Dangerous Journeys

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Dangerous Journeys. A metaphor for passage through the teen years Marvin Krank. How can we help youth get through these perilous times. Mixed messages. Project on Adolescent Trajectories and Health (PATH): social context, cognition, risk-taking behaviour, and health outcomes. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Dangerous JourneysA metaphor for passage through the teen years

    Marvin Krank

  • How can we help youth get through these perilous times

  • Mixed messages

  • Project on Adolescent Trajectories and Health (PATH): social context, cognition, risk-taking behaviour, and health outcomesThree-year longitudinal studyFunded by the SSHRC and CIHRPartnership with SD#23

  • Overview of theoretical approachSocial factors modify cognitions about risky behaviorsCognitions affect transitions to risk-taking behaviorRisk-taking behaviors impact on health outcomes

  • Life style choices begin in adolescenceDrug and alcohol use begin in the early teensMany smokers begin before age 14

    Risky choices have long-term consequences for youthearly pregnancyaccidentsunhealthy lifestyleslost opportunities

  • Grades 7-10 are a time of significant transitions in drug and alcohol use

    Chart4

    0.1Seven GradeSeven Grade0.09Seven GradeSeven Grade

    0.210.23Eight0.170.24Eight

    Nine0.310.38Nine0.340.42

    TenTen0.46TenTen0.51

    Male

    Female

    Percent

    Marijuana Ever used

    Sex

    Wave 1 variables

    MaleFemale

    SevenEightNineSevenEightNine

    Dating0.590.640.740.470.670.78

    Making Out0.320.640.770.260.640.74

    SexN/A0.110.22N/A0.080.19

    Dating Partner0.530.570.660.420.630.73

    Wa ve 2 variables

    MaleFemale

    EightNineTenEightNineTen

    Made Out0.550.570.650.40.60.7

    Sex0.130.120.220.070.170.21

    Pregnant0.070.010.050.010.020.01

    Dating Partner0.650.680.70.550.690.77

    Chart1

    0.3150.1150.0950.0950.0050.0050.010.02

    0.53750.27250.160.21250.040.0350.04250.075

    0.70250.4650.25250.36250.050.02250.03750.115

    0.7850.60.280.4850.03250.020.01250.14

    Alcohol

    Drunkenness

    Tobacco

    Marijuana

    Stimulants

    Opiates

    Club Drugs

    Hallucinogens

    Grade

    Percent used in past year

    Drug and alcohol use

    Sheet1

    Alcohol0.580.690.780.490.70.79SevenEightNineTen

    Drunkenness0.270.460.560.280.490.64Alcohol0.3150.53750.70250.785

    Cigarettes0.10.140.210.160.260.35Drunkenness0.1150.27250.4650.6

    Marijuana0.210.310.460.170.340.51Tobacco0.0950.160.25250.28

    Stimulants0.050.040.050.040.060.08Marijuana0.0950.21250.36250.485

    Opiates0.050.010.050.030.030.03Stimulants0.0050.040.050.0325

    Club Drugs0.060.020.010.040.050.04Opiates0.0050.0350.02250.02

    Hallucinogens0.090.090.110.070.140.17Club Drugs0.010.04250.03750.0125

    Inhalants0.110.070.130.080.080.1Hallucinogens0.020.0750.1150.14

    Caffeine0.910.920.90.930.930.98

    MaleFemale

    SevenEightNineSevenEightNine

    Alcohol0.370.550.70.260.530.72

    Drunkenness0.130.260.380.10.280.53

    Tobacco0.080.170.250.110.210.36

    Marijuana0.10.230.380.090.240.42

    Stimulants00.040.060.010.030.04

    Opiates00.040.030.010.020.02

    Club Drugs00.030.040.020.040.04

    Hallucinogens0.010.060.090.030.080.14

    Alcohol

    Grade

    SevenEightNineTen

    MaleWave 1

    Wave 2

    FemaleWave 1

    Wave 2

    Grade

    SevenEightNineTen

    Male0.370.58

    0.550.69

    0.70.78

    Female0.260.53

    0.490.7

    0.720.79

    Alcohol0.3150.555

    0.520.695

    0.710.785

    SevenEightNineTen

    Alcohol0.3150.53750.70250.785

    Alcohol

    000000

    000000

    000000

    000000

    Male

    Female

    Percent Ever Used

    Alcohol Use

    Drunk

    Grade

    SevenEightNineTen

    Male0.130.27

    0.260.46

    0.380.56

    Female0.10.28

    0.280.49

    0.530.64

    Drunk0.1150.275

    0.270.475

    0.4550.6

    SevenEightNineTen

    Drunk0.1150.27250.4650.6

    Drunk

    000000

    000000

    000000

    000000

    Male

    Female

    Proportion

    Ever been drunk

    Tobacco

    Grade

    EightNineTen

    Male0.080.170.25

    Female0.110.210.36

    Grade

    SevenEightNineTen

    Male0.080.1

    0.170.14

    0.250.21

    Female0.110.16

    0.210.26

    0.360.35

    Tobacco0.0950.13

    0.190.2

    0.3050.28

    SevenEightNineTen

    Tobacco0.0950.160.25250.28

    Tobacco

    000000

    000000

    000000

    000000

    Male

    Female

    Hallucinogens

    00

    00

    00

    Male

    Female

    Percent Ever Used

    Tobacco Use

    Marijuana

    Grade at time of survey

    SevenEightNineTen

    Male0.010.09

    0.060.09

    0.090.11

