confronting racial disproportionality through prevention anne 2018. 5. 18.¢  anne gregory,...

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PowerPoint PresentationFundamental assertions today:
We can improve the educational trajectories of students struggling with emotional and behavioral challenges.
“Up-skilling” educators’ social, emotional, relational and instructional skills is a worthy prevention effort.
We can undertake prevention efforts with a racial equity consciousness
34%
23%
16%
“Disciplining” students with disabilities: OSS rates for secondary students with disabilities, 2011-2012
African American male
African American female
• Implications from a recent study of African American females:
• Jamilia Blake and colleagues found that African American female adolescents with darker complexions were almost twice as likely to receive an out-of-school suspension as their White female peers.
Black/White differences in: income, perceived behavior,
and achievement do not explain away all of the
Black/White disparities in discipline
Suspension risk for contact with police/juvenile justice system
The logic of prevention in addressing disparities in disability status
ED = emotional disturbed
• “An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.”
• “Inappropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances”
• “A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.”
• Note the following: • 5.7% of students served under IDEA are given ED disability status (The
largest category is special learning disability, 38.8%, US DOE, 2017).
Disparities in “Emotionally Disturbed” designation
•Black students two times more likely to be categorized as ED relative to all other student groups (US DOE, 2017).
•Low income students and male students also more likely to be to receive ED designation (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier & Maczuga, 2017)
•Low achieving students more likely to receive ED designation (Morgan et al., 2017)
Negative correlates of ED
•Only 58% of students with ED graduated with a regular high school diploma (US DOE, 2017).
•ED students, relative to students with other disabilities, are more likely to receive ISS and OSS (Meyers, 2015).
The logic of prevention in addressing disparities in ED
• Increase bias awareness and cultural competence • Improve relationships, engagement, belonging,
achievement • Increase opportunities for SEL skill development
• Prevent disparities in ED and negative trajectories of those with ED status.
What are schools and districts doing at Tier 1 from a prevention
standpoint?
District level policy changes
In 2014, Syracuse City School District released a revised Student Code of Conduct, Character, and Support
The introduction states:
• “The Code ensures that schools provide equal access to a wide range of supports and interventions that promote positive behavior, help students develop self- discipline and social and emotional efficacy, and enable students to improve and correct inappropriate, unacceptable, and unskillful behaviors” (pg. 2).
Social and Emotional Learning
•Strive to hold students and staff accountable and create opportunities for student and staff social and emotional learning.
•Social Awareness •Relationship Skills •Responsible Decision-Making •Self-Awareness •Self-Management
Positive Behavior Intervention supports (PBIS), Tier1 1, (PBIS)
PBIS Culturally Responsive Field Guide
• Identity and Bias Awareness • Student Voice • Supportive Environment • Situational Appropriateness • Data for equity
• Available at www.PBIS.org
students.
My teachers don’t let me do just easy work, but make me
think.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdKhcQrLD1w
• Students from MetWest High School in the Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) facilitate, participate in and reflect on using the Circle in the classroom to build community and relationships. The video highlights the process and elements of a community building Circle.
A student reflects on circles held during advisory
It will help staff grow… because it’s not just students that are a part of the circle, it’s the teachers too and that’s important because they need to understand where we’re coming from… and they could understand, maybe that’s why I’m not in the mood today or what happened this morning or last night may cause me to act out during the day... (Student, 2017)
Okonofua, Paunesku, & Walton, 2016
AIM: ↑ teachers’ perspective-taking about student misconduct and promote a context of trust and understanding
INTERVENTION: • read article and testimonials about
• driving factors for misconduct • Impact of student-teacher
relationships • write about their practice • incorporate practices into teacher training
EMPATHETiC MiNDSET
Taking stock thus far and rest of the day…
COR PD can be found online. Just set up an account, and you are ready to go!
www.corclassrooms.org
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Let’s watch on corclassrooms.org: Module 1, Activity 6 (3 min) and Module 1, Activity 7 (6 min)
OBSERVE INTERACTIONS OBJECTIVELY
BELIEFS & FEELINGS
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BELIEFS & FEELINGS
www.corclassrooms.org
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Let’s watch on corclassrooms.org: Module 2, Activity 1 (10 min) Module 2, Activity 4 (20 minutes)
Ideas for peer learning
Ideas?
