processes;2) static power inverters to ensure variable alternating

    current (AC) and direct current (DC) drives;3) computers and DSPs for optimization and control;

    and4) measurement and visualization materials.This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the

    developed laboratory and presents some illustrative results.

    2 Developments in solar energy domain

    The installed system includes a photovoltaic (PV) powersource and related sensors. Figure 1 shows the installed solarpower source with 10 PV panels, each with 50W and 17Vrated power and voltage, respectively. The current-voltagecurves (Fig. 2) are distinguished for various irradiationvalues and open loop typical maximum power detection.An interesting closed loop experience is achieved for

    water pumping (Fig. 3). As can be seen, the PV panels areseries connected, and the DC-obtained source is used tosupply a three-phase inverter driving a water pump.In the pump water tests, the inverter was driven by the

    DSP Kit MCK240. The kit is a complete standalonesystem proposed by Technosoft based on the 16-bit xedpoint TMS320F240 (F240) DSP controller. It features amonitor chip evaluation application, graphical DMCenvironment analysis tool, and DMC Developer Pro [6].

    In addition, the DSP kit includes the following: an eventmanager, a set of pulse-width modulation (PWM) genera-tion functions with 12 outputs having 05 V logic levels, aprogrammable dead-band function, a space vector PWMgenerator for a three-phase inverter, three independent up/down timers, three compare units, and a dual 10-bitanalog-to-digital converter (ADC) with 16 input channelsthat could perform two simultaneous conversions within6.6 ms.

    Fig. 1 Installed PV panels

    Fig. 2 Current versus voltage curves for different irradiations(a) 977W/m2; (b) 853W/m2; (c) 229W/m2; (d) 155W/m2

    Fig. 3 Water pump experience

    Ali HMIDET et al. Energy and electrical machines control 367

  • The written C-language program is capable of generat-ing space vector PWM signals, fundamental frequency,and voltage ratio reference values. The fundamentalfrequency of the three phase voltage supplying the pumpis then linked to the irradiation signal using an establishedoff line curve.The problem of maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

    requiring a boost inverter generating a high input/outputDC voltage ratio is currently being addressed, and thisdevice is now in the nal stage of validation. Figure 4shows the preliminary obtained results. As can be seen, the10 PV panels are parallel connected, and the duty ratio ofthe boost inverter is manually adjusted to observe themaximum power corresponding to a given irradiationvalue. Curves (a), (b), and (c) in Fig. 4 correspond todifferent resistance load values, and experience is gained atmedium and constant irradiation.

    Irradiation and temperature information is useful in solarenergy experimentation. Generally, in order to reduce thecost of the system and to allow students and researchers toacquire adequate technological and scientic backgroundin sensor prototyping, irradiation, and temperature sensorsare designed and realized in the laboratory.Given that the short circuit current of a PV source varies

    linearly with irradiation and is not signicantly sensitive totemperature, this property is used to build an irradiationsensor that utilizes a small PV panel of 7.5 Vand 1W ratedvoltage and power, respectively. The panel is short-circuited by a resistance of 0.24, and the capturedvoltage signal from this resistance is amplied to 10 Vcorresponding to an irradiation value of 1000W/m2. Figure5 illustrates this sensor.To measure ambient temperature, this study employed

    the phenomenon of decreasing voltage diode in relation totemperature increase. If a diode is excited by a constant andstable current, the voltage across the diode will vary

    linearly opposite the temperature. This principle wasconsidered in this study because of its ability to look fora simple temperature evaluation and an inexpensive circuit.In realizing the device, the silicon diode 1N5406 was usedin the well-known logarithmic operational amplier-basedcircuit, as demonstrated in Fig. 6. The circuit was realizedso that the inverter pin of IC1 was practically ground, andthe current through the diode was a constant xed by thepolarization voltage.

