CHAPTER 23 Biological Chemistry - Mr. Grosser's is the most abundant monosaccharide in is also the most important monosaccharide nutritionally for animals because glu-cose provides energy for cellular activities. The carbohydrates we eat are broken down into ...

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Biological ChemistryChemical reactions occur in all living organisms.C H A P T E R 2 3Honeybee Pollinating a PoppySECTION 1OBJECTIVESDescribe the structural char-acteristics of simple carbohy-drates and complexcarbohydrates.Explain the role of carbohy-drates in living systems.Describe the structural char-acteristics of lipid molecules.Identify the functions of lipidsin living cells.Carbohydrates and LipidsB iochemistry is the study of the chemicals and reactions that occur inliving things. Biochemical compounds are often large and complex organ-ic molecules, but their chemistry is similar to that of the smaller organicmolecules you studied in Chapter 22. Now you will study many importantbiochemical molecules and learn why they are needed to stay healthy.Two of the most common types of molecules that you may know aboutare carbohydrates and lipids. These molecules are important parts of thefood that you eat and provide most of the energy that your body needs.CarbohydratesSugars, starches, and cellulose belong to the large group of biochemicalmolecules called carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are molecules that arecomposed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio, andprovide nutrients to the cells of living things. They are produced byplants through a process called photosynthesis. Cellulose provides struc-ture and support for plants and starch stores energy in plants. Becauseanimals cannot make all of their own carbohydrates, they must get themfrom food. Carbohydrates provide nearly all of the energy that is avail-able in most plant-derived food.MonosaccharidesA monosaccharide is a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbo-hydrate. A single monosaccharide molecule contains three to seven car-bon atoms. Monosaccharide compounds are typically sweet-tasting,white solids at room temperature. Because they have polar, hydroxyl(IOH) groups in their molecular structures, they are very soluble inwater. The most common monosaccharides are glucose (also called dex-trose) and fructose. Although both of these monosaccharides have theformula C6(H2O)6, their structural formulas differ. As Figure 1 shows,glucose in a water solution forms a ring made up of five carbon atomsand one oxygen atom, and fructose in a water solution forms a ringmade up of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Notice that bothcompounds have five IOH groups in their structures.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 751FIGURE 1 Glucose and fructoseboth have 6 C, 12 H, and 6 O atoms.The arrangement of the C, H, and Oatoms determines the shape andproperties of each sugar.HHOCC CCCCH2OHHHOHOHOHOHHglucoseOfructoseCHH OHOHCHOCH2OHCCH2OHHCGlucose is the most abundant monosaccharide in nature. It is also themost important monosaccharide nutritionally for animals because glu-cose provides energy for cellular activities. The carbohydrates we eatare broken down into glucose, which may be used immediately by cellsor stored in the liver as glycogen for later use. Glucose is also found insome fruits, corn, and the sap of plants.Fructose, also called fruit sugar, is found in most fruits and in honey.The sweetest naturally occurring sugar, fructose is sweeter than tablesugar. Because of its sweetness, fructose is sometimes used as a low-calorie sweetener because less fructose is needed to produce the samesweetness that table sugar does.DisaccharidesGenerally, when someone asks for sugar, the person is asking for thedisaccharide sucrose, C12H22O11. A disaccharide is a sugar that consistsof two monosaccharide units that are joined together. Like monosaccha-rides, disaccharides have polar hydroxy groups in their molecular struc-tures and therefore are water soluble. A molecule of sucrose formswhen a glucose molecule bonds to a fructose molecule. Commerciallyavailable sugar comes from sugar cane or sugar beets, such as thoseshown in Figure 2. Another important disaccharide is lactose, or milksugar. Lactose is made up of a sugar called galactose and glucose.Human milk is 7 to 8% lactose, but cows milk is only 4% to 5% lactose.Infant formula may be enriched with lactose to simulate human milk.Carbohydrate ReactionsCarbohydrates undergo two important kinds of reactions: condensationreactions and hydrolysis reactions. A condensation reaction is a reactionin which two molecules or parts of the same molecule combine. Figure 3shows a condensation reaction in which a molecule of glucose combineswith a molecule of fructose to yield a molecule of sucrose. Note that inthis reaction a molecule of water is also formed.Disaccharides and longer-chain polysaccharides can be broken downinto smaller sugar units by hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a chemical reactionbetween water and another substance to form two or more new sub-stances. Sucrose will undergo a hydrolysis reaction with water, formingglucose and fructose.This hydrolysis, or water-splitting, reaction occursin many common processes, such as in the making of jams and jellies.C H A P T E R 2 3752FIGURE 2 Most of the sugar pro-duced throughout the world comesfrom sugar beets such as thoseshown here, or from sugar cane.FIGURE 3 The disaccharidesucrose is formed by a condensationreaction between glucose and fructose.HHOCC CCCCH2OHHHOHOHOHOHHOfructose waterCHH OHOHCHOCH2OHCCH2OHHCglucoseHHOCC CCCCH2OHHHOHOHOHHOsucroseCHH HH OHOHCCH2OHCCH2OHHCOO+ +Cooking sucrose with high acid foods, such as berries and fruits,causes it to break down into a mixture of equal parts of glucose andfructose. This new mixture provides the sweet taste in jams and jellies,which is sweeter than the starting sugar. When lactose is brokendown, glucose and galactose are formed. Some people do not producethe enzyme needed to break down the milk sugar in dairy products.This condition is called lactose intolerance. People who have this canbecome ill when they drink milk or eat foods that have milk in them.PolysaccharidesWhen many monosaccharides or disaccharides combine in a series ofcondensation reactions, they form a polysaccharide. A polysaccharide isa carbohydrate made up of long chains of simple sugars. Cellulose,starch, and glycogen are polymers of glucose, or polysaccharides, thatcontain many glucose monomer units.As shown in Figure 4, the glucose molecules in cellulose chains arearranged in such a way that hydrogen bonds link the hydroxy groupsof adjacent glucose molecules to form insoluble fibrous sheets. Thesesheets of cellulose are the basic component of plant cell walls. Morethan 50% of the total organic matter in the world is cellulose. Peoplecannot digest cellulose, but when we eat fiber, which is cellulose, itspeeds the movement of food through the digestive tract.Microorganisms that can digest cellulose are present in the digestivetracts of some animals. Cows and other ruminants have a special stom-ach chamber that holds the plants they eat for long periods of time,during which these micro-organisms can break down the cellulose intoglucose.Starch is the storage form of glucose in plants. Starch from foodssuch as potatoes and cereal grains makes up about two-thirds of thefood eaten by people throughout the world. Starch in food is brokendown into glucose during digestion. Glucose is broken down further inmetabolic reactions that will be discussed later in this chapter.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 753FIGURE 4 Glucose is the mono-saccharide subunit for glycogen, cel-lulose, and starch. Notice that thesethree polymers differ in theirarrangement of glucose monomers.glucose monomersglycogenglucosecelluloseCellulose chainslinked byhydrogen bondsstarchHHOCC CCCCH2OHHHOHOHOHOHHwww.scilinks.orgTopic: CarbohydratesCode: HC60213LipidsLipids are another important class of nutrients in our diet. They arefound in dairy products, grains, meats, and oils. A lipid is a type of bio-chemical that does not dissolve in water, has a high percentage of C andH atoms, and is soluble in nonpolar solvents. As a class, lipids are notnearly as similar to each other as carbohydrates are. Long-chain fattyacids, phospholipids, steroids, and cholesterol are all lipids.Fatty Acids and TriglyceridesFatty acids consist of a long, nonpolar hydrocarbon tail and a polar car-boxylic acid functional group at the head. Fatty acids are the simplest lipidmolecules.They have hydrophilic polar heads,but their hydrocarbon chainsmake them insoluble in water. Fatty acids can also be saturated or unsatu-rated. Saturated fatty acids have no carbon-carbon double bonds, whileunsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds in the hydrocarbonchain.The lipid shown below is oleic acid, which is unsaturated.Triglycerides are the major component of the fats and oils in your diet.They are formed by condensation reactions in which three fatty acid mol-ecules bond to one glycerol (a type of alcohol) molecule. Fats, such as but-ter and lard, come from animals, while oils come from plant sources, suchas coconuts, peanuts, corn, and olives, as shown in Figure 5. Because theyhave a large amount of saturated fatty acids, fats are solids at room tem-perature. Oils have more unsaturated fatty acids than fats, and are liquids.Like other animals, humans make fat, which is stored in adipose tissueuntil it is needed as an energy source. Fat has about twice as much energyper gram as carbohydrates or