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Chapter 8

Career and Understanding Students own self

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

Explain the career path and other related terms

Explain the concept of lifestyle based on several theories

Relate lifestyle with career choices;

Clarify the role of interest in future career planning;

Compare and contrast between different types of career interest test;

Explain the role of values in future planning and career Identify the value of a career in career selection

http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/Choosing/career-choice-theories.htm7.0 Introduction

Everyone will encounter different barriers, challenges, and decisions. Career exploration is a never-ending process. The more a student learn about themselves and the outside world, the more they will want to re-evaluate their values, skills, and interests. You will learn on how children build their concept of life style and how it helps them in their career. You need to understand what lifestyle is, and then look at the relationship between the concept of building a career and a lifestyle.

8.1 Common Human Development Models

These include but are not limited to

1. Maslow(1908-1970): Abraham Maslow is best known for his developmental theory of human motivation. As a humanistic psychologist, Maslow believed that actualization of ones inherent potential was the driving force of human personality. One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization. Maslow placed self-actualization into a hierarchy of motivation or his famous hierarchy of needs. Self-actualization is identified as the highest drive but before a person can turn to it, he or she must satisfy other lower motivations like physiological, safety, social and esteem needs, respectively.For example: A homeless youth client will need assistance in finding secure housing before being referred to a career decision making program, in Maslows view.

READ the basics of Motivation theoryfor a more in-depth look at Maslows theory of motivation and its relationship to Herzbergs work on job satisfaction.

2. Skinner(1904-1990): B.F. Skinner is recognized as a leader in the field of behaviourist theory. Very simply put, Skinner believed that changes in behaviour are the result of an individuals response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. The response or behaviour produces a consequence and the nature of the consequence either reinforces or weakens the probability of the behaviour occurring again. So if you wish to alter someones behaviour, you reinforce the behaviour you want people to do again and ignore or punish the behaviour you want people to stop doing.Example: Using verbal praise and other forms of recognition to encourage children and young adults to continue their job search.3. Erikson(1902-1994): Erik Erikson developed the psychosocial theory of social development. The theory describes the eight stages of human development (infancy to late adulthood), through which every person passes. At each stage of development the person is confronted with and hopefully resolves a new psycho-social issue. Each developmental stage builds on the successful completion of the earlier stages. If the issues of the earlier stages are not successfully resolved they are expected to reappear as problems in the later stages.Example: Teenagers working on establishing their own identity may be struggling with settling on a career path because they dont really know who they are yet.4. Frankl(1905-1997); Victor Frankl belongs to the school of existential theory and was the founder of logo therapy. He regarded the search for meaning and an authentic life as the primary human motivation. As free individuals we have a choice on how we will deal with inner conditions and outer circumstances. We are responsible for our own existence and for finding a purpose or meaning to our lives. One can discover meaning through purposeful work, creative pursuits and suffering.Example: It is important for teenager to take responsibility for making their own career choices and to be encouraged to consider careers that will be personally meaningful and fulfilling for them.8.2 BUILDING LIFESTYLE CONCEPT

8.2.1 Career Concepts and Career Development

A career means work that we do throughout the life span (Hoyt, in Sciarra, 2004). Career refers to a person's overall work experience in a particular job. For example, teaching, medicine, accounting, engineering, sales and so on. In recent times, we find the importance of guidance and counselling services in schools and education institutions as a source of information to career development. In fact, career education is more important and should be an integral part in the upper primary school curriculum where young children prepare themselves to go to secondary schools.

8.2.2. Building a lifestyle concept

1. Personal Logic and Individual Lifestyle

According to Alder (1870-1937), private logic here refers to the ideas and beliefs, experiences of an individual. An individual builds his lifestyle based on his unique perceptions, unique interpretation which describe the personality and behaviour of himself. This means that individuals act based on what they believe based on previous experiences. Individuals develop their self-concept and the concept of life which can provide them guidance and lifestyle patterns. In short, the behaviour is determined by the perception of which they believe to be true.

Adler believes that Individual lifestyles are formed by the children at the age of 5 years. He opined that this lifestyle is a strategy where individuals organize and use them to deal with their inferiority complex. Individual then can be shaped into being artistic or intellectual, dominate or bully, malingering as a weapon to get attention and affection, and so on. According to Alder, personality development is influenced by an individual's position in the family, including family size and the means of child care by their parents. There are several factors that contribute to negative self-concept, like physical illness, neglect, lack of extreme love and affection during childhood.

2. Inferiority Complex with individual Lifestyle

Inferiority complex materialises when ideas and feelings arise in response to an individuals shortcomings in life. (Adler) The term inferiority complex is widely used to represent the feelings of worthlessness, including shortcomings that led to disastrous loss of self-esteem or aggressive behaviour. Individuals who are poor, do not socialise will strive to motivate themselves to gain self-esteem or superior to compensate for the shortcomings. However if these efforts fail, the individual then suffer inferiority complex.

3. Interests and Social Values of Individual Lifestyle

Social interest like the value of altruism is lush and nurtured in the family. Children who do not have a social interest face social and emotional problems, including depression. Many people who seek counselling services consist of individuals who frequently feel lonely and side-lined by others.

Mental health is measured by the quantity of social values belonging to an individual. In addition, the characteristic of mental health is working with others as a member of the community, the confidence to interact with any group or social situations, and be able to contribute to her community interaction, including the value of courage. Based on the Adlers terms, courage include the social activities and interests. Individuals who have social interest are usually encouraged to act with social interests. So they have dignity and self-confidence because of their actions are based on social interest and not self-interest. Therefore, individuals with stable mental health and social interests will see themselves as equal social standing and ready to make a meaningful contribution to the family.

8.3 Theories of Career

A theory is an effect a rationalised set of assumptions, or hypothesis that allows you to explain the past and predict the future. There are two types of career development theories.

Structural Theories focus individual characteristics and occupations tasks. For example:-a. Traits and Factors Theory:Process that a choice of occupation depends upon a) knowledge of self, (b) knowledge of job specifications, and (c) ability to make a proper match between this two.

b. Vocational Personalities and Environments Theory:Suggests that people can function and develop best in work environment that can compatible with their personalities.

c. Socioeconomic Theory :This is also known as the "chance" or "accident" theory suggesting that many people follow the path ofleast resistancein their career development by simply falling into whatever work opportunities came their way.

Developmental Theories focuses on human development a

a. Super's Theory:In super's theory self-concept develops through maturity, observations of work, general environment and general experience.

b. Decision-Making Theory:Suggest that there are critical points in people's lives when choices (decisions) are made that greatly influence their career development, i.e. educational choices, entry-level positions, changing jobs, etc.

c. Cognitive Theory:It is built around how individuals process and react to information. People's cognitive structures influence how they see themselves, others and the environment.

We will focus three theories, namely:-

a. Career selection Development Theory: Ginzberg and Super

b. Behavioural Theory of John Krumboltz

c. Structure

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