classical conditioning i. classical conditioning

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  • Slide 1
  • Classical Conditioning I
  • Slide 2
  • Slide 3
  • Classical Conditioning
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  • Classical or Pavlovian conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Automatically elicits a response (reflex) Unconditioned Response (UR) Food, Water, Sex, Pain, etc. Initially neutral Does not initially trigger same response as does the US lights, sounds, tastes, odors, etc. After pairings with the US, elicits a conditioned response
  • Slide 6
  • Some response systems that participate in classical conditioning Endorphins and analgesia Sexual arousal Immune suppression/enhancement Fear
  • Slide 7
  • Autoshaping When there is a contingency between a tangible CS and a pleasurable US, the CR is directed at the CS. Sign tracking (cf. Goal tracking) Pigeons response: peck key light CS Rats key light CS food US response: handle ball bearing ball bearing CS food US insert lever CS food US response: lick lever
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  • Autoshaping Movies Long-box autshaping Omission training
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  • Fear Conditioning (shock) (tone) Notation: Tone + Or Tone Shock
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  • After one or two pairings (CS) Blood pressure Heart Rate Stress Hormones Freezing (CRs)
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  • Conditioned Suppression
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  • Suppression Ratio a = responses during the CS b = responses prior to the CS a a + b After 10 Tone-Shock trials: a = 3; b = 20. 3/(3+20) = 0.13 On first Tone-Shock trial: a = 30; b = 30. 30/(30+30) = 0.50
  • Slide 15
  • Fear-Potentiated Startle (Davis) ToneShockTrain: Test: Startle Stimulus (Loud Noise) Alone Vs. Startle Stimulus + Tone DV: How high do they jump?
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  • Feedback vs. Feed- forward
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  • Some properties of classical conditioning
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  • Generalization CRs Tone frequency Trained frequency
  • Slide 28
  • What determines the form of the CR? Stimulus Substitution Behavior Systems Opponent Processes
  • Slide 29
  • Stimulus Substitution (the CS takes the place of the US) Pavlov: UR = Salivation, CR = Salivation Cocaine: UR = Activity, CR = Activity Cyclophosamide: UR & CR = immune suppression. Autoshaping: CR for water = Closed beak, CR for grain = Open beak
  • Slide 30
  • Form of the CR in Sign Tracking From Jenkins & Moore, 1973 UCS = Water (note the closed beak) UCS = Food (note the open beak) video
  • Slide 31
  • However Fear conditioning: CR = freezing, UR = activity CS can determine form of CR
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  • Form of CR depends on CS
  • Slide 33
  • However Fear conditioning: CR = freezing, UR = activity CS can determine form of CR Interval between CS and US matters Long delay: General search CR Short delay: Focal search CR
  • Slide 34
  • Behavior Systems Theory Holland (1984); Timberlake & Silva; Akins The CS and US engage the same behavior system e.g., appetitive, sexual, defensive. The form of the CR depends on the length of the delay between CS and US. Overt CR is flexible depends on situation
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  • Another View: Opponent Process Theory Conditioning helps maintain homeostasis USs divert organism away from homeostasis time Body temp Enter sauna Begin cooling response = Vasodilation sweating 98.6
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  • Opponent Process Theory of Motivation
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  • Siegel heroin Ave. C Buddy Jimmy Favorite belt Etc. Euphoria Big departure from homeostasis
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  • Siegel heroin Ave. C Buddy Jimmy Favorite belt Etc. Euphoria Smaller departure from homeostasis
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  • Siegel heroin Ave. C Buddy Jimmy Favorite belt Etc. Euphoria Even smaller departure from homeostasis
  • Slide 41
  • Siegel heroin Ave. C Buddy Jimmy Favorite belt Etc. Euphoria Departure from homeostasis
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  • Siegel heroin New Context Euphoria Departure from homeostasis
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  • Siegel Time since admin. Conc. Of drug in Brain CSUS
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  • Montaigne: My appetite comes to me while eating -Of Vanity (1500-ish)