characteristics of young learners

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Characteristics of Young Learners. 1. Involuntary attention. not pay attention to language system but to task, topic & situation form is acquired indirectly through peripheral learning language is a means for expressing meaning. 2. Limited attention. short attention & concentration span - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Characteristicsof Young Learners

  • 1. Involuntary attentionnot pay attention to language system but to task, topic & situationform is acquired indirectly through peripheral learning language is a means for expressing meaning

  • 2. Limited attentionshort attention & concentration span

    tend to focus on the end of words & add suffixes & postpositions before noticing the existence of & begin using prefixes & prepositions (e.g. goed, eated, whom with)

  • 3.Holistic skillsapproach language holistically not analyzing it or breaking phrases into chunks but treating & learning it formulaically & integrated with other skillslanguage production does not depend on explicit knowledge, but must be developed implicitly

  • 4. Inability to observe regularities & causal relationsare neither cognitively nor psychologically mature to make comparisons between the L1 & the TLrequire constant repetition to infer & generate grammar rules & to identify causal relations between various occurrences

  • 5. Undeveloped problem-solving skills cant yet diagnose problems & generate solutions based on the information available

  • 6. Weak memorycannot control what they are taughtthe younger the learner, the patchier the storage & recallneed recycling activities

  • 7. Limited experiencehave limited life & learning experiencedo not bring in background knowledgethey are in the process of learning their L1

  • 8. Here & now reasoningconcrete reasoning concerned with physical here & now realia & observable situations in the immediate environmentabstract reasoning is tied to biological growth & does not develop until between 11 - 14 years old abstract grammatical patterns are beyond children grasp

  • 9. Undeveloped LL aptitudeinfluence the rate of development where formal classroom learning is concerned 4 major components of LL aptitude:(1) phonetic coding ability: an ability to identify distinct sounds, and to form associations between them and representative symbols(2) grammatical sensitivity: the ability to recognize the grammatical functions of words (or other linguistic entities) in sentence structures(3) rote learning ability: a memorization technique based on repetition(4) inductive (language learning) ability: the ability to infer or induce the rules governing a set of language materials

  • 10. Mechanical memory2 kinds of memories:mechanical memory (short-term memory) predominant in children logical memory (long-term memory) develops very slowly between 11 - 14 years of age, is related to abstract thinking children under 12-13 can repeat & memorize long words & expressions, but are not able to analyze them because logical memory is not well developed yet

  • 11. Lower-order functioning2 broad types of functioning:lower-order functioningresponsible for the understanding & production of speechinvolves basic syntactic processing & the motor operations employed in speaking & writinga function of early maturinghigher-order functioninginvolves semantic processing & verbal recognitiondependent upon late developing neural circuitry available for use only in older learners

  • 12. Undeveloped interactional skillsyoung learners are prone to be less involved in sustaining a conversationprogress less rapidly than older learners

  • 13. Motivationrarely have clear motivationbe less able to:assume responsibility for their learninguse the metacognitive strategies of focusing, arranging, planning, monitoring & evaluationrule out any serious attempt at large-scale comparative assessment of their progress

  • 14. Literacy (& numeracy)children are far behind taking their first steps with the alphabet & numbersa whole new code must be taught alongside the introduction of literacy & numeracy

  • 15. Ongoing categorizationchildren still acquire L1 establish the range of reference of the lexical itemsfind out the boundaries of the relevant classes

    *Peripheral learning subconscious learning**