Chapter 27 Nuclear Physics

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  • CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL

    PHYSICS

    PHYSICS

    NUCLEAR

    PHYSICS

  • L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S

    NUMBER LEARNING OUTCOME

    i U n d e r s t a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a t o m .

    ii L e a r n t h e s i m p l e m o d e l o f t h e m o d e r n a t o m .

    iii U n d e r s t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t e r m s p r o t o n

    n u m b e r a n d n e u t r o n n u m b e r.

    iv L e a r n w h a t a r e n u c l i d e s a n d h o w a r e n u c l i d e s r e p r e s e n t e d .

    v W h a t a r e i s o t o p e s ?

    vi U n d e r s t a n d n u c l e a r p r o c e s s e s i n t e r m s o f w h a t i s

    c o n s e r v e d .

    vii L e a r n w h a t i s m e a n t b y t h e t e r m s p o n t a n e o u s a n d r a n d o m ,

    i n t e r m s o f n u c l e a r p r o c e s s e s .

    viii L e a r n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d b e h a v i o u r o f , a n d

    r a d i a t i o n .

  • S T R U C T U R E O F T H E ATO M

    The discovery of the electron by J.J Thompson The discovery of the electron by J.J Thompsonprompted him in 1898 to suggest the plumpudding model for the atom.

    In this model, it was suggested that atomsconsist of positively charged lumps of matter,with negatively charged electrons embeddedin them.

    Figure 4.1, page 120, Concepts of

    Modern Physics, Beiser, 6th

    edition, The McGrawHill

    Companies, New York, 2003,

  • S T R U C T U R E O F T H E ATO M

    In 1911, Hans Geiger and Ernest

    2

    In 1911, Hans Geiger and ErnestMarsden, under the advise of ErnestRutherford, probed the atomic structureby performing the gold foil experiment.

    In this experiment, a stream of (alpha)particles was shot at a thin gold foil. Thealpha particles are the nucleus of aHelium atom and have a charge ofmagnitude 2.

  • S T R U C T U R E O F T H E ATO M

    If Thompsons model was correct, the If Thompsons model was correct, thedeflection of the alpha particles wereexpected to be less than 1.

    However, what was observed was:

    1. A large percentage of the particlesdeviated at small angles (less than 1).

    2. A small fraction of the alpha particlesdeviated at large angles.

    3. A tiny fraction were actually scatteredbackwards.

  • S T R U C T U R E O F T H E ATO M

    Source of image:

    http://wiki.chemeddl.org/mediawiki/images/4/43/Chapter_4_page_17.jpg

  • S T R U C T U R E O F T H E ATO M

    Rutherford proposed that there must be a Rutherford proposed that there must be anucleus at the centre of the atom, where thepositive charges and mass are concentrated at.The rest of the atom is just empty space, withelectrons in it.

    Evidence:1. Majority of particles pass through empty

    space and get deviated at a very small angle.2. The particles that pass through the atom

    closer to the centre of the atom are eitherscattered at a large angle or scatteredbackwards.

  • S T R U C T U R E O F T H E ATO M

    Source of image:

    http://wiki.chemeddl.org/mediawiki/images/7/7a/Chapter_4_page_18.jpg

  • S I M P L E M O D E L O F T H E

    N U C L E A R ATO M

    S I M P L E M O D E L O F T H E

    N U C L E A R ATO M The small concentrated positive charge at the The small concentrated positive charge at the

    centre of the atom is known as the nucleus,and the positive charges that inhibit thenucleus are known as protons.

    In addition to the protons, there are alsoneutral neutrons that occupy the nucleus.Collectively, the neutrons and protons areknown as nucleons (inhabitants of thenucleons).

    Negatively charged electrons orbit thenucleus.

  • PROTON NUMBER

    The proton number of an element gives The proton number of an element givesthe number of protons in the nucleus ofan atom of the element.

    For example, the proton number of theelement carbon is 12. This means thatthere are 12 protons in the nucleus of acarbon atom.

    The proton number is denoted by the symbol Z.

  • NUCLEON NUMBER

    The nucleon number gives the total The nucleon number gives the totalnumber of protons and neutrons in thenucleus of the elements atom.

    For example, carbon has a nucleonnumber of 24. This means that thenucleus of the carbon atom has 12neutrons in addition to the 12 protons.

    The nucleon number is given the symbolA.

  • N U C L I D E R E P R E S E N TAT I O N

    Nuclides are a particular species of Nuclides are a particular species ofan element with a specified numberof protons and neutrons.

    Nuclides are represented as ,

    where is the elements symbol,is the nucleon number, and is theproton number.

  • N U C L I D E R E P R E S E N TAT I O N

    Table 43.1, page

    1441, Sears and

    Zemanskys

    University

    Physics, Young

    and Freedman,

    13th edition,

    Pearson

    Education, San

    Francisco, 2012.

  • ISOTOPES

    The isotope of an element is the The isotope of an element is thenucleus of that element that has thesame proton number but a differentnucleon number.

    This means that isotopes have thesame number of protons butdifferent number of neutrons.

  • ISOTOPES

    E.g. E.g.

    The diagram shows the three isotopes ofoxygen. The proton number is thesubscript while the nucleon number issuperscript.

    Besides oxygen, other elements likecarbon and hydrogen also have differentisotopes.