proteins do. Thus, fat is an efficient form ofenergy storage.Fats have another important commercial value based on their abilityto react with sodium hydroxide, NaOH, commonly known as lye. Whena fat combines with NaOH, an acid-base reaction called saponificationoccurs, and a salt and water form. This salt is made from molecules thathave long carboxylic acid chains and is called soap. A molecule of soaphas a charged ionic head and a nonpolar hydrocarbon tail. This struc-ture allows the ionic head of a soap molecule to dissolve in water andthe nonpolar tail to dissolve in nonpolar greases.This property gives thesoap its cleaning ability. The chemistry of this reaction is also used as away of classifying lipids. Lipids that react with a base to form soap arecalled saponifiable lipids, which include fats, oils, and fatty acids.C H A P T E R 2 3754CC C CHHHHHHC CHHHHHCC C CHH HHH HC CHHHCHHCHHCHHCHHCHHC HHHOHOhydrophobic regionhydrophilic regionFIGURE 5 Fats, such as lard andbutter, are obtained from animals.Oils are found in many differentplants.www.scilinks.orgTopic: LipidsCode: HC60881Other Important LipidsCompound saponifiable lipids play an important role in biochemicalprocesses. These lipids are structurally similar to triglycerides in that atleast one fatty acid is bonded to the central glycerol or glycerol-like unit.These molecules may also have phosphate groups, sugar units, or nitrogen-containing groups. Phospholipids, shown in Figure 6, are compoundsaponifiable lipids and are the main structural component of cell mem-branes. Phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer, or double layer, at thesurface of the cell.As Figure 6 shows, the hydrophilic heads of the phos-pholipids are on the outside surfaces of the bilayer. The heads are incontact with water-containing solutions inside of the cell and surround-ing the cell.The hydrophobic tails point toward the interior of the mem-brane, away from water-containing solutions. The cell membrane formsa boundary between the cell and its external environment. Only certainsubstances may pass through the cell membrane.This enables the cell tomaintain a stable internal environment.Nonsaponifiable lipids are nonpolar compounds that do not formsoap. They include steroids, many vitamins, and bile acids. Cholesterol isa steroid present in animal cell membranes and is a precursor of manyhormones.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 7551. Describe two functions of carbohydrates in livingsystems.2. Carbohydrates make up about 2% of the mass ofthe human body, yet we need about 1 tsp of glu-cose every 15 min to maintain energy for our cells.Where does all of this glucose come from?3. What is the difference between saponifiable andnonsaponifiable lipids?Critical Thinking4. ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS Glucose is soluble inwater. Why is cellulose, which is made up of glu-cose, insoluble in water?5. EVALUATING IDEAS Carbohydrates make up about90% of the mass of cotton. Why dont humansinclude cotton in their diet?SECTION REVIEWPolarheadNon-polartailsPolarNonpolarPolarA phospholipids head is polar, and its two fatty tailsare nonpolar.Phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer, withthe hydrophilic heads pointing outward and the hydrophobic tails pointing inward.FIGURE 6www.scilinks.orgTopic: Function of the CellMembraneCode: HC60627C H A P T E R 2 3756SECTION 2 Amino Acids and ProteinsA mino acid molecules are the basic building blocks of proteins.Although only 20 types of amino acids are found in human proteins,more than 700 types of amino acids occur in nature. The human bodycan synthesize only 11 of the 20 amino acids as needed. The other nine,called the essential amino acids, have to be supplied by the food thatwe eat.Amino AcidsAmino acids are organic molecules that contain two functional groups: abasic INH2 amino group and an acidic ICOOH carboxylic acid group.All of the 20 amino acids have the general structure shown in Figure 7.The R represents a side chain that is different for each amino acid.The R-groups of the amino acids present in a protein determine theproteins biological activity. The structures of four amino acidscys-teine, valine, glutamic acid, and histidineare shown below.HCH2NHCH2COOHCCC NNHHhistidineCH2NHCOOHCCH2CH2O OHglutamic acidCH2NHCHCOOHCH3H3CvalineCH2NHCOOHCH2SHcysteineOBJECTIVESDescribe the basic structure ofamino acids and the forma-tion of polypeptides.Determine the significance ofamino acid side chains to thethree-dimensional structure ofa protein and the function ofa protein.Describe the functions of pro-teins in cells.Identify the effects of enzymeson biological molecules.COorN CHHOHHRCH2NHRCOOHFIGURE 7 Amino acids have thesame basic structure. The R repre-sents a side chain.Amino Acid ReactionsTwo amino acids can react with each other in an acid-base reaction sim-ilar to those discussed in Chapter 14. The basic amino group of oneamino acid reacts with the acidic carboxylic acid group of anotheramino acid, forming a peptide, and a molecule of water is lost.This reac-tion, shown below, is classified as a condensation reaction because thetwo amino acid molecules join together, and water is formed. The bondformed is called a peptide bond, and the product is a dipeptide becauseit is made up of two amino acid units. Longer chains are called polypep-tides, and chains of 50 or more amino acids are called proteins.Peptide bonds can be broken by enzymes called proteases. Theseenzymes are found in cells and tissues where they aid in the digestion ofproteins from food, or where they degrade unneeded or damaged proteins.ProteinsProteins are found in all living cells and are the most complex and var-ied class of biochemical molecules. A protein is an organic biologicalpolymer that is made up of polypeptide chains of 50 or more amino acidsand is an important building block of all cells. The name protein comesfrom the Greek proteios, which means of first importance. This namewas chosen to show the importance of proteins in living things.Proteins are the second most common molecules found in the humanbody (after water) and make up about 10% to 20% of the mass of a cell.Made up of specific sequences of amino acids, proteins have molecularmasses that range from 6000 to more than 9 million atomic mass units.About 9000 different protein molecules are found in cells in the humanbody. Nitrogen accounts for about 15% of the mass of a protein mole-cule, which makes the structure of a protein quite different from that ofa carbohydrate or lipid. Most proteins also contain sulfur, and somecontain phosphorus or other elements, such as iron, zinc, and copper.The importance of proteins in living things comes from their manydifferent functions. Besides being the bodys main food source for nitro-gen and sulfur, proteins have many important catalytic, structural, regu-latory, and antibody defense functions. Some different kinds of proteinsare keratin, which is the main component of hair and fingernails;enzymes, which catalyze biochemical reactions; hemoglobin, which car-ries oxygen in the blood; insulin, which regulates glucose levels; andantibodies, which protect the body from foreign substances.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 757dipeptidepeptide bondH HHO+CON C +HHOHHRCON CHOHHROOHCN CHHCN CH ORHRHwww.scilinks.orgTopic: Protein SynthesisCode: HC61240Arrangement of Amino Acids in Peptides and ProteinsEach peptide, polypeptide, or protein is made up of a special sequence ofamino acids.A simple set of three-letter abbreviations is used to representeach amino acid in these kinds of molecules. For example, the dipeptidefrom glycine, shown in Figure 8, and glutamic acid would be written asGlyGlu. The dipeptide GluGly is an isomer of GlyGlu. Both have thesame numbers of C, H, O, and N atoms but in a different order. For thetripeptide ValAspHis, made up of valine, asparagine, and histidine, thereare five isomers. There are 120 possible isomers for a pentapeptide of fivedifferent amino acids. Even though there are only 20 types of amino acidsin proteins found in the human body, an incredibly large number ofpolypeptide and protein molecules are possible. Even for a small proteinmade up of 100 amino acids, the number of possible combinations of the20 amino acids is 20100! Polypeptide and protein function depend not onlyon the kinds and number of amino acids but also on their order. Later, youwill see that even the difference of only one amino acid in a polypeptideor protein chain can cause a big change in a proteins activity in a cell.Amino Acid Side-Chain ReactionsThe properties of amino acidsand ultimately polypeptides and pro-teinsdepend on the properties of the side chains present. For example,the side chain of glutamic acid is acidic, and the side chain of histidine isbasic. The side chains of asparagine and several other amino acids arepolar. In addition, both glutamic acid and asparagine can form hydrogenbonds, shown in Figure 9. Some amino acid side chains can form ionic orcovalent bonds with other side chains. Cysteine is a unique amino acid,because the ISH group in cysteine can form a covalent bond with anoth-er cysteine side chain. Figure 9 shows that two cysteine unitsat differentpoints on a protein moleculecan bond to form a disulfide bridge. Suchbonding can link two separate polypeptides or can cause one long proteinto bond onto itself to form a loop. In fact, curly hair is a result of the pres-ence of many disulfide bridges in hair protein.C H A P T E R 2 3758FIGURE 9 Three kinds of interac-tions between side chains on apolypeptide molecule are shownhere. These interactions help deter-mine the shape of