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chapter 5 chemistry. 5.1 5.2 5.3. matter The pH scale chemistry of cosmetics. Describe matter, elements of hair and structure and behavior of atoms and bonds Describe pH scale and values associated with water, acids and alkalines - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 5, Chemistry, will provide you with the knowledge you will need to guide you when referring products to clients, knowing which products to use to achieve desired results and most importantly, this chapter will help you protect yourself and your clients when working with a variety of products.1chapter 5chemistry5.15.25.3matterThe pH scalechemistry of cosmeticsChapter 5 chemistry | advance organizerChemistry has brought many advances to our ever-changing industry. From product development to product improvement to product innovation, chemistry is at the forefront for making all kinds of creative ideas come alive. 2

Describe matter, elements of hair and structure and behavior of atoms and bondsDescribe pH scale and values associated with water, acids and alkalinesIdentify precautions necessary for various classifications of chemicals when working with professional products

Chapter 5 chemistry | advance organizerFOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:DESIGN IS RESOLUTION OKAY?35.1matterelementschemical bondsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | advance organizer

The study of matter leads the way as the first section within Chapter 5. Elements and chemical bonds are the primary focus.

Chapter 5 takes you step-by-step through what you need to know so you can select and use the salon products that achieve excellent results for your clients. 4MATTER

Soliddefinite weight,volume and shape

liquiddefinite weightand volume but indefinite shape

Gasdefinite weight but indefinitevolume and shape

Chapter 5 chemistry | matter Anything that occupies spaceMatter Anything that occupies space Matter is everywhere.

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Change in the physical characteristics of a substance without creating a new substance

When water freezes it becomes ice. It is still water, but now its a solid instead of a liquid.

Physical changeChapter 5 chemistry | matter Matter can be changed from one form to another through a physical change or a chemical change.

Other examples of physical change include: an ice cube melting in a glass, shaping a fingernail using a file and using a curling iron to create a curl.

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Change in a substance that creates a new substance

A chemical change occurswhen hydrogen combineswith oxygen to form a new substance, water.

Chemical changeChapter 5 chemistry | matter Chemical change: Combination becomes a new form with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance.

Other examples of chemical change: Striking a match, a new nail turning into a rusty nail or, in our industry, an example of a chemical change would be mixing hydrogen peroxide with a color to create a permanent hair color change.

7Scientific study of matter and the physical and chemical changes of matterOrganic Chemistry: deals with matter that is living or was alive, with carbon presentInorganic Chemistry: studies matter that is not alive, has never been alive and does not contain carbon

ChemistryChapter 5 chemistry | matter 8Basic substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

elementsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | elementsUse this acronym to remember the elements found in hair:COHNSCarbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur 9Smallest complete unit of an element

COMPOSED OF THREE MAIN PARTS:Protons: positive electrical chargeNeutrons: no electrical chargeElectrons: negative electrical chargeAtomsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | elementsProtons Positive charge in the nucleus

Neutrons No charge in the nucleus

Electrons Negative charge around the nucleus

10Chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on number of electrons in the outer shellHydrogenSimplest atomic structure1 proton and 1 electronAtomic number of 1

atomsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | elements

Positive ProtonNegative ProtonHYDROGEN ATOM (H)It is the electrons in the outer shell (around the nucleus) that provide the ability for atoms to combine they are alone, negative, and they need to find someone.

JOANNA PLEASE REMOVE FAINT CURVED LINE BELOW NEGATIVE ELECTRON ART

11Two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond

Two hydrogen atoms, each with one electronOne oxygen atom and its eight electronsthe result is H2OmoleculesChapter 5 chemistry | matter | elementsThink of molecules in this way:1 atom + 1 similar atom = 1 element1 atom + 1 different atom = 1 molecule (chemical compound)

Again, it is the negative charge in some electrons that allows atoms to combine. These atoms are reactive.

12With an element, the atoms are the SAMEWith a compound, the atoms are DIFFERENT

moleculesChapter 5 chemistry | matter | elementsMolecule: Two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond. If the atoms that combine are different, the resulting molecule is a compound.

1 atom + 1 similar atom = 1 element1 atom + 1 different atom = 1 molecule (chemical compound)

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Amino Acids: compounds consisting of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen

CHEMICAL BONDSChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS14Hair: form of protein called keratin

Hair is made of 97% keratin protein and 3% trace minerals

Amino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS15

amino acidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDSPeptide Bonds (End Bonds): formed when two amino acids are positioned end-to-end causing acid end of one to attach to amino end of anotherAmino acids that create protein are linked together by a peptide bondHair is the linking together of protein groupsIts very important not to disturb peptide bonds combining alkaline chemicals and heat could break these critical peptide bonds and destroy the protein structure.

16FOUR SIDE BONDSHydrogen BondSalt BondDisulfide BondVan der Waals Forces

Amino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

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FOUR SIDE BONDSHydrogen BondWorks on principle that unlike charges attractCan easily be broken by heat or water Accounts for 35% of hairs strength due to millions of hydrogen bonds in hairs structure

Amino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS18

FOUR SIDE BONDSSalt BondResult of attraction of unlike charges; the negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in anotherAccounts for 35% of hairs resistance to changeAmino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS19FOUR SIDE BONDSDisulfide BondResults when sulfur-type side chains join with other sulfur-type side chainsMost important bond to cosmetologyBroken or reformed by chemical services, producing a chemical change with lasting resultsAmino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

20FOUR SIDE BONDSVan der Waals ForcesBased on theory that atomic groups prefer environment with other groups that have similar structuresNot important for cosmetology services other than to know that it exists and plays a role in bonding protein chainsAmino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDS

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Amino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDSHair begins with individual atoms, the smallest unit of matterAtoms unite by sharing electrons tobecome molecules of amino acids

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Amino AcidsChapter 5 chemistry | matter | CHEMICAL BONDSThe amino acids create polypeptide protein chainsThe ends of the amino acids bond to form peptide bondsThe bonding of protein chains to other protein chains makes human hair

23self-checkOn a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions.Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or gas is termed __________.All of the following are elements that form the basis of hair, nails and skin EXCEPT:sulfurheliumcarbonoxygen

Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-checkIts time for you to self-check your knowledge about matter. Answer questions 1-8. 24self-checkChapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-checkT or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons and electrons.

The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the number of __________ in the outer shell.25self-checkChapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-checkMatch the term with the best description.__ Peptide bond__ Hydrogen bond__ Salt bond__ Disulfide bondNegative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in anotherFormed when acid end of one amino acid attaches to amino end of anotherHydrogen atom in one molecule attracted to atom of another molecule with negative electronsMost important bond to a salonprofessionals work26self-checkOn a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions.Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or gas is termed __________.All of the following are elements that form the basis of hair, nails and skin EXCEPT:sulfurheliumcarbonoxygen

Chapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-checkmatterNow it is time to check your answers.27self-checkChapter 5 chemistry | matter | self-checkT or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons and electrons.

The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the number of __________ in the outer shell.Protons and neutrons are packed together tightly to form the nucleus. Electrons move about the nucleus on orbiting paths.electrons28self-checkChapter 5 chemistr