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Implicit racial bias affects who is watched?
Tracked “eye gaze” of early education teachers watching a video of preschoolers. • Teachers watched Black
students for misbehavior more than others.
• Teachers also said Black boys require the most attention.
(Gilliam et al., 2016)
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Before the observation:
• What are my beliefs/attitudes about how this student engages in course activities (or does not engage)?
• What behaviors do I expect to see?
After the observation: • How did my beliefs affect what I
looked for?
• Which behaviors surprised me?
• What patterns did I notice – in student behavior and my own?
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Ask yourself:
When was the last time I had a positive interaction with this student?
Do I have more negative interactions than positive ones with this student?
What do I like or appreciate about this student?
How do I expect this student to act?
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•Does your teaching staff have regular opportunities to practice objective observation?
•Are your teaching staff members encouraged to “recognize ruts” with individual students?
•How can we think about issues of equity and “recognizing ruts”?
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Creating Opportunities through Relationships (COR)
Developed at the Center for the Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning , University of Virginia and supported by Atlantic Philanthropies and the William T. Grant Foundation.
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Creating Opportunities through Relationships (COR)
Five interactive online modules (Grades K–8) Module 1: The Power of Relationships Module 2: Recognizing and Understanding Our Own Lenses
Practical Strategies for Increasing Awareness Module 3: Interactions that Promote Safety and Happiness Module 4: Interactions that Promote Feeling Capable and Valued Module 5: Interactions that Promote Engagement in Learning
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Dr. Eddie Fergus: “It’s amazing how neighborhoods are used as a loosey-goosey way to create an archetype for who a kid is.”
“… ‘the flats’ … ‘the other side of the tracks’—it’s a neighborhood. They use that language as a placeholder for everything they need to know about that kid. And it becomes problematic because it becomes their point of reference in understanding who these kids are without ever asking the question, ‘Who are you?’ Not only is it, ‘Where do you live?’ but ‘What’s it like living there?’ They’re never exploring those set of questions. They’re creating archetypes based on these constructed labels.”
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The need for regular “social conversations” to truly get to know students as individuals
• A teacher described his relationship with a Black student who was having conflict with other teachers:
• “I chat with her about her friends … She is transgendered … so we have a lot of talks about that—around her gender identity— so … I try to let her know that I appreciate where she is coming from.”
• How do you and your colleagues integrate “social conversations” with students into the day?
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Making sure to bring your enthusiasm
Activity in the COR: Take a moment to imagine yourself as an outside observer of your classroom:
On a scale of 1 to 10, how enthusiastic do you think you are on a typical day?
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Creating Opportunities through Relationships (COR)
Five interactive online modules (Grades K–8) Module 1: The Power of Relationships Module 2: Recognizing and Understanding Our Own Lenses
Practical Strategies for Increasing Awareness Module 3: Interactions that Promote Safety and Happiness Module 4: Interactions that Promote Feeling Capable and Valued Module 5: Interactions that Promote Engagement in Learning
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Let’s watch on corclassrooms.org: Module 4 introduction (4 min) and Activity 3: Giving opportunities for leadership and agency (16 min)
REFLECTION: How have you harnessed the leadership qualities of
students who have multiple discipline referrals?
How can we think about issues of equity when we “give opportunities for leadership and agency”?
Creating Opportunities through Relationships (COR)
Five interactive online modules (Grades K–8) Module 1: The Power of Relationships Module 2: Recognizing and Understanding Our Own Lenses
Practical Strategies for Increasing Awareness Module 3: Interactions that Promote Safety and Happiness Module 4: Interactions that Promote Feeling Capable and Valued Module 5: Interactions that Promote Engagement in Learning
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Let’s watch on corclassrooms.org: Module 5, Activity 1, Introduction; Activity 3 inspire learning (20 min)
How can we think about issues of equity when we work on “inspiring learning”?