  • E X A M P L E S

    Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 11, question 40.

  • E X A M P L E S

    Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 22, question 7.

  • E X A M P L E S

    Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 22, question 7 (contd).

  • H O M E W O R K

    1. May/June 2008, Paper 1, question 39.1. May/June 2008, Paper 1, question 39.

    2. Oct/Nov 2008, Paper 1, question 38.

    3. Oct/Nov 2008, Paper 1, question 39.

    4. May/June 2009, Paper 1, question 36.

    5. May/June 2009, Paper 1, question 38.

    6. Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 11, question 38.

    7. Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 21, question 7.

    8. May/June 2010, Paper 21, question 7.

  • H O M E W O R K

    9. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 11, question 38.

    10. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 12, question 38.

    11. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 12, question 39.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    Nuclear decay occurs when the Nuclear decay occurs when theunstable parent nuclei ofradioactive elements emitparticles and / or electromagneticradiation, leaving daughternuclei, which may be eitherstable or unstable.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    In the reaction

    In the reaction

    , the parent nuclide

    uranium 234 decays into thedaughter nuclide thorium 230,giving off an particle (

    )and gamma radiation. The daughter nucleus will next

    decay in series of steps toproduce a stable nuclide.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    In a nuclear reaction, such as nuclear In a nuclear reaction, such as nucleardecay:

    I. the proton number,

    II. the nucleon number,

    III. mass energy, and

    IV. momentum are

    conserved.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    In the reaction

    In the reaction

    , for example:

    I. proton number before reaction =proton number after reaction = 9,

    II. nucleon number before reaction =nucleon number after reaction =18.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    In the reaction

    In the reaction

    , for example:I. proton number and nucleon number

    is conserved, andII. an

    alpha () particle is emitted.III. gamma () radiation, a form of EM

    energy, is emitted. Some of thebinding energy in the parent nuclideis released.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    Binding energy is the energy that is Binding energy is the energy that isstored in the nuclide to bind thenucleons together. Evidence of binding energy: The mass of

    the nucleus is more than the sum of themasses of all the nucleons. This effect isknown as the mass defect. A certain amount of this mass defect is

    converted into energy based on themass energy equivalence principle.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    In the reaction

    In the reaction

    , for example:

    I. proton number and nucleonnumber is conserved, and

    II. radiation and a particle(electron) are emitted.

  • NUCLEAR DECAY

    Nuclear decay process is classified as a Nuclear decay process is classified as aspontaneous and random process. It is spontaneous because its

    occurrence is independent of anyexternal or environmental factors. It is random because we cannot predict

    which nucleus in a sample will decay.However, there is a constant probabilitythat the nucleus will decay in any fixedperiod of time.

  • E X A M P L E S

    May/June 2008, Paper 1, question 40.

  • E X A M P L E S

    Oct/Nov 2008, Paper 1, question 40.

  • E X A M P L E S

    May/June 2009, Paper 1, question 37.

  • E X A M P L E S

    May/June 2010, Paper 11, question 39.

  • H O M E W O R K

    1. Oct/Nov 2008, Paper 2, question 8.1. Oct/Nov 2008, Paper 2, question 8.

    2. May/June 2009, Paper 1, question 39.

    3. May/June 2009, Paper 1, question 40.

    4. Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 11, question 37.

    5. Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 22, question 7.

    6. May/June 2010, Paper 11, question 38.

    7. May/June 2010, Paper 11, question 40.

    8. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 11, question 39.

  • H O M E W O R K

    9. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 11, question 40.9. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 11, question 40.

    10. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 12, question 40.

    11. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 21, question 7.

    12. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 23, question 9.

    13. May/June 2011, Paper 11, question 38.

    14. May/June 2011, Paper 11, question 39.

    15. May/June 2011, Paper 11, question 40.

    16. May/June 2011, Paper 12, question 39.

  • H O M E W O R K

    17. May/June 2010, Paper 12, question 40.

    18. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 11, question 40.

    19. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 12, question 40.

    20. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 21, question 7.

  • B E H AV I O U R O F R A D I AT I O N

    The three forms of radiation The three forms of radiationassociated with nuclear decay are:I. (alpha) radiation,II. - (beta - minus) radiation, andIII. (gamma) radiation.

    We will look at the properties andbehaviour of these three radiationunder the influence of magnetic andelectric fields.

  • B E H AV I O U R O F R A D I AT I O N

  • B E H AV I O U R O F R A D I AT I O N

    Source : http://webs.mn.catholic.edu.au/physics/emery/assets/the_co17.gif.

  • B E H AV I O U R O F R A D I AT I O N

    Source:

    http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/graphics/diagrams/radioactivity/electric_field_radiatio

    n.gif.

  • E X A M P L E S

    May/June 2008, Paper 2, question 7.

  • E X A M P L E S

    May/June 2008, Paper 2, question 7 (contd).

  • E X A M P L E S

    May/June 2008, Paper 2, question 7 (contd).

  • H O M E W O R K

    1. May/June 2009, Paper 21, question 8.1. May/June 2009, Paper 21, question 8.

    2. Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 11, question 39.

    3. May/June 2010, Paper 11, question 37.

    4. May/June 2010, Paper 22, question 7.

    5. May/June 2010, Paper 23, question 7.

    6. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 12, question 39.

    7. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 22, question 7.

    8. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 23, question 6.

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