    Female0.030.07

    0.080.14

    0.140.17

    Halucinogens0.020.08

    0.070.115

    0.1150.14

    SevenEightNineTen

    Halucinogens0.020.0750.1150.14

    Marijuana

    000000

    000000

    000000

    000000

    Male

    Male

    Male

    Female

    Female

    Female

    Proportion

    Hallucinogens

    Grade

    SevenEightNineTen

    Male0.10.230.38

    0.210.310.46

    Female0.090.240.42

    0.170.340.51

    Grade

    SevenEightNineTen

    Male0.10.21

    0.230.31

    0.380.46

    Female0.090.17

    0.240.34

    0.420.51

    Marijuana0.0950.19

    0.2350.325

    0.40.485

    SevenEightNineTen

    Marijuana0.0950.21250.36250.485

    000000

    000000

    000000

    000000

    Male

    Female

    Percent

    Marijuana Ever used

  • A small, but significant percentage of these youth used drugs and alcohol in the past week

  • High risk behaviours tend to co-existDrug and alcohol use, early and unsafe sexual activity, and violence tend to co-occur

    For example, heavier drug and alcohol use is linked to being both a victim and a perpetrator of sexual assault.

  • Drug and alcohol use are highly correlated

  • Are aboriginal youth at greater risk?Nine out of twelve comparison measures show higher levels of useMay mask levels of use as we have a lower level of participation and higher drop out rate (50% versus 20%)School drop outs have much higher levels of use!

  • Culturally Specific Risk Factors Ethnic Dislocation (May, 1982; Oetting, Beauvais &Velarde, 1982; Trimble Padilla, & Bell, 1987)Acculturation Stress (LaFromboise, 1988)Alienation from the Larger Culture (Moncher et al., 1990)Unstructured time on reservations, during which drinking is also a response to boredom (Edwards & Edwards, 1988)

  • Why weshould care

  • Adolescent risk is based on what they doUnsafe sex in youth leads to teen pregnancy, low birth weight babies, and STDs including HIV

    Drug and alcohol use increase unintentional injuries, the leading cause of death in youth

  • Early and heavy alcohol use is correlated with many negative outcomesHealthAches and painsAccidents HospitalizationViolenceVictimPerpetrator Various kindsBullyingAssault SexEarly sexRegretted sex Sexual assaultProblem behaviours

    Skipped schoolStayed out all night without parent permissionDamaged propertyWarned or detained by policeSchool detentionStole something outside of homeStole at homeSuspended out of schoolSuspended in schoolRan away from homeCarrying weapons

  • Modern Risk Prevention ProgramsDeal with social and cultural influencesEncourage alternative activitiesCorrect misconceptions about drug and alcohol use

  • Contemporary Evidence-based MethodsLess confrontational Motivate changeMeet individuals where they are Age and Stage appropriateCulturally responsiveCommunity participationCan be brief interventions

  • Canoe Journey, Lifes JourneyDevelopment of Culturally Relevant Life Skills ManualCanoe Journey as a metaphor for lifes journeyUse of other traditionally Native symbols, particularly the Medicine Wheel Medicine Wheel generally understood to have similar meaning across tribal boundaries

  • ConclusionThe real war on drugs is the battle for the hearts and minds of our youth

    We dont want to prevent them from taking the journey, but we do want them prepared for challenges along the way.

    A significant number of students are drank alcohol, smoked cigarettes or smoked marijuana in the week prior to the second year of the survey.

    One in five admitted to being drunk and one in five admitted to smoking marijuana in the previous week.Alcohol use is strongly correlated with use of other drugs in adolescents.

    The following table shows the correlations between various measures of alcohol and drug use among adolescents in grades seven to nine who indicated that they had one or more drinks of alcohol. Most of the measures are based on the question when was the last time you used the substance? Alcohol quantity and frequency measures were based on 1) the typical number of drinks consumed in a drinking episode and 2) the number of days in the past 30 drinking alcohol. As expected, the table shows the strong interrelationship between the four alcohol use variables. Somewhat surprising, however, is the strong relationship with other drug use. Stimulant use was least correlated with alcohol use with the strongest correlation of .225. Tobacco use, marijuana use and hallucinogen use revealed moderate to strong relationships with the alcohol use variables. Moreover, consistent with previous findings, tobacco use was also strongly correlated with marijuana and hallucinogen use. The strongest correlations with marijuana and hallucinogen use were with the recency of having been intoxicated (drunk).