democracy and development antebellum america through 1850

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Democracy and Development Antebellum America through 1850. Mr. Giesler American History. Major Themes We Will Examine The Market Revolution Jeffersonian America The War of 1812 The Age of Jackson. The Market Revolution National in Scope Regional Varriations. The Market Revolution. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Democracy and Development

Antebellum America through 1850Mr. GieslerAmerican HistoryMajor Themes We Will Examine

The Market RevolutionJeffersonian AmericaThe War of 1812The Age of Jackson

The Market Revolution

National in ScopeRegional VarriationsTTYN: Read the following statement and describe what it means The Market revolution was national in scope, but had significant regional variations

What Was the Market Revolution? The emergence and growth of manufacturing and industrial revolution in New England and Northeast cities The Emergence of commercialization of farming driven by transportation revolution in Northwest The continued growth of the cotton industry in the SouthThe Market RevolutionImplications of the Market Revolution? Result: regional and specific economies emerged Provided the framework for political, social, and economic sectionalism From local to all over the world A different society was developing Transportation Revolution Steamboats (1817 20 boats to 775 in 1855) Railroads (1830 13 miles to 31,000 in 1860) Canals Roads (began to develop in the 1800s (turnpikes = toll roads)

The Market RevolutionWhy the Erie Canal? Surge in western population Limited access to eastern markets Canal boom: the Erie Canal, 1825 364 miles long, 40 ft wide, 4 ft deep; Linked Great Lakes to Albany and NYC; Transformed the northern economyThe Market Revolution

I've got a mule, and her name is Sal,Fif-teen miles on the Er-ie canal,She's a good ol' worker and a good ol' pal,Fifteen miles on the Er-ie can-al,We've hauled some barges in our day,Filled with lum-ber coal and hay,And ev'ry inch of the way we knowFrom Al-ba-ny to Buff-a-lo OHWe'd better look round for a job old gal,Fif-teen miles - on the Er-ie can-al,You bet your life I wouldn't part with Sal,Fif-teen miles on the Er-ie can-al,Giddap 'there gal we've passed that lock,We'll make Rome fore six o'clock,So, it's one more trip and then we'll go,Right back home to Buff-a-lo OH.The Market RevolutionThe Erie Canal SongLow bridge ev'-ry bod-y down,Low bridge for we're com-in to a town,And you al-ways know your neighbor,You'll always know your pal,If you've ev-er navigated on the Er-ie can-alThe Market Revolution Erie Canal reduces transportation costs by 90-95% Prices of Consumer goods go down Price of farm product stabilize and remain stable Exciting and very opportunistic time Produces a consumer society Communication revolutionThe Market Revolution Transportation of newspaper Invention of the steam press Cheap books Cheap newspaper now the whole country can remain informed, which makes for a better citizen, more informed citizen Telegraph Annihilation of time and spaceThe Market RevolutionEconomies and Regions Specialize Individual and Regional Individual Farmer develops a cash crop, has a surplus NY State specifically = dairy farmers (concentrates on one product/crop)The Market Revolution The Market Revolution The brainchild of Alexander Hamilton Workers become de-skilled (artisans); become specialist at one specific skill Ultimately it lowers wages; lower wages, but they are employed

TTYN: Who benefits from this specialization?

Consumers benefits due to the lower costs for production (mass consumption vs. mass distribution)The Market RevolutionRegional Implications

Southern States Agricultural, cotton The Invention that changed everything The Cotton Gin 1793 What happens to the South A society that is totally devoted to cottonTTYN: What segment(s) of society will be affected by this change?Plantation Owners and Slaves Greater need for slavery (slavery grows) Cotton becomes extremely profitableSlave values1802 - $6001860 - $1800No. of slaves1802 -1.5M1860 - 4M

The Market RevolutionNortheastPrior to the Market Revolution Pre-industrial manufacturingThe workshop systemThe putting-out systemImpact of the Revolution Industry (factories) Need for people and more people Need capital Power source (rivers) Rivers with falls; i.e. Merrimack River in Mass.The Market RevolutionNorthwest ( the Midwest) Agricultural - wheat, corn and soybeans Moving, moving, moving Acquire the land (there is a lot of it)Early Inventions during the late 18th and early 19th centuries

