chemistry book one

Download Chemistry Book One

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This file contains almost all needs of SSC Part I (Grade IX) Students. Specially from Karachi Board. Very Useful If you like comments and ask for other subjects.

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  • 1. Chemistry2014FOR CLASS IX SIR. MOHAMMAD AHTISHAM ALI ABDULLAH EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY http://facebook.com/aes.pk

2. 1ContentsQ - 1) DEFINE CHEMISTRY? WRITE THE NAME OF ITS BRANCHES: 6Q - 2) WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC METHOD? DEFINE HYPOTHESIS AND THEORY. 6Q - 3) WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC METHOD? WRITE NAME OF ITS FOUR STAGES AND DESCRIBE THEM: 7Q - 4) WRITE DOWN THE CONTRIBUTION OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS IN THE FIELD OF CHEMISTRY: 7Q - 5) WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC LAW? 7Q - 6) WRITE DOWN THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF MODERN SCIENTISTS IN THE FIELD OF CHEMISTRY: 8Q - 7) WHAT IMPORTANT ROLE CHEMISTRY PLAYS IN THE SOCIETY: 8Q - 8) WRITE THREE SIGNIFICANT REASONS TO STUDY CHEMISTRY? 8Q - 1) SATE THE FOLLOWING LAWS: 9Q - 2) STATE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS WITH LANDOLTS EXPERIMENTS: 9Q - 3) STATE THE LAW OF CONSTANT PROPORTION WITH EXAMPLE? 9Q - 4) STATE THE LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS WITH EXAMPLE: 10Q - 5) STATE THE LAW OF RECIPROCAL PROPORTION WITH EXAMPLE? 10Q - 6) WHAT IS EINSTEIN THEORY? & WRITE REACTION B/W MASS & ENERGY: 10Q - 7) WHAT IS CHEMICAL REACTION? DEFINE AND GIVE EXAMPLE EACH OF THE FOLLOWING: 10Q - 8) WHAT IS CHEMICAL REACTION? DEFINE & GIVE ONE EXAMPLE EACH: 11Q - 9) WHAT IS CHEMICAL REACTION? DEFINE & GIVE ONE EXAMPLE OF EACH: 11Q - 10) WHAT IS EMPIRICAL FORMULA? GIVE AN EXAMPLE: 12Q - 11) WHAT IS MOLECULAR FORMULA? GIVE AN EXAMPLE: 12Q - 12) DEFINE THE FOLLOWING: 12Q - 13) CAN ONE SUBSTANCE HAVE THE SAME EMPIRICAL FORMULA AND MOLECULAR FORMULA? EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES: 12Q - 14) WHAT IS CHEMICAL EQUATION? WHAT IS A CO-EFFICIENT AND EXPRESSION? GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF BALANCE EQUATION: 13Q - 15) THE VALUE OF CARBON IN PERIODIC TABLE IS 12.011 A.M.U RATHER THAN 12.00 A.M.U. EXPLAIN IT: 13Q - 16) DIFFERENTIATE EMPIRICAL FORMULA AND MOLECULAR FORMULA: 131. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 62. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 63. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 64. BIO CHEMISTRY 65. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 66. INDUSTRIAL OR APPLIES CHEMISTRY 67. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 68. POLYMERIC CHEMISTRY 69. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 6(i) LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS: 9(ii) LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS: 9(iii) LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS: 9(iv) LAW OF RECIPROCAL PROPORTIONS: 9(I) ATOMIC MASS ..................................... 12(II) MOLE ............................................ 12(III) MOLAR MASS ..................................... 12(IV) AVOGADROS NUMBER ........................... 12 3. 2Q - 1) WRITE DOWN THE MAIN POSTULATES OF DOLTON ATOMIC THEORY: 14Q - 2) DESCRIBE MODERN ATOMIC THEORY: 14Q - 3) WRITE DOWN THE PROPERTIES OF CATHODE RAYS? 14Q - 4) WRITE DOWN THE PROPERTIES OF POSITIVE RAYS? 14Q - 5) DESCRIBE THE DISCOVERY OF ELECTRONS (CATHODE RAYS) 15Q - 6) DESCRIBE THE DISCOVERY OF PROTONS: (POSITIVE RAYS) WHAT ARE PROTONS AND HOW WERE THESE PRODUCED? 