    First, the output voltage diode VD was amplied, withGD as the gain. Then, at a reference temperature T0, theobtained voltage was compared to an alternative andsymmetric saw tooth signal oscillating at VST andsuperimposed on a DC voltage component equal toGDVD0 . The comparator is a simple operational amplieroscillating at VCC and gives at T0 a duty ratio of 50%.The comparator output oscillating signal supplies a seriesresistor-capacitor (RC) load. The capacitor voltage outputV0 at any temperature T is proportional to the differencetemperature T T0 as indicated by

    V0 SDGDGVT T0: (1)In the above, SD is the V=C temperature sensitivitycoefcient of the diode, and GV is the ratio between thepolarization voltage VCC and the saw tooth signalmagnitude VST. Here, GD 20:5 and GV 7:5.

    Fig. 4 MP detection for various load values(a) 43W; (b) 60W; (c) 103W

    Fig. 5 Realized irradiation sensor

    Fig. 6 Principal elements of realized temperature sensor

    368 Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2010, 4(3): 366375

  • The calibration procedure was such that the outputvoltage V0 varied in the same manner as the temperature.The VM132 sensor of Velleman Supplier served as thethermometer used as reference in this calibration. Figure 7summarizes the result, and as can be seen, the slope of thiscalibration curve is 361 mV/C. Taking into account thevalues of GD and GV, the temperature sensitivitycoefcient of the diode could be deduced as SD =2.3 mV/C, which is a reasonable value. The nal establishedtemperature sensor has the following characteristic:

    T 2:78V0 34:5: (2)

    3 Developments in wind energy domain

    The RME research group has been participating in anational program (federate program for wind energydevelopment) aiming to develop the eld of wind energy.A recommended subject is the investigation of small windturbines dedicated to the study of isolated sites. This kindof turbine uses an asynchronous motor working as a self-excited induction generator (SEIG). This means that thereactive energy of the motor is supplied by a shuntcapacitor.A DC motor mechanically coupled to a classical

    wounded rotor asynchronous motor shunted by a capacitorwas installed. The DC motor emulating the wind turbine isvoltage- or current controlled. The capacitor is adequatelydimensioned such that sufcient output voltage levels fordifferent speed values could be obtained. The obtainedSEIG could be used in an autonomous mode (passive load)or coupled to an available three-phase alternative energysource by an AC/DC/AC static inverter. Figure 8 presentsthe installed system. Figure 9 shows the temporalevolution during the start-up operation of the DC motorvoltage and current, as well as the current of the loadsupplied by the SEIG. The DC motor current is regulated bya hysteresis analog command loop that has also been realizedin the laboratory. Figure 10 summarizes the simulated

    (dashed line) and experimental (continuous line with a star)voltage-current curve of a passive load supplied by the SEIG.The most important problem of the SEIG is the

    occurrence of voltage collapse when highly loaded. This

    Fig. 7 Calibration curve of the realized temperature sensor

    Fig. 8 Isolated wind turbine emulator

    Fig. 9 Evolution of DC motor voltage and current and SEGcurrent during start-up operation

    Fig. 10 Load voltage-current curve

    Ali HMIDET et al. Energy and electrical machines control 369

  • phenomenon could be monitored through total SEIGdemagnetization. To establish a magnetic eld capable ofexciting voltage increase, a small dynamo to inject a DCcurrent into the rotor was installed on the shaft.

    4 Developments in static inverters domain

    The AC/DC part of the system is a three-phase diodebridge rectier SKD 25/08 with 800 V rated voltage. Theobtained DC voltage was ltered by two capacitors(470 mF, 350 V) that were series connected. This ensuresan adequate DC bus for the second part, which is the DC/AC inverter. The legs of this inverter are six N-channelPower MOSFETs IRFP460 of 500 Vand 20A rated voltageand current, respectively. These power components wereplaced on accumulations to ensure sufcient cooling.The control circuit consisted of three blocks: a PWM