a protein.Disulfide bridge(covalent bond)HydrophobicenvironmentHydrogen bondsPolypeptidecysteine cysteinevaline valineasparagine glutamic acidHSC SHHCHCHCH3CH3 CHH3CH3C HHNOOOHHCCHHCHHCCHFIGURE 8 A scanning electronmicrograph showing crystals of theamino acid glycine, one of the build-ing blocks of proteins.Shape and Structure of Protein MoleculesThe interaction of amino acid side chains determines the shape andstructure of proteins, which in turn are important to the proteins bio-logical functions. In a polypeptide chain or protein, the sequence of theamino acids is called the primary (1) structure.The secondary (2) struc-ture describes how the chain is coiled or otherwise arranged in space. Forexample, the alpha (a) helix is a secondary structure that resembles acoiled spring. Another type of secondary structure is the beta (b) pleat-ed sheet, which has accordion-like folds. Both of these secondary struc-tures form because hydrogen bonding occurs between a hydrogen atomattached to the nitrogen atom in one peptide bond and the oxygen atomof another peptide bond farther down the backbone of the protein.In a protein, the amino acid side chains project out in such a way thatthey often interact with other side chains located at various positionsalong the protein backbone.These interactions give the protein its char-acteristic three-dimensional shape, which is called its tertiary (3) struc-ture. The side-chain interactions can include hydrogen bonding, saltbridges, and cysteine-cysteine disulfide bonds. Hydrophobic interac-tions that occur between nonpolar side chains also contribute to a pro-teins tertiary structure. Because nonpolar side groups are repulsed bythe water found in cells and body fluids, these groups tend to be foundin the interior of the protein, where contact with water is minimal. Polarand ionic side chains tend to be on the protein surface, where they arein contact with water. In some proteins, different polypeptides, each ofwhich has its own 3 structure, come together. In the case of hemoglo-bin, four different polypeptides make up the quaternary (4) structure.The four structural levels of proteins are shown in Figure 10.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 759a) Primary Structured) Quaternary Structureb) Secondary Structurec) Tertiary StructureFIGURE 10Biological Functions of ProteinsFrom Table 1, you can see that almost everything that occurs in a livingorganism depends on one or more proteins. Scientists have discoveredthat the specific function of a protein is related to the proteins shape.The shape of a protein can generally be described as fibrous or globu-lar. Fibrous proteins are insoluble in water and are long, thin, and phys-ically strong. Globular proteins are generally soluble in water and aretwisted and folded into a globe-like shape.Fibrous proteins give strength and protection to structures in livingthings. Keratin is a fibrous protein whose secondary structure is almostentirely alpha helical in shape. The keratin in nails and hooves is muchstiffer than the keratin in fur or wool because of the large number of side-chain interactions that occur between the nail and hoof proteins. Collagen,found in bone and tendons, is a triple helix of three intertwined alphahelices, which gives these tissues their strength. Fibrin found in silk has abeta-pleated sheet structure. Elastins in blood tissue, fibrins in blood clots,and myosins found in muscle tissue are other kinds of fibrous proteins.Globular proteins regulate body functions, catalyze reactions, andtransport substances. The regulatory hormone insulin is a small proteinof 51 amino acids in two polypeptide chains. Myoglobin transports oxy-gen in the muscles, and hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood.Casein, found in milk and used for food, is also a globular protein. Itcontains phosphorus, which is needed for bone growth.C H A P T E R 2 3760Type of Protein Function ExamplesStorage storage of amino Casein protein in milk supplies amino acids for baby mammals.acids Egg white protein, or ovalbumin, is a source of amino acids fordeveloping embryos. Plants store proteins in seeds.Transport transport of Proteins transport molecules across cell membranes.substances Hemoglobin in blood transports oxygen.Structural support Spiders produce silk fibers, which are proteins, to make webs.Collagen and elastin give connective tissues strength andflexibility. Keratin is found in hair, feathers, horns, hooves,and nails.Contractile movement Actin and myosin fibers cause movement in muscles. Contractilefibers in cilia and flagella help propel single-celled organisms.Enzymatic catalysis of chemical Enzymes break down large molecules in food within thereactions digestive system.Hormonal coordination of Pancreatic insulin helps regulate blood-sugar levels.processes in anorganismReceptor response of cell to Nerve cell membranes have chemical receptors that chemical stimuli detect chemical signals released by other nerve cells.Defensive protection against Antibodies attack pathogenic viruses and bacteria.diseaseTABLE 1 Biological Functions of ProteinsAmino Acid SubstitutionA proteins amino acid sequence determines its three-dimensionalstructure, which in turn determines its function. Even a single substitu-tion of one amino acid for another can change the shape and functionof a protein. For example, the genetic disease sickle cell anemia can hap-pen when one amino acidglutamic acidis replaced by a molecule ofvaline. This change in only 1 of 146 amino acids in one of the two pro-tein chains in the hemoglobin molecule causes a major change in theshape of the molecule. This change in the shape of the hemoglobin mol-ecule causes the red blood cells to sickle when oxygen levels are rela-tively low (as is the case in most body tissues). The sickled cells tend toclog small blood vessels, which prevents the transport of enough oxygento tissue cells.As a result, people who have sickle cell anemia suffer fromshortness of breath. Figure 11 shows the shape of normal red blood cellsand sickled cells. The sickle cell gene is more common in some groups ofpeople than it is in others. In areas where the disease malaria is common,scientists have discovered that sickled cells are more resistant to malari-al infection than other cells are. So, people who have sickle cell anemiaare more resistant to malaria than other people are.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 761CH2NHCOOHCCH2CH2O OHglutamic acidCH2NHCHCOOHCH3H3Cvaline(d) Because of their shape, sickle cells clogsmall blood vessels.(e) A genetic mutation causesone glutamic acid to bereplaced by valine in the hemoglobin molecules, asshown in red.(f) The sickle shape of the cellcomes from the different shape ofthe hemoglobin caused by the sub-stitution of one valine for one glu-tamic acid in the 146 amino acids.(a) The round, flat shape of healthy red bloodcells shows they have normal hemoglobinmolecules.(b) Hemoglobin consists offour polypeptide chains; thearea where the change in sicklecell hemoglobin occurs isshown in green.(c) Each of the chains is a poly-mer of 141 or 146 amino acidunits, such as the glutamic acidmonomer shown here.FIGURE 11C H A P T E R 2 3762Dr. Charles Drew and Blood TransfusionsPrior to the 1900s, severe bleedingoften resulted in death. But todayblood is stored at blood banks, wherepeople deposit blood so that theyor others can withdraw it whenneeded. Charles Drew was a pioneerin the work of blood transfusions,especially in the use of plasma andthe development of blood banks.The Need for BloodWhile in medical school, Drew real-ized that many lives could be savedif blood could be stored for transfu-sions. Before 1937, most patientsneeding blood received it directlyfrom a donor at the time it wasneeded. In 1938, Drew and physicianJohn Scudder from Britain studiedthe chemistry of blood to try to finda way to preserve blood. Drew rec-ognized that extracting blood plas-ma could help solve the problems ofstoring blood.There are two main componentsof blood: blood cells and plasma.Red blood cells, white blood cells,and platelets make up 45% of thevolume of blood, while plasmamakes up 55% of blood. Plasma isamber colored and is about 90%water. It has more than 100 solutes,including nutrients, antibodies, hor-mones, and proteins. Drew discov-ered that plasma could be used asan emergency substitute for bloodwithout testing for blood type,because the ABO blood types areremoved with the red blood cells. Healso found that plasma could bedehydrated and stored.During World War II, Drew was themedical supervisor for the Blood forBritain program. He also coordinat-ed the American blood storage program by setting up collection centers, standardizing blood bankequipment, and establishing record-keeping procedures and criteria toensure the safety of blood products.When the United States entered thewar, the blood supply was ready, andstored blood and plasma saved sev-eral thousand lives.A Safer Blood SupplyWith the emergence of HIV and AIDSin the 1980s, the methods of bloodtransfusion needed to be modified.Some transfused blood was found tobe contaminated with HIV. Beforemodifications were put into place, asmany as 50% of hemophiliacs in theUnited States could have been infect-ed with HIV because of their frequenttransfusions. Although current screen-ing procedures to detect HIV, hepatitis,and other diseases have almost com-pletely removed the risk of transfusinginfected blood, some people choose tobank their own blood before undergo-ing surgery.Blood SubstitutesThe AIDS epidemic has sped upattempts to find an artificial bloodsubstitute. