Conservation of medicinal plants

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Short notes on conservation of medicinal plants .. concerned for exam point of view

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<ul><li> 1. CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS<br />1) INTRODUCTION India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Herbal plants that have been used by Ayurveda, sidda, unani &amp;Tibetan system of health care face an uncertain future due to over exploitation. Conservation is about preventing damage and loss to our cultural heritage. <br /><ul><li>2) CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES </li> <li> 2. PreservationRestorationExaminationDocumentationResearchAdviseTreatmentTraining and education</li></ul>3) NEED FOR CONSERVATION {OM SWELL}<br />a) Over one and a half million practitioners of the Indian systems of medicine, in the oral and codified streams, use medicinal plants in preventive, promotive and curative applications.<br />b) Medicinal plants are potential renewable natural resources <br />c) Several medicinal plants have been assessed as endangered, vulnerable and threatened due to over harvesting in the wild..<br />d) While the demand for medicinal plants is increasing, their survival in their natural habitats is under growing threat.<br />4) ENDANGERED SPECIES: a) Endangered species those, which have already become extinct &amp; the plants, which are on the verge of extinction.<br />b) IUCN has classified endangered species as:<br />RARE SPECIES: Species with small population restricted geographically with localised habitats. They are not in immediate danger of extinction e.g. Saraca indicaVULNERABLE: Species are under threat of or actually declining in number. e.g. Embelia ribes beum ENDANGERED: Species with low population number that are in considerable danger of becoming extinct e.g. Dioscorea.deltoida.CRITICALLY ENDANGERED: when a species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in wild in the immediate future e.g. Concinium fenestratum.<br />EXTINCT: Species which cannot be found in areas where they recently been inhabited e.g .Drosera indica.<br />c) CAUSES OF EXTINCTION:<br /><ul><li>FOREST DEPLETION DUE TO:ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:Direct human pressure, Cattle ranchingPollutionFuel wood consumption Disturbances in the ecological system &amp;diversityAcid rain, Illegal export &amp;tradeCommercial logging in forestsGreen house effect, Agricultural intensification </li> <li> 3. INDIAN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANTS </li> <li> 4. Artocarpus hirsutus (moraceae)Ephedra gerardiana: (Ephedraceae)Baliospermum montanum (Euphorbiaceae)Garcinia(clusiaceae)Calophyllum apetalum (elusiaceae)Rauwolfia serpentinaDipterocarpus indicus (Dipterocarpaceae)Woodfordia fruticosa (Antibacterial) </li> <li> 5. I. Ex-situ conservation it is the conservation and maintenance of samples of living organism outside their natural habitat, in the form of whole plants, seed, pollen, vegetative propagules, tissues or cell cultures. a) Ex-situ conservation has several purposes: {MRP BSP}</li></ul>*Rescue threatened germplasm<br />*Produce material for conservation biology research<br />*Bulk up germplasm for storage in various form of ex-situ facility<br />*Supply material for various purposes to remove or reduce pressure from wild collecting.<br />*Produce material for reintroduction, reinforcement, habitat restoration and management.<br />b) Actions: {I SECOND}<br />*Identify high diversity areas of medicinal plants, species threatened by genetic erosion and/or over exploitation, and areas prone to natural and/or man made calamities;<br />*Solicit support from the local communities and traditional healers in the inventory of medicinal plants and indigenous knowledge<br />*Establish field gene banks and botanic garden for rare or endangered medicinal plant species and conventional preservation facilities for storable seeds of medicinal plants <br />*Collect and document information on medicinal plant and indigenous knowledge<br /><ul><li>c) Methods of preservation are divided according to the type of germplasm: </li> <li> 6. Storage of seeds</li></ul>Orthodox type: include small seeded grain crops and vegetablesa) Long term storage:Storage conditions of -12c and 30% RH. Perpetuation of the seed stocks, 30-50 years. b) Medium term storage:1c and 40% RH.c) Short term storage: 10c and 40%RHRecalcitrant typesSeed cannot be stored under low temperature and low humidity conditions (cocoa, Logan and lichee), here seeds stored in low temperature ranges for short periods such as 1-5 years. Disadv *Loss of seed viability, *Poor germination rate<br />d) Conservation of clonal materials:<br />Tissue culture<br />By genetic modifications (Disease resistant plants Pest resistant plants)<br />Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen<br />Botanic gardens<br />e) Disadvantages of ex situ methods<br />Represent a narrower range of genetic variability than that occurs in wild.<br />Species conserved suffer genetic erosion and depend on continued human care.<br /></li> </ul>