    signal generator, an insulation circuit, and a driver. ThePWM signal generator was ensured by the DSP kit, and thegalvanic insulation block used high-speed HCPL2531 optocouplers. This circuit protected the DSP against highvoltage due to possible faults at the power side. Only threehigher or lower gate drive signals from the DSP Kit wereused. Complement signals were obtained using theintegrated circuits HEF4069. The driver block used theInternational Rectier IR2130 chip, a high voltage, high-speed power MOSFET, and IGBT driver with threeindependent high and low side referenced output channels.The gate drive IR2130 works with 2.5 ms dead time andcould protect the bridge transistors from over currentconditions.The biggest problem during realization concerns the

    bootstrap supply. Three adequate bootstrap capacitors arerequired to supply power for the oating outputs of thedriver. The values of these capacitors are a function of thegate charge requirements of the power switch and themaximum power switch ON times. The internal oatingdriver current must thus be supplied from the bootstrapcapacitors. Aside from these energy requirements, thecapacitor should have enough remaining charge to avoidunder voltage shutdown (8.3 V nominal) [7]. In therealization, three identical capacitors of 1.2 mF wereselected. Between these capacitors and the Vdd pin of thedriver, a fast-response diode should be connected, which,in this case, refers to diode BY229. The basic structure ofthe realized inverter is given in Fig. 11, and the detailedcircuit is illustrated in Fig. 12.

    5 Developments in power measurementdomain

    Instantaneous information of active and reactive powers isimportant in achieving high performance in real-timecontrol. An analog sensor to measure instantaneous activeand reactive powers of a three phase power system wasthus designed and realized in this study. This sensor iscomposed of three blocks, as shown in Fig. 13. The rstconcerns voltage and current measurement, the secondrealizes the Concordia direct and quadrature components,and the third deals with active and reactive powerdetermination.The circuit to be sensed is considered delta connected;

    therefore, line voltages are linked to the phase to groundvoltages as presented by

    Fig. 11 Block diagram for the AC-DC-AC converter

    370 Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2010, 4(3): 366375

  • Vna Uca Uab=3,Vnb Uab Ubc=3 2Uab Uca=3,Vnc Ubc Uca=3 2Uca Uab=3:

    8>:(3)

    The studied system is assumed to be balanced; therefore,Concordia transformation leads to the following voltage

    and current d-q components:

    Vd 3

    2

    r

    Vna Uab Uac

    6p ,

    Vq Vna 2Vnb

    2

    p Uab Uac2

    p ,

    8>>>:

    (4)

    Fig. 13 Structure of the P and Q sensor

    Ali HMIDET et al. Energy and electrical machines control 371

  • Id 3

    2

    r

    Ia,

    Iq Ia 2Ib

    2

    p :

    8>>>:

    (5)

    This transformation reduces the number of current andvoltage sensors and reduces consequent cost and dimen-sions of the electronic circuit to be implemented. Only fourHall effect sensors (LEM) are required to obtain low-levelvoltage and current signals. The LEMs used for voltageand current are LV25P and LA25P, respectively. Analogsignals representing the direct and quadrature voltagecomponents of Eq. (4) are generated by an operationalamplier-based circuit, which implements gains and sumoperations. This circuit is presented in Fig. 14, wherein IC1and IC3 are summing and inverting ampliers whose gainsare 1= 6p and 1= 2p for Vd and Vq, respectively. IC2 isan inverting amplier with unitary gain used only to obtain( Uab).To avoid using additional gains, the implementation of

    direct and quadrature current components given by Eq. (5)is simplied to Id Ia and Iq Ia 2Ib=

    3

    p. Therefore,

    the realized circuit is limited to the Iq component.Direct and quadrature voltage and current components

    dene active and reactive powers as

    P VdId VqIq, Q VdIq VqId: (6)According to these equations, measuring active and

    reactive powers requires four multiplications and twosums. Integrated circuit AD632 is used to achievemultiplications, while the operational amplier is used torealize sums.The built watt-var sensor is used in laboratories for

    various applications. For example, Figure 15 shows theevolution of active and reactive powers for a practical stepchange of load.