The Cotton Gin The Textile Mill The Spinning Wheel Bleaching: The Progress of cotton The Steam Engine The Erie Canal

TTYN: What was the impact of each? How did the economies of the North and South change? What were the results of these changes? The Market RevolutionPeriodic economic dislocations did not curtail rapid U.S. economic growth during the 19th century. New inventions and capital investment led to the creation of new industries and economic growth. As transportation improved, new markets continuously opened. The steamboat made river traffic faster and cheaper, but development of railroads had an even greater effect, opening up vast stretches of new territory for development. Like canals and roads, railroads received large amounts of government assistance in their early building years in the form of land grants.15

The Market RevolutionSmall Group Activity The Lowell Mill Girls Reading

The Henry ClayThe Market RevolutionJeffersonian AmericaTopics We Will Examine

Jeffersonian Democracy Limited Central Government and Pro States Rights Judicial powers strengthen Territorial expansion The Demise of the Federalist Party Revival of the Two-Party System

1801-1809Jeffersonian DemocracyAbandoned Aristocratic Democracy

TTYN: What is an Aristocrat?

Jefferson: The Founder of American Democracy? Wrote the Declaration of Independence Led and largely created the Republican Party, by which the Federalists, who were anti-democratic, were unseated First President who believed in democracy and sought to establish it

Jefferson A democrat for the people, not of the people!

Jeffersonian DemocracyThomas Jefferson biographer once wrote that there were probably twice of thrice many four-horse carriages in Virginia before the revolution as there are at present time; but the number of two-horse carriages may be ten, or even twenty times as great as at the former period.

TTYN: What does this statement illustrate?

The Progress of DemocracyJeffersonian DemocracyTTYN: Read the passage below. What is Jefferson telling the reader? The real meaning.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it.Jeffersonian DemocracyClash With Hamilton

Hoped plutocracy would evolve into aristocracy Corruption as the best method for causing plutocracy to prevail over democracy Argued that the President and Senators should be chosen for life. leader of the Federalists Hamilton advocated the growth of manufactures Child Labor was good Dislike democracy Admired England and aimed at making America resemble Jefferson stood for democracy and agriculture, Hamilton for aristocracy and urban wealthJeffersonian Democracy Jeffersons goal as president: Restore the principles of the American Revolution Why? Federalists levied oppressive taxes Stretched the provisions of the Constitution Established a national bank, which created bastion of wealth and special privileges for a few Federalist also had subverted civil liberties and expanded the powers of the central government at the expense of the states. Jefferson wanted a return to basic republican principles. Jefferson Endgame: a frugal, limited government; reduction of the public debt; respect for states' rights;encouragement of agriculture; and a limited role for government in peoples' lives.

He committed his administration to repealing taxes, slashing government expenses, cutting military expenditures, and paying off the public debt. Through his personal conduct and public policies he sought to return the country to the principles of Republican simplicity.

25Jeffersonian DemocracyThe Meaning of Jeffersons Democracy

When he says self-evident, he means it. The essence of virtue is in doing good to others Believed in the innate goodness of man that gives the basis for his liberalism Believed that most men, on the whole, will follow their consciences. For a few exceptions, laws may be necessary; but in the main, liberty is all that is needful for the promotion of human happiness. Favored democracy by the masses Faith in the common man Strict interpretation of the constitution Favored a nation of farmers

Limited Central Government and Pro State RightsRepealed the Alien and Sedition ActsTTYN: What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? The Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 the United States was at the brink of war with France (XYZ Affair) Federalists believed that Democratic-Republican criticism of Federalist policies was disloyal and feared that aliens living in the United States would sympathize with the French during a war. Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws, known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. Raised the residency requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Authorized the President to deport aliens Permitted the arrest, imprisonment, and deportation of aliens during wartime. The Sedition Act made it a crime for American citizens to "print, utter, or publish . .any false, scandalous, and malicious writing" about the Government. The laws were directed against Democratic-Republicans, the party typically favored by new citizensin the end, the people settled this debate in 1800 by electing Thomas