death to the middle ages and the birth of the modern age

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SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND A NEW WAY OF THINKING Death to the Middle Ages and the Birth of The Modern Age

Author: duane-holmes

Post on 25-Dec-2015




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  • Slide 1
  • Death to the Middle Ages and the Birth of The Modern Age
  • Slide 2
  • Gunpowder, printing, and the compass were important inventions that contributed to the breakdown of feudalism in Western Europe -Gunpowder, brought from China, meant the end of the power of the feudal castle and increased the ability of the monarch to wage war against feudal barons
  • Slide 3
  • Movable type, invented around 1488, put education within the reach of the masses and made the circulation of the Bible possible - Printing influenced the Renaissance and the Reformation
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  • The compass, brought from China through Spain, plus geographical knowledge gained from Arab cartographers made possible European contact with the Americas during the 1500s and the commercial revolution in Europe
  • Slide 5
  • In Italy, a new concept of humanity was evolving A sense of the tremendous capacities and potential of every human being replaced the concept of the frail creature in need of Gods grace: humanity became worthy of study in its own right
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  • Dante (1265-1321) wrote his Divine Comedy in Italian - He broke with tradition by writing in the vernacular rather than Latin and stressed happiness on earth - The Comedy is considered the highest literary expression of medieval thought Petrarch (1304-1347) has been called the father of humanism, because he was among the first scholars to revive interest in classical literature - His sonnets stress earthly love and physical beauty rather than the glory of God
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  • Machiavelli produced a handbook of statecraft called The Prince (1513), which was the first European secular and pragmatic treatise on politics In many ways he diagnosed the era in which kings were breaking with the authority of the church and national states were demanding the loyalty of the people -It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both. -A monarch must maintain his power by any means necessary
  • Slide 8
  • Humanism spread into north and central Europe nearly a century after it had begun in Italy - The humanism of the north has often been called Christian humanism because it blended the religious with secular humanitarian concerns - Erasmus of Rotterdam was the greatest of all northern humanistsHe satirized the scholastic philosophers, called for the reform of the clergy, and urged the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages
  • Slide 9
  • 1. The Renaissance 2. The Birth of Nations 3. The Discovery and Exploration of the Americas 4. The Revolt Against the Papacy 5. The Scientific Discoveries and Experiments
  • Slide 10
  • Height of the Renaissance: 1450 to 1559 Location: The Italian City-States Florence, Venice, and Milan became rich on trade and art was financed on a scale not seen since the classical age Key Ideas: Humanism and Secularism Key Artists: Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Raphael, Donatello, Brunelleschi Dont Forget: Shakespeare in England, Cervantes in Spain, and Montaigne in France The Literal Meaning: Rebirth
  • Slide 11
  • Although generally more subdued and often more religious than it was on the Italian peninsula
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  • It is important to remember that medieval art was almost entirely religious But Renaissance art was religious and secular, combining both Christian and humanist elements Medieval art existed mostly in cathedrals; Renaissance art was commissioned by both religious and secular leaders, and adorned public plazas and homes Medieval art was flat and stiff; Renaissance art was realistic and more human Medieval art didnt try to be worldly; Renaissance art tried very much to be of this world
  • Slide 13
  • Printing was developed in China during the Song Dynasty But moveable type wasnt invented in Europe until the mid-1400s, when Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press Prior to Gutenbergs inventions, the creation of books was such a long and laborious task that few were made Those that were made were usually printed in Latin As a result, the typical person didnt read
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  • The printing press changed that Books became easy to produce and thus were far more affordable The growing middle class fueled demand for books that were written in their own vernacular language
  • Slide 15
  • The Medieval Church was a powerful institution It was the one institution that the people of western Europe had in common It was a unifying force With one foot on Earth and the other in heaven, the pope acted as the intermediary between man and god
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  • When the church needed to finance its immense building projects plus pay for the huge number of Renaissance artists in its employ, it began to sell indulgences An indulgence was a piece of paper that the faithful could purchase to reduce time in purgatory In purgatory, a sinner would expiate or make amends for his sins and then be allowed to enter heaven Because purgatory was not a happy place to go, people greatly valued the concept of reducing their time there
  • Slide 17
  • Selling indulgences was not only a means of generating income but also a way for the church to maintain power over the masses During this time, land-owning nobles grew increasingly resentful of the church, which had amassed an enormous amount of power and wealth and exploited a huge number of resources at the expense of the nobles This resentment and mistrust fueled anti-church sentiments The selling of indulgences propelled the frustration into the ranks of the peasant class and helped set the stage for confrontation