    6 Examples of developments inasynchronous machine control

    An important part of work dealing with electrical machine

    control concerns induction motor. Figure 16 gives anoverview of the benchmark.The focus is on real-time applications, and efforts are

    centered on using the dSpace DS1104 R&D ControllerBoard. This device is specically designed to develophigh-speed multivariable digital controllers and real-timesimulations in various elds. It is a complete real-timecontrol system based on a 603 PowerPC oating-pointprocessor running at 250MHz. For advanced input/output(I/O) purposes, the board includes a slave-DSP subsystembased on the TMS320F240 DSP microcontroller. Forpurposes of rapid control prototyping (RCP), specicinterface connectors and connector panels provide easyaccess to all I/O signals of the board. The DS1104 R&DController Board is equipped with the following periph-erals:1) a set of four multiplexed channels, 16-bit sample and

    hold ADC, four parallel channels, 12 bit sample and holdADC;2) dual 10-bit Analog to Digital conversion Module;3) a PWM generation block that could generate six

    PWM pulses to re the switches of a three-phase inverter;4) a 24-bit digital incremental encoders interface;5) 20-bit digital I/O channels; and6) serial interfaces RS232/RS485/RS422.The I/O ports of CP1104 are accessible from inside the

    Simulink Library browser. The process of creating aprogram in Simulink and the procedure to use the I/O portof CP 1104 are detailed in the experiments. When theSimulink model is built in real-time, the model is thenconverted into a real-time system on hardware (DS1104).Simulink generates an *.sdf le when the model isconverted into real time. This le provides access to thevariables of the Simulink model in the Control Desksoftware. In this software, a control panel could be created,which allows changing the variables of the Simulink modelin real time to communicate with DS1104; hence, it couldchange the reference quantities, such as speed or torque ofthe motor [8].One aspect of implemented control schemes is the scalar

    constant voltage-frequency ratio (CVFR) technique. Awell-known version of the CVFR technique uses themeasured machine speed signal and a PI controller to

    Fig. 14 Practical circuit of voltage components

    372 Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2010, 4(3): 366375

  • dene the electrical frequency reference, and the voltagereference is considered proportional to this frequency [9,10]. To keep the voltage reference in the permittedpractical limit, a saturation block is added, as indicatedin Fig. 17, which sketches this implemented controlstructure. In this structure, the presence of the referenceblock (voltage and frequency commands) is dened byCVFR as well as by the DVC block which generates the

    power inverter command signals. The DVC approach ispresented in detail in [11,12]. This approach uses aconstant switching time interval as in the standard DTCscheme. It is based on a very strong min (max) criteriondedicated to selecting an inverter voltage vector.In practical implementation, the main drawback of the

    CVFR procedure lies in the effect of the stator-voltagedrop at low-speed operation. The voltage drop at lowfrequencies has the same order of magnitude as thecomputed voltage and makes the method inadequate forlow-speed regions. This problem could be partiallycompensated by applying the following relation, whereinV0 is the boost voltage, and Kv is the slope that correspondsto the nominal stator ux value:

    Vs V0 Kvs: (7)This control structure could be enhanced by introducing

    an improvement upon the classical PI. In severe transientregimes, such as in an induction machine start-up, thesaturation of the manipulated variable could involve aphenomenon of racing the integral action, which is likelyto deteriorate the performances of the system or evendestabilize it completely. To overcome this phenomenon,an internal anti-wind-up loop has been added andimplemented in the digital PI controller [13]. A Simulinkmodel implementing the PI controller with the anti-wind-up scheme is demonstrated in Fig. 18. The source of thefeedback to the integrator is the difference between theinput (upstream value) and the output (downstream value)of the saturation block. If windup occurs and the controlsignal becomes larger than the saturation limit, thedifference becomes negative. This negative value is passedthrough a gain block (tracking time constant) beforearriving as feedback to the integrator.

