“Connecting the dots”

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Connecting the dots. How do articulatory processes map onto acoustic processes?. Model assumes No coupling with Nasal cavity trachea & pulmonary system. Stevens and House (1955). Model parameters Distance of major constriction from glottis ( d 0 ) Radius of major constriction ( r 0 ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Connecting the dotsHow do articulatory processes map onto acoustic processes?</p></li><li><p>Stevens and House (1955)Model assumesNo coupling withNasal cavitytrachea &amp; pulmonary system</p></li><li><p>Stevens and House (1955)Model parametersDistance of major constriction from glottis (d0)Radius of major constriction (r0)Area (A) and length (l) of lip constrictionA/l conductivity indexFigure 1.</p></li><li><p>Comparing model to real vocal tract</p></li><li><p>Stevens and House (1955)Figure 2.</p></li><li><p>Key Goal of StudyEvaluate the effect of systematically changing each of these three vocal tract parameters on F1-F3 frequency</p></li><li><p>Formant Frequency (KHz)Point of Constriction (d0) (cm from glottis)F1F2F3Figure 3.</p></li><li><p>Formant Frequency (KHz)Point of Constriction (d0) (cm from glottis)F1F2F3Figure 3.</p></li><li><p>NOTESingle intersection between F1 &amp; F2 in most casesPoint of constrictionA/lFigure5.</p></li><li><p>Point of constrictionA/lFigure 5.</p></li><li><p>Point of constrictionA/lFigure 7.</p></li><li><p>General Observations d0 = Vfront &amp; Vback</p><p> d0 = Vfront = F2</p><p> d0 = Vback = F1</p></li><li><p>General Observations r0 = F1 r0 = F1</p><p>When d0 (anterior) r0 = Vfront = F2 lip rounding = A/l = F1 &amp; F2</p></li><li><p>Formant Patterns for the Noncentral (i.e., omitting </p><p>// and //) Monophthongal Vowels of American English </p><p>(based on Peterson &amp; Barney averages) </p></li><li><p>r0d0-+-+</p><p>Formant Data for Men</p><p>Standard F1-F2 Plot</p></li><li><p>Peterson &amp; Barney Averages (for men only)</p><p>Plotted on an Acoustic Vowel Diagram</p></li><li><p>normalizing formant values</p></li><li><p>Clinical Example</p></li><li><p>Acoustic variables related to the perception of vowel qualityF1 and F2Other formants (i.e. F3)Fundamental frequency (F0)DurationSpectral dynamicsi.e. formant change over time</p></li><li><p>How helpful is F1 &amp; F2?From Hillenbrand &amp; Gayvert (1993)</p></li><li><p>How does adding more variables improve pattern classifier success?F1, F2 + F380-85 %F1, F2 + F080-85 %F1, F2 + F3 + F089-90 %</p></li><li><p>How about Duration?Nearby vowels have different durations</p></li><li><p>RESULTS</p><p>Original Duration:</p><p>96.0%</p><p>Neutral Duration:</p><p>94.1%</p><p>Short Duration:</p><p>91.4%</p><p>Long Duration:</p><p>90.9%</p></li><li><p>What about Duration?</p><p>CONCLUSIONS</p><p>1. Duration has a measurable but fairly small overall effect on vowel perception.</p><p>2. Vowel Shortening (-2 SDs): ~5% drop in </p><p>overall intelligibility</p><p>3. Vowel Lengthening (+2 SDs): ~5% drop in overall intelligibility</p><p>4. Vowels Most Affected:</p><p>// - // - //</p><p>/A/ - //</p><p>5. Vowels Not Affected:</p><p>/i/ - /I/</p><p>/u/ - /U/</p></li><li><p>What about Duration? Some examples</p></li><li><p>What about formant variation?</p></li><li><p>What about formant variation?</p></li><li><p>What about formant variation?Naturally spoken /hAd/</p><p>Synthesized, preserving original formant contours</p><p> Synthesized with flattened formants</p></li><li><p>What about formant variation?Conclusion: Spectral change patterns do matter. </p></li><li><p>What do we conclude?</p><p>What can we conclude from all </p><p>this about how listeners recognize </p><p>which vowel was spoken?</p><p>1. Primary Cues: </p><p> F1 and F2</p><p> Relationships among the formants matter, not absolute formant frequencies</p><p>2. Cues that are of secondary importance, but definitely play a role in vowel perception:</p><p> f0</p><p> F3 (especially for //)</p><p> Spectral Change Patterns</p><p> Vowel Duration</p></li><li><p>Sinewave Speech DemonstrationSinewave speech examples (from HINT sentence intelligibility test):</p></li><li><p>Selected issues that are not resolvedWhat do listeners use?Specific formants vs. spectrum envelopeWhat is the planning space used by speakers?ArticulatoryAcousticAuditory</p></li></ul>