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs),which are made by replacing thehydrogen atoms of hydrocarbonswith fluorine atoms, are possiblesubstitutes. Oxygen binds to PFCs10 to 20 times more readily than itbinds to plasma or water, and prod-ucts using PFCs have a shelf life ofup to two years. Another substituteis a hemoglobin-based oxygen carri-er (HBOC). HBOCs may be able totransport oxygen until a body is ableto replenish its red blood cells. Ifthese products are successful, theycould provide a supply of blood sub-stitutes that do not require typingand do not depend on donors.1. What was Dr. Drews contribu-tion to medicine?2. Why are scientists searching forblood substitutes?QuestionsCharles Drew was a pioneer in thedevelopment of blood banks.Proteins as EnzymesAn enzyme is a protein that catalyzes a biochemical reaction. Enzymesmake up the largest and most highly specialized class of proteins. All liv-ing things have enzymes; as many as 3000 enzymes can be found in a sin-gle cell. Most enzymes are water-soluble, globular proteins. The aminoacid side chains and the three-dimensional shape of enzymes play a veryimportant role in the enzymatic activity. You will remember fromChapter 17 that catalysts speed up a reaction but do not change as a resultof the reaction. An enzyme also does not change the amount of productthat is formed in a reaction; it only decreases the time it takes to form theproduct. Enzymes catalyze both decomposition and synthesis reactions.Enzymes are also very efficient. For example, the enzyme carbonicanhydrase acts on carbonic acid to break it down into carbon dioxideand water. A single molecule of carbonic anhydrase can break down 36 million carbonic acid molecules in 1 minute! Carbon dioxide is car-ried from all the parts of the body to the lungs as carbonic acid in theblood. In the lungs, carbonic acid is broken down by carbonic anhydraseinto CO2 and water vapor and then is removed from the lungs as a per-son exhales.Enzyme SpecificityIn addition to being highly efficient, enzymes are very specific. Often, theycatalyze just a single reaction as carbonic anhydrase does. In anotherexample, the enzyme peroxidase is responsible only for the decompositionof hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Have you ever put hydrogenperoxide on a minor cut? In the bottle, hydrogen peroxide is relatively sta-ble, but as soon as it comes into contact with your wound, the peroxidaseenzyme in the blood catalyzes its decomposition.You see bubbling, whichis the result of the gaseous oxygen from the decomposing hydrogen per-oxide. As you can see in Figure 12, enzymes act by binding to a specificsubstrate molecule. For example, hydrogen peroxide is the substrate in theB I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 763(a) The enzyme reacts with thesubstrate in a fast, reversiblereaction.(b) The substrate-enzymecomplex can either revert tothe reactants or . . .(c) . . . proceed to the products.FIGURE 12reaction just discussed. The shape of theenzyme is such that a molecule ofhydrogen peroxide can fit into theenzyme at a specific part of the enzymemolecule, called the active site. Theresulting compound is called theenzyme-substrate complex. In theenzyme-substrate complex, hydrogen-oxygen bonds break, and oxygen-oxygen bonds form. Then, the enzymereleases the products and is ready toreact with another substrate molecule.This model of enzyme action is calledthe lock and key model.Enzymes and Reaction RatesThe presence of an enzyme in a chemical reaction can increase the rateof a reaction by a factor of up to 1020. In Chapter 17, you saw that a reac-tion can occur when two atoms or molecules collide. But only collisionsthat have enough energy to overcome the activation energy and havethe proper orientation change reactants into products. As you can seefrom the graph in Figure 13, an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reac-tion causes an increase in the rate of the reaction by reducing the acti-vation energy. The enzyme lowers the activation energy by forming theenzyme-substrate complex, which makes breaking bonds in the reac-tants and forming new bonds in the products easier. Even though thereaction is faster, the net amount of energy required for the reaction orreleased by the reaction is not changed by the action of an enzyme.Temperature and Enzyme ActivityProteins, including enzymes, are also affected by changes in tempera-ture. The graph in Figure 14 shows the relatively narrow range of tem-peratures within which enzymes typically have maximum activity.Enzymes in the human body work optimally at the normal body tem-perature of 37C (98.6F). At temperatures above 50C to 60Cenzymes typically show a decline in activity. High heat can denature, oralter, the shape of a protein, which in turn alters the proteins function.Denaturation is a change in a proteins characteristic three-dimensionalshape due to changes of its secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.If you have ever cooked an egg, you have caused protein denaturation.The white of an egg is a solution of the protein albumin. When the eggis placed in a hot frying pan, a dramatic change takes place and thesemitransparent solution turns into a white solid. Because the primarystructure is retained in denaturation, the nutritional value of the eggwhite is not affected. However, the process is not reversable. Cooling afried egg does not reverse the denaturation. When food is cooked, thethree-dimensional structure of the protein is altered, making the foodeasier to digest.C H A P T E R 2 3764Activation Energy With and Without an EnzymeReactantsProductsActivation energy without an enzymeActivation energywith an enzyme EnergyreleasedEnergyabsorbedReaction progressFIGURE 13 Enzymes decreasethe activation energy of a chemicalreaction. However, the energychange from reactants to products isthe same for both the catalyzed andthe non-catalyzed reaction.FIGURE 14 Most enzymes havemaximum activity within a narrowtemperature range. Denaturation inmany occurs at temperatures above50C and causes a decrease in activity.Enzyme InhibitionPercent maximum activity10050T, C20 40 60 80pH and Enzyme ActivityEnzymes also typically have maximum activity within a relatively nar-row range of pH. The optimal pH for normal cell enzyme functions isalmost neutral, about 7.3 to 7.4. Changes in pH can cause changes inprotein structure and shape. For example, adding acid or base can inter-fere with the side-chain interactions and thus change the shape of a pro-tein. Most enzymes become inactivated, or no longer work, because ofdenaturation when the pH changes. When milk sours (because lacticacid has formed), it curdles, and curds of the protein casein form.Yogurtis made by growing acid-producing bacteria in milk, which causes thecasein to denature, giving yogurt its consistency.The digestion of dietary protein by enzymes begins in the stomach.When food is swallowed, the stomach lining produces HCl and pre-enzymes, inactive forms of protein-digesting enzymes. These pre-enzymes travel from the stomach lining into the stomach before theybecome activated by the stomachs low pH of 1.5 to 2.0. This process isimportant because it prevents the active form of the enzymes fromdigesting the stomach lining. A layer of mucus protects the lining of thestomach from the enzymes it contains. Once activated, the enzymescatalyze the breakdown of the proteins in food into shorter polypep-tide segments. Pepsin is a stomach enzyme found in adults. The partial-ly digested protein in food travels into the small intestine, where thepH is 7 to 8. Under these conditions, the enzyme trypsin becomesactive. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the polypeptide segments intoamino acids, which are absorbed through the intestinal wall and enterthe bloodstream. The body uses these newly acquired amino acids tomake other amino acids and new protein molecules. Figure 15 showshow the protein in raw fish looks before and after it is soaked in acidiclime juice. Because the acidic lime juice denatures protein in the fish,the acid-treated fish looks very different.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 7651. Which elements do amino acids and proteins havein common with carbohydrates and lipids?2. What is the difference between an amino acid anda protein?3. Explain the difference between fibrous proteinsand globular proteins.4. Why are only small amounts of enzymes found inthe body?Critical Thinking5. RELATING IDEAS Explain how the ball-like struc-ture of globular proteins allows them to be watersoluble.6. INFERRING CONCLUSIONS If an essential aminoacid is in short supply in the diet, it can become alimiting reactant in building any protein that con-tains the amino acid. Explain why, under theseconditions, the only way that the cell could makethat protein would be to degrade one of its pro-teins that contain the limiting amino acid.SECTION REVIEWFIGURE 15 The fish treated withlime has turned white because theacidic lime juice denatures the pro-tein in raw fish.C H A P T E R 2 3766SECTION 3 MetabolismM etabolism is the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in anorganism. Complex molecules are broken down into smaller onesthrough catabolism, and simple molecules are used to build bigger onesthrough a process called anabolism. A metabolic pathway is a series oflinked chemical reactions that occur within a cell and result in a specif-ic product or products. The major metabolic pathways for most organ-isms are similar. So, one can study the basic metabolic pathways insimple organisms to get information about the reactions in organismsthat are more complex, including humans.ATP: Energy for the CellJust