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Let’s watch on corclassrooms.org: Module 5, Activity 4: Build a reinforcing environment (16 min)
How can we think about issues of equity when we “build reinforcing environments?”
Distributing your praise
Micro-affirmations and “Wise critical feedback”
teachers communicating high academic standards coupled with their belief in the students’ potential
(Yeager et al., 2014)
• Focuses on relationships
• Gives voice to the person harmed and the person who caused the harm
• Engages collaborative problem-solving
• Dialogue-based decision-making process
• An agreed upon plan leads to actions aimed at repairing the harm done.
Schiff, M. (2013). Dignity, disparity and desistance: Effective restorative justice strategies to plug the “school-to-prison pipeline.” In Center for Civil Rights Remedies National Conference. Closing the School to Research Gap: Research to Remedies Conference. Washington, DC.
Foster reflection through a series of “restorative questions” Questions to ask the disputant and those harmed by the incident
From Costello, B., Wachtel, J. & Wachtel, T. (2010). Restorative circles in schools building community and enhancing learning.
What happened? What were you thinking about at the time? What have your thoughts been since?
Who has been affected by what you did? In what way have they been affected?
What do you think you need to do to make things right?
Example of a restorative conference (20 min)
• Restorative pre-conference video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdp8NW6Q5zw
• 0-2:40 • Brief overview to skip over the student narrating the incident and the facilitators
asking him for more explicit details to be ready for the day of the conference and thinking about how he feels about the situation now.
• 10:40-12:00/end
• The actual conference at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XPuajScuHa8&t=798s
• 15:59 – 28.24 Derek’s apology, the action plan discussion, one-word closing.
Restorative Justice (RJ)
Since we implemented…RJ… instead of being suspended… you talk it out, you understand what you did wrong, understand, like, how to…do something better the next time. And then…it kind of limit[s] altercations…(Student, 2017)
REFLECTION Do your school norms lay the foundation for
repairing harm and social emotional learning when conflict occurs? (e.g., this is just what we do here.)
Photo taken from Teaching Restorative Practices with Classroom Circles, by Amos Clifford, Center for Restorative Process, Developed for San Francisco Unified School District
Changing habits and mindsets is slow. It requires courage and resources to support
implementation.
A teacher explained:
“…So many initiatives came our way. So it’s hard to know what to prioritize…once you leave a training you get in your classroom and there’s so much that they expect from you.
…We have a training and maybe that next week teachers will go in and use those circles. Then it gets lost...” (Korth, 2015)
•Clear vision and leadership from administrators
•Start with key opinion leaders – grow the change within buildings
•Orient students to the rationale for the changes and nurture student leadership to lead the charge
Implementation supports are crucial
Fundamental assertions today: We can improve the educational trajectories of students struggling with emotional and behavioral challenges.“Up-skilling” educators’ social, emotional, relational and instructional skills is a worthy prevention effort.
We can undertake prevention efforts with a racial equity consciousness
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The logic of prevention in addressing disparities in disability status
Disparities in “Emotionally Disturbed” designation
Negative correlates of ED
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In 2014, Syracuse City School District released a revised Student Code of Conduct, Character, and Support
Social and Emotional Learning
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Teacher mindsets matter
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COR PD can be found online. Just set up an account, and you are ready to go!
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Selective attention
Suggested activity in the COR: Observing
Incorporate observation into your routine
Ideas for peer learning
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Practical strategies
Dr. Eddie Fergus:
The need for regular “social conversations” to truly get to know students as individuals
Practical strategies
Creating Opportunities through Relationships (COR)
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Distributing your praise
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Foster reflection through a series of “restorative questions”Questions to ask the disputant and those harmed by the incident
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Restorative Justice (RJ)
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Changing habits and mindsets is slow. It requires courage and resources to support implementation.
A teacher explained:
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