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- Chapter 3 Nuclear properties TOPICS Nuclear binding energy Radioactivity Artificial isotopes Nuclear reactions Separation of radioactive isotopes Applications of isotopes Sources of 2 H and 13 C Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: applications Mossbauer spectroscopy: applications
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- 3.2 Nuclear binding energy Mass defect, and binding energy mass defect - atomic mass of any atom besides 1 H is less than the sum of the protons, neutrons, and electrons. - is a measure of the binding energy of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus -loss of mass and liberation of energy are related by Einsteins equations. E = mc 2 Where E = energy libarated m = loss of mass C = speed of light in a vacuum = 2.998 x 10 8 ms -1
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- The sum of the masses of the protons, neutrons and electrons in a Li atom
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- The average binding energy per nucleon it is more useful to consider the average binding energy per nucleon, i.e. per particle in the nucleus. Mev = mega electron vollt Fig. 3.1 Variation in average binding energy per nucleon as a function of mass number. Note that the energy scale is positive, meaning that the nuclei with the highest values of the binding energies release the greatest amount of energy upon formation. note that the binding energy per nucleon decreases appreciably for mass numbers > 100.
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- 3.3 Radioactivity If a nuclide is radioactive, it emits particles or electromagnetic radiation or undergoes spontaneous fission or electron capture. Nuclear emissions
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- An example of spontaneous radioactive decay is that of carbon- 14, which takes place by loss of a -particle to give nitrogen-14. This decay is the basis of radio-carbon dating. The emission of a -particle results in an increase in the atomic number by 1 and leaves the mass number unchanged. A positron is of equal mass but opposite charge to an electron. A neutrino and an antineutrino possess near zero masses, are uncharged and accompany the emission from the nucleus of a positron and an electron respectively.
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- Nuclear transformations
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- The kinetics of radioactive decay Fig. 3.4 Radioactive decay follows first order kinetics and a plot of the number of nuclides against time is an exponential decay curve. The graph shows a decay curve for radon-222,which has a half-life of 3.82 days
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- 3.4 Artificial isotopes Nuclear reactions may occur when nuclei are bombarded with high energy neutrons or positively charged particles. Production of artificial nuclides has two consequences: production of artificial isotopes of elements that do no not possess naturally occurring radioisotopes synthesis of transuranium elements (Z 93), nearly all of which are exclusively man- made.
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- 3.5 Nuclear fission The fission of uranium-235 A particular reaction path during nuclear fission is called a reaction channel The general point that the sum of the mass numbers of the two fission products plus the neutrons must equal 236.
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- Since each neutron can initiate another nuclear reaction, a branching chain reaction is possible. If this involves a quantity of 235 U larger than a certain critical mass, a violent explosion occurs, liberating enormous amounts of energy. Fig. 3.6 A representation of a branched chain reaction in which each step of the reaction produces two neutrons, each of which can initiate the fission of a 235 U nuclide. If left uncontrolled, such a chain reaction would lead to a violently explosive situation.
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- . -235 : 52 17 -239 : 10 10 -240 : 40 15 -235 20 % 400 15 % 600 . 99 %. 235 . 1500 . 235 90% 238 235 . 238 235. : ( 238)- 993 % ( 235) -07 % - 001% 238 235 . ( ) - - - 50-70 .
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- Production of energy by nuclear fission
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- Transuranium elements Table 3.2 The transuranium elements. The names are those agreed by the IUPAC.
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- 3.8 Nuclear fusion An example is the formation of helium-4 from deuterium and tritium Compared with fission reactions, nuclear fusion has the advantage that large quantities of radioactive products are not formed. However, the activation energies for fusion reactions are very high and, up to the present time, it has been possible to overcome the barrier only by supplying the energy from a fission reaction to drive a fusion reaction. This is the principle behind the hydrogen or thermonuclear bomb Fusion reactions are believed to take place in the Sun and start at temperatures above 10 7 K.