as it takes energy to run a chemical factory, cells require energy tomake the proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids that are nec-essary for life. In addition, the body needs energy as heat to keep warm,mechanical energy to move muscles and pump blood, and electricalenergy to move ions across cell membranes. The original source foralmost all of the energy needed by living systems is the sun. Autotrophs,such as plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria, can use sunlight,water, and CO2 to make carbon-containing biomolecules, including car-bohydrates. This process is called photosynthesis and occurs in the cellsof plants and algae, such as those shown in Figure 16, within structurescalled chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, an organic mole-cule that absorbs solar energy. This energy is captured immediately intwo compounds, one of which is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATPis an energy storage molecule that plant cells use to make carbohydrates. The other compound, known as NADPH, is also used in carbohydrate-forming reactions.Unlike plants, animals cannot use the suns energy to convert CO2into food. Animals must get the energy that they need to sustain life byconsuming plants and other animals. Living things, including mostmicroorganisms, which depend on plants or other animals for food, arecalled heterotrophs. Heterotrophs use the energy released when com-plex molecules react to form simpler products to drive chemical reac-tions in cells. The carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids thatheterotrophs consume undergo several energy-yielding reactions asthey break down into simpler molecules. Some of this energy is storedin the ATP molecules, which cells use to drive a wide variety of meta-bolic reactions.OBJECTIVESDescribe the role of ATP incells.Explain how energy is releasedby metabolic reactions.Summarize the relationshipbetween anabolism andcatabolism.FIGURE 16 The cells of algae andgreen plants contain chlorophyll, thegreen pigment that absorbs lightenergy from the sun.www.scilinks.orgTopic: Exothermic andEndothermic ReactionsCode: HC60555Energy ActivitiesThe cycle between ATP and ADP, adenosine diphosphate, is the prima-ry energy exchange mechanism in the body. Figure 17 provides anoverview of the ATP cycle in cells. In this energy cycle, ATP is the mol-ecule that serves to carry energy from energy-storing molecules, carbo-hydrates, lipids, and proteins to specific energy-requiring processes incells. When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, energy is released to power thecells activities. The molecular structures of ATP and ADP are closelyrelated, as shown in Figure 18.The difference in the number of phosphate groups between ATP andADP molecules is the key to the energy exchange in metabolic reac-tions. The chemical equation below shows the hydrolysis reaction bywhich ATP is converted into ADP and a phosphate group (representedby the gold-colored ball in Figure 17). The free energy for this reactionis 31 kJ, which is the amount of energy available to do work.ATP4(aq) + H2O(l) ADP3 (aq) + H2PO4 (aq) G = 31 kJB I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 767FIGURE 17 ATP is formedby photosynthesis or catabo-lism. Cell activities thatrequire energy are poweredby ATP hydrolysis. Pirepresents a phosphate.FIGURE 18 The hydrolysis ofATP produces ADP and releasesenergy.ATP hydrolysisreleases energy forBiosynthesisOsmotic workCell motility/muscle contractionLightenergyPhotosynthesis CatabolismATPCO2H2OO2 FuelsADP + PiThe ATP CycleHH HHCNN NNNOCOHOHH HH HCCOP P OO OOOOCH2Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)HH HHCNN NNNOCOHOHH HH HCCOP OP POO O OCH2Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)OO O OCatabolismThe energy that your body needs to maintain its temperature and driveits biochemical reactions is provided through catabolic processes.Figure 19 illustrates the relationship between the pathways of catabo-lism and anabolism. Catabolism is the part of metabolism in which com-plex compounds break down into simpler ones and is accompanied bythe release of energy. First, enzymes break down the complex com-pounds in foodcarbohydrates, fats, and proteinsinto simpler molecules.Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth, where the enzyme amy-lase in saliva begins to break down polysaccharides. The food then pass-es through the esophagus, then the stomach, and into the small intestine.Here, additional enzymes are secreted to complete the hydrolysis ofcarbohydrates to form glucose and other monosaccharides.Digestion of fats occurs only in the small intestine. Protein digestionbegins in the stomach and is completed in the small intestine. Duringthe digestion of both fats and proteins, complex molecules hydrolyzeinto simpler ones. Fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.Proteins are broken down into amino acids.These products are absorbed across the wall of the small intestineinto the blood and are transported to cells. Once in the cells, each glu-cose molecule is broken down through glycolysis into two molecules ofpyruvate, which enter the mitochondria and feed into a complex seriesof reactions called the citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle. The citric acidcycle produces carbon dioxide and other molecules, such as NADH andATP. This NADH and ATP then move through another set of reactionsto produce more ATP and water.C H A P T E R 2 3768NADHFIGURE 19 Catabolicpathways release free ener-gy in the form of ATP andNADH. Anabolic pathwaysconsume energy releasedby catabolic pathways.www.scilinks.orgTopic: Food as FuelCode: HC60591The amount of energy released in catabolism dependson the amount of ATP that is made as the products ofdigestion are oxidized. The catabolism of 1 glucose mole-cule generally may produce up to a total of 36 ATP mol-ecules. This accounts for about 40% of the energyreleased by the complete oxidation of glucose. Most ofthe energy not converted to ATP is lost by the body asenergy in the form of heat. Table 2 shows how much ATPis needed for some daily activities.AnabolismCells use the simple molecules that result from the breakdown of foodto make larger, more complex molecules. Energy released during catab-olism powers the synthesis of new molecules as well as the active trans-port of ions and molecules across cell membranes. Anabolic processesare the energy-consuming pathways by which cells produce the mole-cules that they need for sustaining life and for growth and repair. Theconversion of small biomolecules into larger ones is called anabolism.In an anabolic pathway, small precursor molecules are converted intocomplex molecules, including lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, andnucleic acids. Energy from ATP and NADH is necessary for thesebiosynthesis reactions to occur. Figure 19 illustrates that catabolism andanabolism occur simultaneously and that ATP and NADH serve aschemical links between the two processes.One important anabolic pathway that is common to animals, plants,fungi, and microorganisms is gluconeogenesis. As the name implies, glu-cose is synthesized in this pathway from non-carbohydrate substances,including lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and most of the amino acids. Inmammals, glucose from the blood is the fuel source for the brain andnervous system as well as for the kidney medulla, red blood cells, andembryonic tissues.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 7691. List four ways in which the body uses energy.2. What is the total energy (in kilojoules) stored in the36 ATP molecules that are made from the metabo-lism of 1 molecule of glucose in skeletal tissue?3. The teeth break large pieces of food into smallerones. However, this process is not considered partof digestion. Explain why.4. How does the digestion of fat in a strip of ham dif-fer from the digestion of starch in a piece of toast?5. Why are diets that are severely restrictive in carbo-hydrate intake potentially dangerous to a personshealth?Critical Thinking6. RELATING CONCEPTS When a molecule of glucoseis oxidized, only about 40% of the energy is cap-tured in ATP molecules, and the rest is lost asenergy in the form of heat. What do you thinkwould happen if this energy remained in the bodyas heat?SECTION REVIEWEnergy ATPActivity required (kJ) required (mol)Running 1120 56Swimming 840 42Bicycling 1400 70Walking 560 28TABLE 2 Approximate Cost of Daily ActivitiesC H A P T E R 2 3770SECTION 4 Nucleic AcidsN ucleic acids contain all of the genetic information of an organism.They are the means by which a living organism stores and conveysinstructional information for all of its activities. They are also the meansby which an organism can reproduce. The two nucleic acids found inorganisms are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid(RNA).Nucleic Acid StructureA nucleic acid is an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whosemolecules carry genetic information and is made up of one or two chainsof monomer units called nucleotides. However, unlike the monomerunits in polysaccharides and polypeptides, each nucleotide monomercan be further hydrolyzed into three different molecules. A nucleotidemolecule is composed of a five-carbon sugar unit that is bonded to botha phosphate group and a cyclic organic base containing nitrogen.The sugar unit in DNA is deoxyribose, and the sugar unit in RNA isribose. The diagram below shows the sugar-phosphate arrangement inthree nucleotides.IphosphateIsugarIphosphateIsugarIphosphateIsugarIL L Lbase base baseThe five nitrogenous bases found in nucleic