15Q - 7) DESCRIBE THE DISCOVERY OF NEUTRONS: 16Q - 8) DESCRIBES THE PROPERTIES OF ELECTRON, PROTON AND NEUTRON: 16Q - 9) WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF SUB ATOMIC PARTICLES? WHAT ARE THE MASSES IN ATOMIC MASS UNITS (A.M.U) AND WHAT IS UNIT CHARGES EACH? 16Q - 10) DEFINE (I) ISOTOPES (II) MASS NUMBER (III) ATOMIC NUMBER 16Q - 11) WHAT IS MEANT BY RADIOACTIVITY? DRAW A LABELLED DIAGRAM SHOWING THE SEPARATION OF ALPHA, BETA AND GAMMA RAYS: AND ALSO WRITE THE PROPERTIES OF EACH: 17Q - 12) DESCRIBE THE RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT, WHICH LED HIM TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM? OR DESCRIBES RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT OF GOLD METAL FOIL: 18Q - 13) EXPLAIN NEIL BOHRS ATOMIC THEORY: 19Q - 14) WRITE DOWN THE APPLICATION OF ISOTOPES: 19Q - 15) C 14 AND N 14 BOTH HAVE SAME MASS NUMBER YET THEY ARE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS, EXPLAIN: 19Q - 16) IN WHAT WAY ISOTOPES OF A GIVEN ELEMENT DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER. 19Q - 17) WHAT ARE ISOTOPES? WRITE THE SYMBOL OF PROTIUM, DEUTERIUM AND TRITIUM WITH THEIR ATOMIC NUMBERS AND MASS NUMBERS. 19Q - 1) DEFINE THE FOLLOWING: 20(I) DOBERNEIRS RULE OF TRAID 20(II) MODERN PERIODIC LAW 20(III) ELECTRONEGATIVITY 20(IV) PERIODICITY 20(V) ATOMIC RADII 20(VI) IONIZATION ENERGY 20(VII) PERIOD 20(VIII) ELECTRON AFFINITY 20(IX) GROUP 20Q - 2) WRITE CHARACTERISTICS METALS, NON METALS AND METALLOIDS: 21Q - 3) DESCRIBE PROPERTIES OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS: (GROUP IB TO VIIB) 21Q - 4) DESCRIBE THE PROPERTIES OF GROUP I A, TO GROUP VIII A: 21Q - 5) IF AN ELEMENT CONTAINS TWO SHELLS ONLY AND ITS OUTER MOST SHELL CONTAINS FIVE ELECTRONS THEN TO WHICH GROUP THE ELEMENT BELONGS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE. NAME THE ELEMENT. PREDICT ITS PERIOD. 23Q - 6) WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY LONG FORM OF PERIODIC TABLE? EXPLAIN SOME OF ITS APPLICATION: 23Q - 7) DISCUSS SOME OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS WHICH EXHIBIT PERIODICITY. 24Q - 8) HOW DOES THE MODERN PERIODIC LAW DIFFER FROM MENDELEEVS PERIODIC LAW? EXPLAIN GROUPS AND PERIODS IN MODERN PERIODIC TABLE: 24Q - 9) WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS? WHAT ARE THE MERITS AND DEMERITS OF CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS: 24Q - 10) WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY REPRESENTATIVE AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS? OR WHAT DO MEAN BY TRANSITION ELEMENTS? WRITE THE GENERAL PROPERTIES/CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS. 25Q - 11) WHAT ARE LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES? ARE THEY D OR F BLOCK ELEMENTS: 25Q - 12) STATE MENDELEEVS PERIODIC LAW. DESCRIBE MENDELEEVS PERIODIC TABLE AND ALSO WRITE DOWN THE MERITS AND DEMERIT OF MENDELEEVS PERIODIC TABLE: 25 4. 3Q - 13) EXPLAIN NEWLANDS LAW OF OCTAVE. HOW THIS LAW PROVIDE THE LARGER SCOPE FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS: 26Q - 1) DEFINE CHEMICAL BONDING AND DISCUSS HOW ATOMS UNITE AND CHANGE INTO MOLECULES: 27Q - 2) WHAT ARE THE MAIN TYPES OF BOND? DESCRIBE THEM: 27Q - 3) DEFINE: (I) SINGLE COVALENT BOND (II) DOUBLE COVALENT BOND AND (III) TRIPLE COVALENT BOND? OR WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF CHEMICAL BONDING? 28Q - 4) WHAT HAPPENS TO ELECTRONS, WHEN ELEMENTS COMBINE? 28Q - 5) WHAT PART OF THE ATOM IS INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF CHEMICAL BOND? 28Q - 6) EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES? HOW ELEMENTS ARE UNITED BY ELECTROVALENT BOND? 28Q - 7) WHAT COMMON PROPERTIES ARE SHOWN BY IONIC COMPOUND? 29Q - 8) WHAT IS MEANT BY COVALENT BOND? WRITE ELECTRONIC FORMULAS OF ANY COVALENT MOLECULES? 29Q - 9) ACCOUNT FOR THE FACT THAT SOME COVALENT BONDS ARE POLAR AND WHILE OTHER IS NON POLAR? 30Q - 10) WHAT IS CO ORDINATE COVALENT BOND? EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES: 30Q - 11) DEFINE THE TERM COVALENT BOND? HOW DOES A COVALENT BOND DIFFER FROM CO ORDINATE COVALENT BOND? 31Q - 12) EXPLAIN ELECTRONEGATIVITY WITH THE HELP OF LINUS PAULING TABLE: 31Q - 13) GIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS: 32Q - 14) WHAT IS CHEMICAL BOND? DEFINE IONIC BOND. EXPLAIN THE MECHANISM OF THE IONIC BOND IN NACL (SODIUM CHLORIDE)? 