chapter 28 nuclear chemistry radioactive decay radioactive decay
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CHAPTER 28 Nuclear Chemistry Radioactive Decay Radioactive Decay Slide 2 A. Nuclear Stability Nuclide = atom of an isotope Slide 3 A. Nuclear Stability Nuclear stability stable nuclei always have at least as many neutrons as protons. Slide 4 A. Nuclear Stabiity For an odd/even or even/odd nucleus, if the mass number is different by more than 1 amu from the rounded atomic mass, the nuclide is unstable. Ex: Slide 5 A. Nuclear Stability For an even/even nucleus, if the mass number is different by more than 3 amu from the rounded atomic mass, the nuclide is unstable. Ex: Slide 6 A. Nuclear Stability For odd/odd nuclei, only four stable isotopes are found in nature: Slide 7 B. Nuclear Decay Alpha particle ( ) helium nucleus paper 2+ Beta particle ( -) electron 1- lead Positron ( +) positron 1+ Gamma ( ) high-energy photon 0 concrete Slide 8 B. Nuclear Decay Alpha Emission parent nuclide daughter nuclide alpha particle Top and bottom numbers must balance!! Slide 9 B. Nuclear Decay Beta Emission electron Positron Emission positron Slide 10 B. Nuclear Decay Electron Capture electron Gamma Emission Usually follows other types of decay. Transmutation Atom of one element changes into an atom of another element. Slide 11 B. Nuclear Decay Why nuclides decay need stable ratio of neutrons to protons DECAY SERIES TRANSPARENCY Slide 12 C. Half-life Half-life (t ) Time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay. Shorter half-life = less stable. Slide 13 C. Half-life m f :final mass m i :initial mass n:# of half-lives Slide 14 C. Half-life Fluorine-21 has a half-life of 5.0 seconds. If you start with 25 g of fluorine-21, how many grams would remain after 60.0 s? GIVEN: t = 5.0 s m i = 25 g m f = ? total time = 60.0 s n = 60.0s 5.0s =12 WORK : m f = m i (1/2) n m f = (25 g)(0.5) 12 m f = 0.0061 g Slide 15 C. Half-life N t :final mass N 0 :initial mass t:elapsed time Slide 16 C. Half-life k:rate constant t 1/2 :half-life Slide 17 C. Half-life A sample of radium-223 has a half-life of 11.4 days. What is the rate constant for this isotope? GIVEN: t = 11.4 days WORK : k = 0.693 / t 1/2 k = 0.693 / 11.4 days k = 0.0607 days -1 Slide 18 C. Half-life The rate constant for gold-200 is 0.035 /year. What is the half-life of gold-200? GIVEN: k = 0.035 yr -1 WORK : k = 0.693 / t 1/2 t = 0.693 / k t = 0.693 / 0.035 yr -1 t = 19.8 yr 20. years Slide 19 C. Half-life The half-life of iodine 129 is 1.7 x 10 7 years. If a nuclear bomb explosion resulted in 3.75 g of iodine-129, how much time would have to elapse for the amount of iodine-129 to be 0.75 g? GIVEN: t = 1.7 x 10 7 yr N 0 = 3.75 g N t = 0.75 g t = ? WORK : ln (N 0 /N t ) = kt ln (3.75/0.75) = 0.693/1.7 x 10 7 t t = 3.9 x 10 7 years (39, 000, 000 years!) Slide 20 D. Radiocarbon Dating Carbon-14 is in all living things through the carbon cycle. Amount of carbon-14 stays constant until organism dies, then it begins to decay. Slide 21 D. Radiocarbon Dating Amount of carbon-14 can be expressed as either a percentage or as a decimal number. Example: amount of carbon-14 in a dead tree could be expressed as 38% or 0.38 of the original amount. Slide 22 D. Radiocarbon Dating Half-life of carbon-14 : 5730 years Slide 23 D. Radiocarbon Dating The remnants of an ancient canoe are found in a cave in northern Australia. The amount of carbon- 14 is 6.28 counts per minute, and the amount of carbon-14 in a tree today is 13.6 counts per minute. What is the approximate age of the canoe? Slide 24 D. Radiocarbon Dating GIVEN: t = 5730 yr N 0 = 13.6 cts/min N t = 6.28 cts/min t = ? WORK : k = 0.693 / 5730 yr k = 1.20942 x 10 -4 yr -1 ln (N 0 /N t ) = kt ln (13.6/6.28) = 1.20942 x 10 -4 t t = 6390 years 2011 6390 = 4379 BC Slide 25 E. Fission Occurs when isotopes are bombarded with neutrons and split the nucleus into smaller fragments, accompanied by the release of neutrons and a large amount of energy. (Each atom can capture 1 neutron.) Slide 26 E. Fission Chain reaction occurs when atomic nuclei that have split release energetic neutrons that split more nuclei. Slide 27 E. Fission Two steps in controlling fission: Neutron moderation water or carbon slows down the neutrons Neutron absorption decreases the number of slow neutrons through the use of control rods made of neutron- absorbing materials (usually cadmium) Slide 28 F. Fusion Occurs when two light nuclei combine to produce a nucleus of heavier mass, accompanied by the release of a large amount of energy. Slide 29 F. Fusion Occurs in all stars High temperatures are necessary to initiate fusion (no cold fusion yet) Possible future energy source Hydrogen bomb is a fusion reaction (fusion of two deuterium nuclei). Slide 30 G. Methods of Detection Geiger Counters (primarily beta) Scintillation counter coated screen detects radiation particles. Film badge several layers of photographic film encased in a holder. Detects beta and gamma. Slide 31 H. Radioisotopes in Medicine X-rays: Useful in imaging soft-tissue organs. Tracers: Iodine-131 is used to check for thyroid problems Radiation treatment: Some cobalt isotopes are used as radiation sources to treat cancer.