Darren Contribution

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<ul><li> 1. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION By Trevor Alston, Jonathan Benn, Darren Bircher &amp; Shaun Bent </li> <li> 2. Network Topologies <ul><li>A Network topology is the study of the arrangement or mapping of the </li></ul><ul><li>elements(links, nodes, etc.) of a network, especially the physical (real) and </li></ul><ul><li>logical (virtual) interconnections between nodes. Karris (2009) states that a </li></ul><ul><li>local area network (LAN) is one example of a network that exhibits both a </li></ul><ul><li>physical topology and a logical topology. </li></ul></li> <li> 3. Network Topologies <ul><li>Network Topologies continued; </li></ul><ul><li>Any particular network topology is determined only by the graphical mapping </li></ul><ul><li>of the configuration of physical and/or logical connections between nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>LAN Network Topology is, therefore, technically a part of graph theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, </li></ul><ul><li>and/or signal types may differ in two networks and yet their topologies may be </li></ul><ul><li>Identical (Ciccarelli, 2004). </li></ul></li> <li> 4. Network Topologies <ul><li>Basic types of topologies </li></ul><ul><li>There are six basic types of topology in networks (Groth, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Bus, Star, Ring, Mesh, Tree and Hybrid topology </li></ul><ul><li>Some of which will be discussed in later slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of network topologies </li></ul><ul><li>There are also three basic categories of network topologies: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, Signal and Logical topologies </li></ul></li> <li> 5. Organizational Communication <ul><li>What is organizational communication? </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly speaking, Organizational Communication is: people working together to achieve individual or collective goals (Miller, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time conferencing, virtual whiteboards, </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></li> <li> 6. Virtual Teams <ul><li>A Virtual Team also known as a Geographically Dispersed Team (GDT) is a group of individuals who work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology (Nilles, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>They have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose, have interdependent performance goals, and share an approach to work for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographically dispersed teams allow organizations to hire and retain the best people regardless of location. Members of virtual teams communicate electronically, so they may never meet face to face. However, most teams will meet at some point in time (Nilles, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>A virtual team does not always mean steelworker. Teleworkers are defined as individuals who work from home. Many virtual teams in today's organizations consist of employees both working at home and small groups in the office but in different geographic locations. </li></ul></li> <li> 7. Why use Virtual Teams? <ul><li>Best employees may be located anywhere in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers demand personal flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers demand increasing technological sophistication. </li></ul><ul><li>A flexible organization is more competitive and responsive to the marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers tend to be more productive; i.e., they spend less time on commuting and travel </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing globalization of trade and corporate activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The global workday is 24 vs. 8 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of environments which require inter-organizational cooperation as well as competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in workers' expectations of organizational participation. </li></ul><ul><li>A continued shift from production to service/knowledge work environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing horizontal organization structures characterized by structurally and geographically distributed human resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of fibre optic technology has significantly increased the scope of off-site communication. </li></ul></li> <li> 8. Benefits to Virtual Teams <ul><li>Deborah (2006) states the benefits to operating with virtual teams; these are; </li></ul><ul><li>Some members of virtual teams do not need to come in to the workplace, therefore the company will not need to offer those workers office or parking space. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces travelling expenses for employees. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows more people to be included in the labour pool. </li></ul><ul><li>It decreases both air pollution and congestion because there is less commuting. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows workers in organizations to be more flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>By working in virtual teams, physical handicaps are not a concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows companies to procure the best talent without geographical restrictions. </li></ul></li> <li> 9. Downfalls to Virtual Teams <ul><li>Unfortunately there are many downfalls to Virtual Teams (Deborah, 2006), </li></ul><ul><li>these are; </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in managing the performance of the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding in communications is the leading complaint among members of virtual teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Working on a project over the virtual workspace causes lack of project visibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty contacting other members. (i.e. email, instant messaging, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>As stated there are a lot, so additional downfalls are on the next page too. </li></ul></li> <li> 10. More Downfalls <ul><li>Differences in time zones. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult for team members to fully comprehend the meaning of text-based messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Building trust may be challenging because mechanisms different from those used in face-to-face teams are required to build trust </li></ul><ul><li>Members fail to take 'ownership' of project </li></ul><ul><li>Specific nuances such as facial expressions and other subtle gestures can also be missed through virtual communication as opposed to meeting face to face (Lipnack, 1997). </li></ul></li> <li> 11. Real-Time Conferencing <ul><li>A Video-Conference (also known as a Video-Teleconference ) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously (Spielman, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>It has also been called visual collaboration and is a type of groupware. It differs from videophone in that it is designed to serve as a conference rather than individuals (Spielman, 2003). </li></ul></li> <li> 12. Benefits to Real-Time Conferencing <ul><li>Increases Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Improves Communication and Reinforces relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces travel expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Multi-point Meetings Across Time Zones &amp; International Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Improves Effectiveness </li></ul></li> <li> 13. Downfalls to Real-Time Conferencing <ul><li>Some observers argue that two outstanding issues are preventing </li></ul><ul><li>videoconferencing from becoming a standard form of communication, despite </li></ul><ul><li>the ubiquity of videoconferencing-capable systems. These issues are: </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact: It is known that eye contact plays a large role in conversational turn-taking, perceived attention and intent, and other aspects of group communication. While traditional telephone conversations give no eye contact cues, videoconferencing systems are arguably worse in that they provide an incorrect impression that the remote interlocutor is avoiding eye contact. Telepresence systems have cameras located in the screens that reduce the amount of parallax observed by the users. This issue is also being addressed through research that generates a synthetic image with eye contact using stereo reconstruction (Spielman, 2003). </li></ul></li> <li> 14. Downfalls to Real-Time Conferencing Continued. <ul><li>Appearance Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance Consciousness: A second problem with videoconferencing is that one is on camera, with the video stream possibly even being recorded. The burden of presenting an acceptable on-screen appearance is not present in audio-only communication. Early studies by Alphonse Chapanis found that the addition of video actually impaired communication, possibly because of the consciousness of being on camera. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of eye-contact may be solved with advancing technology, and </li></ul><ul><li>presumably the issue of appearance consciousness will fade as people </li></ul><ul><li>become accustomed to videoconferencing. </li></ul></li> <li> 15. References <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Ciccarelli, P et al (2004). Networking Foundations. Publisher: John Wiley &amp; Son. </li></ul><ul><li>Karris, S (2009). Networks . Publisher: Orchard Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Groth, D et al (2005). Network+ Study Guide . Publisher: John Wiley and Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, K (2002). Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes . Publisher: Thomson/Wadsworth. </li></ul><ul><li>Nilles, J (1998). Managing Telework: Options for Managing the Virtual Workforce . Publisher: John Wiley &amp; Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Deborah, L et al (2006). Mastering Virtual Teams . Publisher: John Wiley &amp; Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipnack, J et al (1997). Virtual Teams . Publisher: Wiley. </li></ul><ul><li>Spielman, S et al (2003). The Web Conferencing Book . Publisher: AMACOM. </li></ul></li> </ul>