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  • The selling of indulgences also confirmed to many the corrupt nature of the church
  • Slide 19
  • A professor at the University of Wittenberg Posted his Ninety-five Theses directed against the selling of indulgences in 1517 Luther claimed that the source of spiritual authority was not the church but scripture and the individual reader The church was not necessary to salvation, because only faith could save man (justification by faith alone) After the Diet of Worms in 1520, Luther refused to recant, was excommunicated, and Lutheranism was formed in defiance of the Roman Catholic Church
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  • Other theologians began to assert their own biblical interpretations John Calvin from France led a Protestant group by preaching an ideology of predestination Calvinist doctrine stated that God had predetermined an ultimate destiny for all people, most of whom God had already damned Only a few would be saved and those people were known as the elect according to Calvin
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  • John Knox founded the Presbyterian church in Scotland but differed little from Calvin in theology Henry VIII of England broke with the Roman Catholic church in 1534 because the pope refused to allow him to divorce his wife Although Henry broke without first adopting any essential Protestant principles, eventually the forces of reform prevailed and the Anglican or Episcopalian church developed
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  • Although Protestants split into Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Huguenots, Baptists, Methodists, Lutherans, and so forth, each sect had certain beliefs in common
  • Slide 23
  • 1. All Protestants rejected papal authority and the supernatural character of the priesthood 2. All replaced Latin with the vernacular (the language of the country) and accepted the authority of the Bible 3. All believed, with various interpretations, in justification by faith alone 4. All rejected purgatory, transubstantiation, and obligatory confession 5. All reduced the number of sacraments, usually to two or three
  • Slide 24
  • At the Council of Trent, sitting irregularly in the mid-1500s, the Roman Catholic church was reformed and rejuvenated In Spain, the Renaissance spirit had not taken over, and it was here that Catholicism was most militant Saint Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits), a monastic order dedicated to active participation in world affairs and acting as a missionary force throughout Asia and the Americas
  • Slide 25
  • The Inquisition was first established in Rome to enforce conformity throughout the Catholic world
  • Slide 26
  • Change from a self-sufficient town-centered economy to a capitalistic nation-centered economy New wealth and prosperity in Europe from the profits of trade led to changes at home, for the commercial aristocracy began to rival the landed aristocracy in social and political power Mercantilism was a direct result of attempts by states to acquire more money through the creation of a favorable balance of trade
  • Slide 27
  • The essence of science is the union of reason with observation and experimentation: the reasoned postulate or working hypothesis is accepted only as long as it accords with the observed data
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  • Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543): Disputed the Ptolemaic theory, which stated that the sun revolved around the earthInstead he advanced a heliocentric or sun-centered universe theory that was mathematically simpler than the geocentric Johannes Kepler (1571-1642): Kepler carried Copernicus theory further and discovered the orbits of the planets were ellipses
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  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Built one of the first telescopes, confirmed the Copernican theory, and suggested that planetary bodies were made of the same substance as the earthForced to recant by the Roman Catholic Church Francis Bacon (1561-1626): Formalized the inductive method of acquiring knowledge and emphasized the usefulness of knowledge Rene Descartes (1596-1650): The developer of coordinate geometry, believed that nature could be reduced to a mathematical formula and advanced the principle of systematic doubt
  • Slide 30
  • Isaac Newton (1642-1727): In 1687 Newton published the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy showing that all motion could be described by the same mathematical formula Gravitation was the force that moved matter Until Einstein, his theories remained unshaken, but now it has been proved that they do not apply to subatomic structures
  • Slide 31
  • Although the effects of the new science were important in navigation, in the development of calculus, in the science of map- making, and in warfare, the psychological effects were the most profound for mankind could no longer claim to be the center of the universe The universe was seen as natural, understandable by natural laws which could also be applied to society
  • Slide 32
  • Modern nationalism was in part the product of the nineteenth century The French revolution fostered it The mass army, the indoctrination that every person was a citizen with a duty to serve the state, and the loyalty to the state rather than the estate (class or group) were ideas of the revolution Nationalism also sprang up as a resistance movement to French imperialism and Napoleonic dictatorship
  • Slide 33
  • In the nineteenth century nationalism was a force for the unification of states whose peoples had been divided into a multitude of states The ideal of European political unity gave rise to a new allegiance to the national state European fragmentation fueled rivalry and competition
  • Slide 34
  • All of these factors gave rise to a new era, the modern era, an era of hopes, triumphs, and tragedies; an era of great change.