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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 2 Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Learning Disabilities Definitions and Types IDEA Definition Student does not achieve commensurate with his or her age and ability level in one or more several specific areas when provided with appropriate learning experiences The student has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of seven areas
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Learning Disabilities Definition (continued) Oral Expression Listening Comprehension Written Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Mathematics Calculation Mathematics Reasoning
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Definition of Specific Learning Disability (continued) A student is not regarded as having a specific learning disability if the discrepancy is primarily the result of: Visual, hearing or motor disability Mental retardation Emotional disturbance Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Characteristics of Students with LD Most students with LD seem more different than alike. Overriding characteristics: Unexpected difficulty or low performance in one or more academic areas Ineffective or inefficient information processing or learning strategies in the area(s) of difficulty
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Severe difficulty in learning to read, particularly with decoding and spelling Dysgraphia Severe difficulty learning to write, including handwriting Dyscalculia Severe disability in learning mathematical concepts and computation
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Reading Difficulties Reading difficulties are evident in over 85% of students with LD (Lyon, 1999) Difficulties are associated with Phonemic awareness Alphabetic principle Rapid naming
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Why the Increase in the Prevalence of Learning Disabilities? (Hallahan, 1992; Lerner, 2001) Growing public awareness of LD Greater social acceptance Limited alternatives for other students at-risk Social and cultural influences on central nervous system integrity Increasing needs for literacy at work and daily life
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Instructional Techniques and Accommodations for Students with LD Tips to Remember No one approach is relevant for all students Use Best Teaching Practices Overview of lesson or unit Use Visuals (I.e., overhead projector) Organize learning activities and working groups Relate the learning to the students daily lives Be creative and humorous
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Common Practices in predicting Academic Success of Students with LD Control of task difficulty Small interactive groups Direct instruction Advance Organizers Cognitive strategies
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Self-Monitoring Questions What is my purpose for learning or doing this? What is my plan for doing this task? Does what I am learning, reading or doing make sense? What do I already know about this topic? How am I doing with my work? What are the main points I am learning? How can I use this elsewhere?
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Helpful Instructional Principles Use learning tools and aids Adjust work load and time Present and have students demonstrate their learning in multiple ways Teach students to use memory strategies
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Definition Two types Inattention Hyperactivity-Impulsivity DSM-IV Classification ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type ADHD, Combined Type
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Inattention Refers To: Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following: Failing to pay close attention to details and making careless mistakes that are inconsistent with childs developmental level Failing to sustain attention to tasks and/or play activities
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Inattention Refers To (continued) Failing to listen, even when spoken to directly Failing to complete tasks Having difficulty with organization Resisting to work on tasks that require sustained attention Losing materials and objects Becoming easily distracted Being forgetful
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Hyperactivity Refers To Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following: Hyperactivity Fidgeting or squirming Having a difficult time remaining and seated in class Running or climbing excessively when its not appropriate Having difficulty playing quietly Acting a though he/she is driven by a motor Talking too much
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Impulsivity Refers To Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following: Blurting out answers Difficulty waiting for their turn Interrupting others or butting into activities Onset of inattention and/or hyperactivity should be present before age 7 and in two or more separate settings.
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Core Characteristics of ADHD Poor sustained attention or vigilance Impulsive or poor delay of gratification Hyperactivity or poorly regulated activity Diminished rule-governed behavior Increased variability of task performance
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for ADHD Positive attitudes towards mainstreaming and inclusion of students with ADHD Ability to collaborate as a member of an interdisciplinary team Knowledge of behavior-management procedures Personal characteristics
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Educational Interventions Use novelty in instruction and directions Maintain a schedule Prepare students for transitions and provide support in completing transitions Emphasize time limits
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Educational Interventions Provide organizational assistance Provide rewards consistently and often Be brief and clear Arrange the environment to facilitate attention Provide optimal stimulation Allow for movement and postures other than sitting
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Educational Interventions Keep homework assignments separate from unfinished school work Use homework as practice for materials that have already been taught Identify the minimum amount to demonstrate learning Provide timelines for tasks associates with long-term assignments
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  • copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Medication as Treatment Stimulant medication Ritalin Dexadrine Adderall Cylert Concerta Medication is only one aspect of a treatment plan


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