acids are shown inFigure 20. Adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) are found in bothDNA and RNA. Thymine (T) is found only in DNA, and uracil (U) isfound only in RNA.OBJECTIVESDescribe the structure of thenucleic acids DNA and RNA.Explain the functions of DNAand RNA in the cell.Describe applications of mod-ern gene technology.FIGURE 20 There are five com-mon nitrogenous bases. Thymine(T), cytosine (C), and uracil (U)have a single six-member ring.Adenine (A) and guanine (G) havea six-member ring connected to afive-member ring.OHHHNNCH3OthymineOHHHH HNNNcytosineOguanineHHN NNNHNHHadenineHHH HHN NNNNOuracilHNNH HHODNA: Deoxyribonucleic AcidEvery single instruction for all of the traits that you have inherited and allof the life processes that occur in your cells is contained in your DNA. Itis no wonder then that DNA molecules are the largest molecules foundin cells. Living organisms vary widely in the size and number of DNAmolecules in their cells. Some bacterial cells contain only 1 DNA mole-cule, while human cells contain 46 relatively large DNA molecules. TheDNA in each human cell is about 2 m long. This DNA is divided andpacked into the cells 46 chromosomes. An average cell is only about 6 min diameter and contains many organelles and structures. To fit in a cell,DNA must undergo extensive twisting, coiling, folding, and wrapping.The Swedish scientist Friedrich Miescher first extracted DNA fromcells in 1868, but its three-dimensional structure was not discovereduntil 1953. Using the X-ray data of Maurice Wilkins and RosalindFranklin, James Watson of the United States and Francis Crick ofEngland proposed that DNA was a double helix. In this structure, whichhas been confirmed by numerous methods, two strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone are wound around each other, and the nitrogenousbases point inward, as shown in Figure 21. The sequence of thesenitrogenous bases along the phosphate-sugar backbone in DNA formsthe code responsible for transferring genetic information. The three-dimensional DNA molecule is similar to a twisted ladder. The sides ofthe ladder are the sugar-phosphate backbone, and the rungs are basepairs of AIT (adenine-thymine) or GIC (guanine-cytosine) basesextending between the two backbones. Hydrogen bonding betweenthese pairs of nitrogenous bases holds the rungs of the ladder together.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 771FIGURE 21 Hydrogen bonding between base pairs makesthe three-dimensional structure of DNA stable. Base pairingoccurs between adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine,keeping the distance between the strands constant.ThymineGuanineCytosineAdeninewww.scilinks.orgTopic: DNACode: HC60418Topic: DNA ReplicationCode: HC60420Nitrogenous Base PairsIn the DNA double helix, base pairingexists only between AIT and betweenCIG, as you saw in Figure 21. The rea-son is that the pairing between one single-ringed base and one double-ringed base provides the correct orien-tation for the hydrogen bonds to formbetween the two sides of the DNA lad-der. One thymine and one adenineform a link between the two strands ofa DNA molecule that is exactly thesame size as the link formed by onecytosine and one guanine.The double-helix configuration ofDNA, shown in Figure 22, can be seenby using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The discovery of therelative quantities of the nitrogenous bases A, T, G, and C present inDNA was the key to determining the three-dimensional molecularstructure. Analysis of DNA from different organisms reveals that theamounts of A and T are the same and that the amounts of G and C arethe same for all members of the same species. In humans, DNA isabout 30% A, 30% T, 20% G, and 20% C.The interaction between base pairs accounts for the ability of DNA toreplicate, as you will see in the next section. Just as combinations of the26 letters of the alphabet form words that tell a story in a novel, combi-nations of the four-letter alphabet of A, T, G, and C form the genes thatdefine our heredity. Each gene is a section of DNA that contains a spe-cific sequence of four bases (A, G,T, and C) and encodes instructions forprotein synthesis. Researchers using the Human Genome Project datapredict that the human body contains about 20 000 to 25 000 genes.Laboratory verification of this count will require many more years.DNA ReplicationLike the two sides of a zipper, the two strands of the double helix ofDNA are not identical. Instead, the two strands are complements ofeach other.Thus, a base on one strand is paired through hydrogen bond-ing to its complementary base on the other strand. For example, if onestrand sequence is AGCTC, the complementary strand sequence will beTCGAG.Each time a cell divides, an exact copy of the DNA of the parent cellis reproduced for the daughter cells. The process by which an identicalcopy of the original DNA is formed is called DNA replication. As repli-cation begins, a portion of the two strands of the original DNA unzips,as shown in Figure 23. Each strand can then act as a template for thesynthesis of a new, complementary strand. The result is two new DNAmolecules, which have the same base pair sequence as the original dou-ble helix.C H A P T E R 2 3772FIGURE 22 The double helix ofDNA can be seen by using scanningtunneling microscopy (STM).FIGURE 23 DNA replicates when its double helix unwinds andbecomes single stranded. The singlestrands are used as a template forthe formation of new complemen-tary strands.Original helixComplementarystrandNewhelixesHistorical ChemistryGo to for full-lengtharticle on the discovery of the struc-ture of DNA.Keyword: HC6BIOXRNA: Ribonucleic AcidRNA molecules are responsible for the synthesis of proteins, which inturn control the operation and function of the cell. RNA differs fromDNA in four basic ways: (1) the sugar unit in the backbone of RNA isribose rather than deoxyribose, (2) RNA contains the base uracil, U,instead of thymine, which occurs in DNA, (3) RNA is a single-strandedmolecule rather than a double-stranded helix like DNA, and (4) RNA molecules typically consist of 75 to a few thousand nucleotideunits rather than the millions that exist in DNA. Even though RNA ismuch smaller than DNA, RNA is still large enough to twist, coil, bend,and fold back onto itself. In fact, it is not uncommon for up to 50% of anRNA molecule to have a double-helix structure. The reason is that thebase sequences along the helical regions of the RNA strand are comple-mentary, which makes hydrogen bonding between bases possible.Synthesis of RNARNA is synthesized in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where DNAand protein molecules actually help synthesize specific RNA mole-cules. RNA can also be seen by STM, as shown in Figure 24. As RNAis synthesized, some information contained in the DNA is transferredto the RNA molecules. Like the genetic information of DNA, thegenetic information of RNA is carried in its nucleotide sequence.One type of RNA molecule is called messenger RNA (mRNA)because it carries the instructions for making proteins out into thecytosol, where proteins are produced on ribosomes. A ribosome is acell organelle that is composed of RNA and protein. Ribosomes are themain site of protein production in cells. The DNA template is alsoused to make two other types of RNA molecules: ribosomal RNA(rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). Both of these types of RNA alsoleave the nucleus and come together in the ribosome where they helpsynthesize proteins. Ribosomal RNA becomes part of the structure ofthe ribosome, and tRNA is used to transfer amino acids into the ribo-some. Only mRNA carries the coded geneticinformation that is translated into proteins.DNA supplies all of the information necessaryfor RNA to be used to make the proteins neededby the body. The portion of DNA that holds thespecific genetic code for a single, specific mRNAmolecule is a gene. As you learned previously,each gene is a section of the DNA chain that con-tains a specific sequence of the bases A, G, T, andC. A gene has the information necessary in thissequence to direct RNA to produce several pro-teins that have specific functions.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 773FIGURE 24 Scanning tunnelingmicrograph of RNA strands beingtranscribed in a cell.RNA and Protein SynthesisRNA is made from DNA in a process that is similar to how DNA repli-cates itself. At a gene, a portion of DNA unwinds and RNA is assem-bled using the same complementary base pairs as DNA except thaturacil replaces the thymine. When a signal to stop is received, the RNAis released. As in DNA replication, the RNA sequence that forms hasthe complementary base pairs of the DNA gene. The DNA sequencebelow would form the complementary RNA sequence shown.DNA strand: C C C C A C C C T A C G G T GRNA strand: G G G G U G G G A U G C C A CA sequence of three bases in mRNA codes for a specific amino acid.Thus, the sequence CAG codes for glutamic acid, and GUC codes forvaline. There are 64 (43) unique combinations of three-base sequencesmade from four bases. Because only 20 amino acids require codes, someof the amino acids have more than one code. For example, leucine iscoded by six three-base sequences: UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, andCUG. The genetic code is universal, meaning that the same three-basesequence always codes for the same amino acid regardless of whetherthe organism is a bacterium or a human. The stop signal in the gene isalso a three-base code: UAG, UAA, or UGA.Technology and Genetic EngineeringThe discovery of DNAs function in life has provided