    To evaluate the performance of the implemented controlstructure, a series of measurements was accomplished.These measurements correspond to a perturbation scenarioconsisting of two cases.Case 1 The induction machine initially runs at a

    constant speed reference of 157 rad/s and at no loadregime. A load torque of 3 N$m is applied at a time intervalFig. 17 Block diagram of closed loop scalar control approach

    Fig. 18 Reference frequency generator with the anti-wind-up PIcontroller

    Fig. 16 A test bench for AC machines

    Fig. 15 P,Q evolution for a step change of load

    Ali HMIDET et al. Energy and electrical machines control 373

  • of 10 s, and then, the load is removed. This casecorresponds to a step-up and a step-down torque perturba-tion. The motor load is a magnetic powder brake,generating a torque proportional to its DC excitationcurrent. Figure 19 corresponds to this case and presentstime responses in accordance with stator reference pulsation s at the output of the anti-

    wind-up PI controller (curve a: red color); electrical rotor speed r captured by the speed sensor

    using an incremental encoder having 360 pulses perrevolution (curve b: green color); and voltage duty ratio dening the reference value for

    stator voltage magnitude (curve c: blue color).This torque perturbation has a small effect on machine

    speed and has practically the same value in steady state.Only a small and dumped variation occurs as the torqueincreases and decreases, implying that the anti-wind-up PIcontroller has successfully worked and machine speedconverged to its reference value. In Fig. 19, the machinespeed deviation could be evaluated in percent with respectto the reference value. This deviation is negligible since itremains at less than 5%.

    The most important effect resulting from torqueperturbation appears at stator pulsation and voltagemagnitude. Based on the classical theory of inductionmachine and on the practical operating area of speed-torquecurve, torque is considered proportional to both frequencyand the square of voltage. These properties explain whystator voltage and pulsation trajectories have the same shapeas the torque command. Finally, in Fig. 19, it can be seenthat system dynamics corresponds to a settling time of aboutone second and a maximum overshoot of less than 5%.Case 2 The induction machine initially runs under a

    load torque producing a rotor speed of 94.2 rad/s. Thetorque of the load is kept constant, resulting in therealization of a positive and a negative step change of thespeed reference. Speed command is suddenly increasedfrom 94.2 rad/s to 188.5 rad/s, before decreasing to theinitial value 94.2 rad/s. Figure 20 corresponds to this caseand shows the following: machine speed reference ref (curve a: red color); electrical rotor speed r (curve b: green color); stator reference pulsation s (curve c: blue color); and voltage duty ratio (curve d: light blue color).

    Fig. 20 System response for Case 2

    Fig. 19 System response for Case 1

    374 Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2010, 4(3): 366375

  • These results prove the good performance of theproposed control structure. The machine speed reachesits command without undesirable lag or overshoot; there-fore, a stable steady-state point is obtained. The voltageduty ratio trajectory is highly similar to that of statorfrequency. The control structure is built on a constantvoltage-frequency ratio principle. Dynamic behavior ischaracterized by a rise time of about 0.4 s, a peak time of0.6 s, and a settling time, which practically corresponds to2 s. Maximum overshoot is estimated at 4.5% for the noload regime.

    7 Conclusion

    An experimental platform realized by the research team ofRME of INSAT in Tunisia is presented in this paper, andthe topics and relevant results obtained by the variouscomponents of this test bench are explained. Energygeneration and control as PV and wind energy, ACmachine drive, and the development of a variety of low-cost and reliable sensors are also discussed. A particularinterest is attributed to the use of new technology controlcomponents and software as DSPs. Noteworthy observa-tions resulting from the use of DSP and dSPACE Kits forwater pumping and induction machine control arepresented. The realized experimental platform is nowcurrently used by the research team to improve its scienticworks. This practical experience has effectively enhancedthe scientic knowledge proles and technological cap-abilities of the team in various subjects, including solidstate power devices, converter topologies, power systems,electrical machines, control theory, digital signal proces-sing, instrumentation, analog to digital and digital toanalog conversion, and so on.

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