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CHILD LABOURBy:HariNavaneethSangeethSubin




Child labour is generally speaking, work for children that harms them or exploits them in someway (physically, mentally, m orally or by blocking access to education). It is the work that exceeds a minimum number of hours depending on the age of a child and on the

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOURPRIMARY CAUSES International Labour Organization (ILO) suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour. For impoverished households, income from a child's work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 to 40% of these household incomeCULTURAL CAUSESIn European history when child labour was common, as well as in contemporary child labour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have In many cultures, particular where informal economy and small household businesses thrive, the cultural tradition is that children follow in their parents' footsteps; child labour then is a means to learn and practice that trade from a very early age

MACROECONOMIC CAUSESSome have studied the macroeconomic factors that encourage child labour from some Asian nations including India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. People say that child labour is a major problem in all the five countries. Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history. Other scholars too suggest that inflexible labour market, size of informal economy, inability of industries to scale up and lack of modern manufacturing technologies are major macroeconomic factors affecting demand and acceptability of child labour.


61% in Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations. In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children. In Latin America, 17% of the workforce is children.246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in child labour. Out of which 171 million were involved in work that by its nature is hazardousCONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOURThe presence of a large number of child laborers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. In terms of the physical condition of children, children are not ready for long monotous work because they become exhausted more quickly than adults. This reduces their physical conditions and makes the children more vulnerable to diseaseCHILD LABOUR IN INDIA The 1998 national census of India estimated the total number of child labour, aged 514, to be at 12.6 million, out of a total child population of 253 million in 5-14 age group . A 2009-2010 nationwide survey found child labour prevalence had reduced to 4.98 million children (or less than 2% of children in 5-14 age group).The 2011 national census of India found the total number of child labour, aged 514, to be at 4.35 million,and the total child population to be 259.64 million in that age group.The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time

CHILD LABOUR LAW AND INITIATIVESAfter its independence from colonial rule, India has passed a number of constitutional protections and laws on child labour. The Constitution of India in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive of State Policy prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or castle or engaged in any other hazardous employment . The constitution also envisioned that India shall, by 1960, provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. NON GOVERMENTAL ORGANISATION(NGO)Pratham is India's largest non-governmental organization with the mission 'every child in school and learning well.' Founded in 1994, Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer schooling to children irrespective of their gender, religion and social background. It has grown by introducing low cost education models that are sustainable and reproducible. Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations in Indian courts.THE MAJOR NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE DEVELOPMENTThe Factories Act of 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory. The law also placed rules on who, when and how long can pre-adults aged 1518 years be employed in any factory

The Mines Act of 1952: The Act prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations identified in a list by the law. The list was expanded in 2006, and again in 2008

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law made it a crime, punishable with a prison term, for anyone to procure or employ a child in any hazardous employment or in bondageThe Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 percent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.WHAT CAN WE DO AS A PERSON TO STOP CHILD LABOUR

To donate funds in NGOs working for the rehabilitation of street children. To contact NGOs and make them aware about child labor happening in our society. To make the rural people aware about the benefits of education. To provide free education for the orphans. To start campaign against child labour. To help the government to stop child labour.CONCLUSIONThe social malady of child labour can be brought under control, if each individual takes responsibility of reporting about anyone employing a child below the age of 14years.Thus, instead of ignoring on should find out about reporting child labor and how such children can actually be saved.Child labor can be controlled if the government functions effectively with the support of the public.