new options forthe production of food, medical diagnosis and treatments, and increasedunderstanding of genetic disorders. Scientists in the field of geneticengineering study how manipulation of an organisms genetic materialcan modify the proteins that are produced and the changes that resultin the organism. Although the selective breeding of plants and animalshas been practiced for hundreds of years, today genetic engineeringrefers to recombinant DNA technology that is used for cloning and thecreation of new forms of life. Because the technique is so powerful, it iscontroversial and must be used responsibly.DNA FingerprintingOne of the most visible uses of molecular technology is DNA finger-printing. DNA is unique to an individual except for identical twins. Thistechnology is used in criminal investigations and victim identification.Often there are only very small samples available, such as a single drop ofblood or one strand of hair. The technique of the polymerase chain reac-tion (PCR) may be used to copy a DNA sample to supply sufficient DNAfor identification. The processes of electrophoresis and autoradiographymay be used to compare DNA from a sample with the DNA of a knownindividual to confirm identification, as Figure 25 shows. DNA technologycan also be used to test paternity or to trace heredity.C H A P T E R 2 3774Forensic ChemistA forensic chemist applies scientificmethodology to physical evidence.Forensic chemists focus on analyzingevidence that has been collected at acrime scene. They then report any con-clusions that they can draw from theanalysis. Understanding evidencerequires knowledge of biology, materi-als science, and genetics in addition tochemistry. Because forensic chemistsare often asked to testify in court, theyneed to be comfortable speaking inpublic and able to give clear and con-cise explanations to those who do nothave a background in science.FIGURE 25 A DNA autoradi-ograph shows the pattern of DNAfragments of an organism after theyhave been separated from eachother by electrophoresis.CloningOne meaning of the word cloning is the process of making an exact copyof an organism. One example of a natural occurrence of cloning, the for-mation of identical twins, is the result of a chance splitting of the embry-onic cells very early in the growth of a zygote. Artificial cloning, usingstem cells from animals or meristem cells from plants, can produce iden-tical replicas of the parent cells or, under specialized conditions, a com-plete organism that is identical to the original organism. The orchidshown in Figure 26 is a clone of its parent plant. Cloning of plants mayhold promise for increasing the yields of crops. Recently, scientists atPennsylvania State University cloned cocoa plants from cocoa flowers.When cocoa trees are planted from seed, as many as 50% do not maturewith the desired characteristics. By planting young trees that are clones ofplants with desirable characteristics, farmers may be able to increase theircocoa production.The first animal to be cloned, a sheep named Dolly, was born in 1996in Scotland. Dolly was euthanized in 2003 because of lung disease. Shehad also been diagnosed with arthritis. Both diseases are normallyfound in sheep older than Dolly was.Recombinant DNA TechnologyRecombinant DNA technology has been used to insert DNA from oneorganism into another. One technique involves splicing a gene from oneorganisms DNA into a molecule of DNA from another organism.Escherichia coli, a bacterium found in animal intestinal tracts, are oftenused by biologists as cellular factories for the production or manufac-ture of DNA fragments cloned from other organisms. In some instances,E. coli can even be used to produce protein from DNA cloned fromother organisms.One of the first applications of genetic engineering was the synthesisof human insulin. Previously, most diabetics had to use either pig or cowinsulin. But insulin from animals is not exactly the same as humaninsulin. Today, most insulin used is produced in bacteria and harvested.Human growth hormone is also commercially produced by usingrecombinant DNA technology.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 775FIGURE 26 Growers can producemany orchids by artificial cloning ofthe meristem tissue of a singleorchid plant.1. What sugar is present in DNA? What sugar is pre-sent in RNA?2. Explain why the two strands of the DNA doublehelix are said to be complementary instead ofidentical.3. Describe how DNA uses the genetic code to con-trol the synthesis of proteins.4. Why is a very small trace of blood enough for DNAfingerprinting?Critical Thinking5. INTERPRET AND APPLY Is it possible to specify20 amino acids by using only two base pairsinstead of three for coding?6. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Why is the arrangementof base pairs that is found in DNA ideal for holdingthe double helix of DNA together?SECTION REVIEWC H A P T E R H I G H L I G H T SC H A P T E R 2 3776 Amino acid molecules are the basic building blocks of proteins. Proteins are biopolymers, each of which has a unique sequenceof the acid monomer molecules. The specific function of a protein is related to the shape of theprotein. Side-chain interactions between amino acids result in sec-ondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structures. Carbohydrates are nutrients that are produced by plants andare made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates.Carbohydrates made of two monosaccharides are called disac-charides, and carbohydrates made of more than two monosac-charides are called polysaccharides. Carbohydrates undergo condensation reactions and hydrolysisreactions. Lipids are a varied group of biochemical molecules that have ahigh percentage of C and H atoms.carbohydratemonosaccharidedisaccharidecondensation reactionhydrolysispolysaccharidelipidfatty acidsaponificationamino acidproteinenzymedenaturationVocabularyVocabularyCarbohydrates and LipidsAmino Acids and Proteins Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) arenucleic acids, the compounds by which living organisms canreproduce themselves. Nucleic acids are polymers of monomer units called nucleotides. The two strands of the double helix of DNA are complemen-tary to each other, not identical. These strands are held togeth-er by hydrogen bonding of the base pairs. RNA is used as a template to produce proteins in the cell.nucleic acidDNA replicationcloningVocabularyNucleic Acids ATP is a high-energy storage compound that the body uses tostore and provide energy for life. The metabolic pathways involve both the conversion of ATPto ADP and the conversion of ADP to ATP. Metabolic pathways are classified as two types: catabolism andanabolism. Catabolism includes reactions in which large molecules arechanged into simpler molecules. These reactions release energy. Anabolic processes are energy-consuming pathways by whichcells produce the molecules needed for growth and repair.metabolismautotrophadenosine triphosphate (ATP) heterotrophadenosine diphosphate (ADP)catabolismanabolismVocabularyMetabolismC H A P T E R R E V I E WB I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 777Carbohydrates and LipidsSECTION 1 REVIEW1. Describe the general chemical formula of carbohydrates.2. Name two examples from each of the followingclasses of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, dis-accharides, and polysaccharides.3. What different roles do the polysaccharidesstarch and cellulose play in plant systems?4. What word is used to describe fatty acids thatcontain at least one double bond?5. Why are some triglycerides liquid, while othersare solid?6. What reagents are used to make soaps?PRACTICE PROBLEMS7. Draw the structural formula for glucose.8. Using structural formulas, write the equationshowing the formation of maltose, which is thedisaccharide made of two glucose units.9. Write the equation representing the formationof a soap molecule from stearic acid,C17H35COOH, and sodium hydroxide.Amino Acids and ProteinsSECTION 2 REVIEW10. Describe the structure of an amino acid. Then,explain how amino acids become linked togeth-er to form a protein.11. Circle and identify the carboxylic acid groups and the amino groups in the followingmolecule:12. Can two types of enzymes contain the samenumber and kinds of amino acids? Explain.13. What happens when a protein is denatured?COOHO HCH2CH3CHCHCCH2NH2NH2 CH COOHO HOCHC N NCOH14. Explain the cause of the genetic disease sicklecell anemia.15. Why is the water solubility of fibrous proteinsso different from that of globular proteins?PRACTICE PROBLEMS16. Draw the structures of two dipeptides made upof glycine and valine.17. How many different tripeptides can be formedfrom two molecules of glycine and one mole-cule of cysteine? Write all of the structures byusing the three-letter codes Gly and Cys.MetabolismSECTION 3 REVIEW18. What chemical gains the metabolic energy thatis released as glucose is broken down in thebody?19. What does ATP stand for? What is the role ofATP in living things?20. Describe the steps that occur in the digestion offats.21. Review the following diagram of catabolism.According to the diagram, what could happenin the cell when glucose and glycogen reservesare nearly gone?PRACTICE PROBLEMS22. Draw the structure of ATP. Circle the bond thatbreaks when ADP forms.glycogenglycerol+fatty acidsfatsglucosepyruvateproteinsamino acidsacetateATPproductionCHAPTER REVIEWNucleic AcidsSECTION 4 REVIEW23. What are the three components of a nucleotide?24. How are the two polynucleotide chains of DNAheld together?25. Describe in general terms the process of DNAreplication.26. What are the main differences between DNAand