32Q - 15) WHAT IS COORDINATE COVALENT BOND? HOW A COORDINATE COVALENT BOND IS FORMED BETWEEN AMMONIA (NH3) AND HYDROGEN ION (H+) PRODUCING AMMONIUM (NH4+) RADICAL. EXPLAIN. 33Q - 16) DEFINE TERM METAL AND DESCRIBE METALLIC BOND? 33Q - 17) EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES OF METALS: 33Q - 18) WHY SOME METALS SUCH AS SODIUM OR POTASSIUM IS SOFT WHILE OTHER ARE HARD? EXPLAIN: 33Q - 19) EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF DIPOLE DIPOLE FORCES BETWEEN THE MOLECULES, AND GIVE EXAMPLE: 34Q - 20) WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY DISPERSION FORCES WHY ARE THEY ALSO CALLED LONDON FORCES? 34Q - 21) WHAT IS HYDROGEN BONDING? WHAT TYPE OF FORCES, EITHER INTRA MOLECULAR OR INTER MOLECULAR FORCES ARE PRESENT IN HYDROGEN BONDING? 34Q - 22) WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY INTRA MOLECULAR AND INTER MOLECULAR FORCES (VANDER WAALSS FORCES)? 34Q - 1) DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERM: 35Q - 2) DEFINE KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY AND ITS STATES OF MATTER: 35Q - 3) HOW IS SOLID CONVERTED INTO LIQUID? EXPLAIN IT: 36Q - 4) WHAT DO MEAN BY LIQUID? DESCRIBE INTERCHANGE OF LIQUID TO GAS: 36(I) SOLID .................................................. 35(II) FUSION ................................................. 35(IV) SUBLIMATION ........................................... 35(V) BOILING POINT ......................................... 35(VII) DIFFUSION ........................................... 35(VIII) BROWNIAN MOVEMENT .............................. 35(III) EVAPORATION ....................................... 35(VI) MELTING POINT ...................................... 35 5. 4Q - 5) WHAT IS DIFFUSION? EXPLAIN ON THE BASIS OF KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY: 36Q - 6) WHAT ID BROWNIAN MOVEMENT? EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLE: 36Q - 1) DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERM: 37Q - 2) DEFINE SOLUBILITY AND DISCUSS THE FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY: 38Q - 3) DEFINE INSOLUBLE IMPURITY AND SOLUBLE IMPURITY: 38Q - 4) DEFINE SATURATED, UNSATURATED AND SUPER STURATED SOLUTION: 39Q - 5) WRITE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOLUTION AND SUSPENSSION: 39Q - 6) NAME THE SOLUTE AND SOLVENT IN THE FOLLOWING SOLUTION: 40Q - 7) EXPLAIN WHY: 40Q - 8) WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY PERCENTAGE CONCENTRATIO, SOME EXAMPLE OF SUSPENSSION IN DAILY LIFE. 41Q - 1) DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERM: 42(I) ELECTROCHEMISTRY 42(II) ELECTROLYTES 42(III) NON ELECTROLYTES 42(IV) ELECTROLYSIS 42(V) ELECTROPLATING 42(VI) ELECTROCHEMICAL EQUIVALENT 42(VII) AMPERE 42(VIII) COULOMB 42(IX) FARADAY42(X) BATTERIES 42Q - 2) STATE AND EXPLAIN FARADAYS FIRST LAW OF ELECTROLYSIS: 43Q - 3) STATE AND EXPLAIN FARADAYS SECOND LAW OF ELECTROLYSIS: 43Q - 4) WRITE DOWN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EQUIVALENT MASS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL EQUIVALENT: 43Q - 5) WHAT DO MEAN BY PRIMARY CELL ALSO DESCRIBES CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF DRY CELL WITH DIAGRAM: 44Q - 6) DESCRIBES THE CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF DANIEL CELL WITH DIAGRAM: 44Q - 7) WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ELECTRIC CURRENT IS PASSED THROUGH ACIDULATED WATER? GIVE THE REACTION AT TWO ELECTRODES AND MENTION THE PRODUCTS AT CATHODE AND ANODE. 46Q - 8) PREDICT THE NET ELECTROLYSIS REACTION WHEN MOLTEN NACL IS ELECTROLYZED. OR DESCRIBE THE ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN SODIUM CHLORIDE. 46Q - 9) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIMARY CELL AND SECONDARY CELL. 47Q - 10) DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF NICKEL PLATING. 48Q - 11) DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF CHROMIUM PLATING. 48Q - 12) WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF SALT BRIDGE OR POROUS PARTITION IN AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL? 49Q - 13) PREDICT WHAT WOULD BE FORMED (I) AT THE ANODE AND (II) AT