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- 3.9 Applications of isotopes When the hydrogen atom in an X-H bond is exchanged for deuterium, the reduced mass of the pair of bonded atoms changes and shifts the position of the absorption in the IR spectrum due to the X-H stretching mode. Shifts of this kind can be used to confirm assignments in IR spectra. Infrared Spectroscopy (IR)
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- An absorption at 3650 cm -1 in the IR spectrum of a compound X has been assigned to an O-H stretching mode. To what Wave number is this band expected to shift upon deuteration? What assumption have you made in the calculation?
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- Kinetic isotope effects Isotopic labelling may be used to probe the mechanism of a reaction. Consider the case where the rate-determining step of a reaction involves breaking a particular C-H bond. Labelling the compound with deuterium at that site will mean that a C-D rather than a C-H bond is broken. The bond dissociation energy of a C-D bond is higher than that of a C-H bond because the zero point energy is lowered when the reduced mass, , of a bond is increased, i.e. (C-D) > ( C-H) The zero point energy of a molecule corresponds to the energy of its lowest vibrational level (vibrational ground state). the rate-determining step should proceed more slowly for the deuterated compound.
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- Radiocarbon dating Radiocarbon dating is a technique used widely by archaeologists to date articles composed of organic material (e.g. wood). The method relies on the fact that one isotope of carbon, 14 C, is radioactive (t 1/2 = 5730 yr) and decays according to equation Analytical applications The use of radioisotopes in analysis includes determinations of solubilities of sparingly soluble salts and vapour pressures of rather involatile substances, and investigations of solid solution formation and adsorption of precipitates.
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- 3.10 Sources of 2 H and 13 C Solvents for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, enriched in deuterium to an extent of 99%, are commercially available. The separation of deuterium from naturally occurring hydrogen is achieved electrolytically with the isotope in the form of D 2 O. Carbon-13: chemical enrichment
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- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To be successful in using NMR as an analytical tool, it is necessary to understand the physical principles on which the methods are based. The nuclei of many elemental isotopes have a characteristic spin (I). Some nuclei have integral spins (e.g. I = 1, 2, 3....), some have fractional spins (e.g. I = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2....), and a few have no spin, I = 0 (e.g. 12 C, 16 O, 32 S,....). Isotopes of particular interest and use to organic chemists are 1 H, 13 C, 19 F and 31 P, all of which have I = 1/2. Spin Properties of Nuclei Nuclear spin may be related to the nucleon composition of a nucleus in the following manner: Odd mass nuclei (i.e. those having an odd number of nucleons) have fractional spins. Examples are I = 1/2 ( 1 H, 13 C, 19 F ), I = 3/2 ( 11 B ) & I = 5/2 ( 17 O ). Even mass nuclei composed of odd numbers of protons and neutrons have integral spins. Examples are I = 1 ( 2 H, 14 N ). Even mass nuclei composed of even numbers of protons and neutrons have zero spin ( I = 0 ). Examples are 12 C, and 16 O.
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- 1. A spinning charge generates a magnetic field, as shown by the animation on the right. The resulting spin-magnet has a magnetic moment () proportional to the spin. 2. In the presence of an external magnetic field (B 0 ), two spin states exist, +1/2 and -1/2.The magnetic moment of the lower energy +1/2 state is aligned with the external field, but that of the higher energy -1/2 spin state is opposed to the external field. Note that the arrow representing the external field points North. 3. The difference in energy between the two spin states is dependent on the external magnetic field strength, and is always very small. The following diagram illustrates that the two spin states have the same energy when the external field is zero, but diverge as the field increases. At a field equal to B x a formula for the energy difference is given (remember I = 1/2 and is the magnetic moment of the nucleus in the field). phenomenon: The following features lead to the nmr phenomenon:
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- For nmr purposes, this small energy difference (E) is usually given as a frequency in units of MHz
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