RNA?27. Describe the similarities and differencesbetween the three kinds of RNA molecules.28. What is a ribosome? What is the function of aribosome in a cell?PRACTICE PROBLEMS29. The following sequence of bases might be foundon the gene that codes for oxytocin, the humanpituitary hormone:TACACAATGTAAGTTTTGACGGGGGAC-CCTATCa. What is the sequence of bases on the com-plementary strand of DNA?b. What is the sequence of bases that wouldoccur on a strand of mRNA that was tran-scribed from the oxytocin DNA sequence?30. Name the four main elements that make upcompounds found in living organisms.31. In each of the following groups, one of theitems does not belong in the group. Identify theodd item in the group and explain why it is dif-ferent. Explain how the other items are related.a. glycogen, starch, fructose, and celluloseb. amino acids, dipeptides, polypeptides, andproteinsc. fats, oils, and fatty acidsd. cytosine, adenine, and guanine32. What is the human bodys storage form of eachof the following?a. glucoseb. lipidsc. proteinMIXED REVIEW33. Is each of the following statements about pro-teins and triglycerides true or false?a. Both contain the amide functional group.b. Both are a part of a major class of biochemi-cal molecules.c. Both hydrolyze in order to enter the meta-bolic pathway in humans.34. Circle the hydrophobic part in each of the fig-ures shown below.a.b.CC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHC HHHCHCHOHOCH2NHCHCOOHCH3H3CC H A P T E R 2 3778CHAPTER REVIEWB I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 77935. Both celery and potato chips are composed ofmolecules that are polymers of glucose. Explainwhy celery is a good snack for people on a dietwhile potato chips are not.36. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can provideenergy for an organism.a. Which class of substances most rapidly pro-vides energy?b. Which class can be used as a building materi-al in the human body?c. Which is the most efficient as an energy stor-age system?37. Describe the basic structure of the cell membrane. What is the cell membranes main function?38. Interpreting Concepts A diet that consists primarily of corn can result in a protein- deficiency disease called kwashiorkor. Whatdoes this information indicate about the protein content of corn?39. Inferring Relationships Explain how a similarreaction forms three kinds of biological poly-mers: polysaccharides, polypeptides, and nucleicacids.40. Evaluating Ideas Some diets recommendseverely restricting or eliminating the intake ofcarbohydrates. Why is it not a good idea to elimi-nate all carbohydrates from the diet?CRITICAL THINKING41. Using Analogies Explain why the model ofenzyme action is called the lock and keymodel.42. Conduct library research about how Olestradecreases fat and caloric content of potatochips. What are the advantages and disadvan-tages of Olestra in food products?43. Write a summary discussing what you havelearned about the four major classes of organiccompounds found in living thingscarbohy-drates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Includea description of how these organic moleculesare used by the body.44. Amylase, the enzyme present in the mouth, cat-alyzes the digestion of starch. The pH of themouth is almost neutral.a. Do you think that amylase is active in thestomach after you swallow the food? Why orwhy not?b. Design an experiment you could perform totest your answer to item a. Note: A commontest for the presence of starch is the additionof tincture of iodine, which will produce ablue color if starch is present.ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENTRESEARCH & WRITINGProblem Solving S- Find the first base of the mRNA triplet along the left side of the table. Follow that row to the right until you are beneath the second base of the triplet. Move up or down in the square that corresponds to the second base until you areeven, on the right side of the chart, with the third base of the triplet.SAMPLE In protein synthesis, the DNA sequence of bases is transcribed onto messenger RNA(mRNA). The mRNA base sequence is the complement of the DNA sequence exceptthat uracil takes the place of thymine as the complement of adenine. What sequence of amino acids will be incorporated into protein as a result of the mRNAsequence UUACCCGAGAAGUCC?Divide the sequence into groups of three to clearly see the separate codons.UUACCCGAGAAGUCC = UUA L CCC L GAG LAAG L UCCNow, use the table to determine the match between codons and amino acids.L L L L UCCserineAAGlysineGAGglutamic acidCCCprolineUUAleucineC H A P T E R 2 3780Math Tutor INTERPRETATION OF THE GENETIC CODEUCAGGGUGGCGlycineGGAGGGGAUAspartic acidGACGAAGlutamic acidGAGGCUGCCAlanineGCAGCGGUUGUCValineGUAGUGGUCAGAGUSerineAGCAGAArginineAGGAAUAsparagineAACAAALysineAAGACUACCThreonineACAACGAUUAUC IsoleucineAUAAUGStartAUCAGCGUCGCArginineCGACGGCAUHistidineCACCAAGlutamineCAGCCUCCCProlineCCACCGCUUCUCLeucineCUACUGCUCAGUGUCysteineUGCUGAStopUGGTryptophanUAUTyrosineUACUAAStopUAGUCUUCCSerineUCAUCGUUUPhenylalanineUUCUUALeucineUUGUThirdbaseSecond baseU C A GFirstbaseThe Genetic Code (mRNA)1. What amino acid sequence will be added to aprotein as a result of the mRNA sequenceUUACACGACUAUAAUUGG?2. What amino acid sequence will be added to aprotein as a result of the mRNA sequenceCUAACCGGGUGAGCUUCU?PRACTICE PROBLEMSB I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 781Answer the following items on a separate piece of paper.MULTIPLE CHOICE1.Which of the following statements aboutenzymes is true?A. Enzymes can be biological catalysts.B. Enzymes increase the speed of a chemicalreaction.C. Enzymes are highly specific.D. All of the above2.Which of the following statements about dena-turing is true?A. Denaturing occurs when a protein unfolds.B. Denaturing occurs when a carbohydrate isheated.C. Denaturing does not affect the tertiary struc-ture of an enzyme.D. Denaturing increases the rate of a chemicalreaction.3.The process in which molecules in a cell breakdown to produce smaller molecules and energyis calledA. glycogenesis.B. biosynthesis.C. catabolism.D. metabolism.4.Which of the following is partially digested bysaliva in the mouth?A. glucoseB. starchC. fatD. protein5.In the human body, the storage form ofA. glucose is maltose.B. triglycerides is protein.C. carbohydrates is glycogen.D. nucleic acids is amino acids.6.The purpose of insulin is to A. regulate glucose levels in the body.B. catalyze the oxidation of fatty acids.C. stimulate RNA production.D. initiate DNA replication.7.Which of the following statements about fats istrue?A. Fats serve as a reserve supply of energy.B. Fats are stored in the adipose tissue.C. Fats act as insulators.D. All of the above8.When carbohydrates are unavailable or unableto provide the energy needs of the body,A. glucose is converted to glycogen.B. proteins or fats are used for energy.C. amino acids form proteins.D. All of the above9.Which of the following statements is true?A. RNA contains the base uracil rather thanthymine, which occurs in DNA.B. Both RNA and DNA are double-strandedhelixes.C. The ribose sugar unit is in the backbone of DNA.D. None of the aboveSHORT ANSWER10.Draw a simple dipeptide, and label the function-al groups and peptide linkage.11.Describe the shape of the DNA molecule, anddiscuss how the DNA molecule is held in thisshape.EXTENDED RESPONSE12.The body has numerous energy reserves. Whatare they, and where are they found in the body?Which of these reserves provides the greatestsource of quick energy?13.Explain how it is possible to denature a proteinwithout breaking the polypeptide chain.Standardized Test PrepIf a question or an answer choice contains an unfamiliar term, try to break theword into parts to determine its meaning.BACKGROUNDCows milk contains averages of 4.4% fat, 3.8% pro-tein, and 4.9% lactose. At the normal pH of milk,6.3 to 6.6, the protein remains dispersed because ithas a net negative charge due to the dissociation ofthe carboxylic acid group, as shown in Figure A below.As the pH is lowered by the addition of an acid, theprotein acquires a net charge of zero, as shown inFigure B. After the protein loses its negative charge, itcan no longer remain in solution, and it coagulatesinto an insoluble mass. The precipitated protein isknown as casein and has a molecular mass between75 000 and 375 000 amu. The pH at which the netcharge on a protein becomes zero is called the iso-electric pH. For casein, the isoelectric pH is 4.6.In this experiment, you will coagulate the proteinin milk by adding acetic acid. The casein can then beseparated from the remaining solution by filtration.This process is known as separating the curds fromthe whey. The excess acid in the curds can be neutral-ized by the addition of sodium hydrogen carbonate,NaHCO3. The product of this reaction is casein glue.Do not eat or drink any materials or products of thislab.SAFETYFor review of safety, please see Safety in theChemistry Laboratory in the front of your book.OBJECTIVES Recognize the structure of a protein. Predict and observe the result of acidifyingmilk. Prepare and test a casein glue. Deduce the charge distribution in proteinsas determined by pH.MATERIALS 100 mL graduated cylinder 250 mL beaker 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask funnel glass stirring rod hot plate medicine dropper baking soda, NaHCO3 nonfat milk paper paper towel thermometer white vinegar wooden splints, 2Casein GlueCHAPTER LABSEE PRE-LABEXTRACTION AND FILTRATIONC H A P T E R 2 3782H2N+H3NCOO COOprotein proteinFIGURE A FIGURE B2. Evaluating Methods: In this experiment, whathappened to the lactose and fat portions of the milk?CONCLUSIONS1. Inferring Conclusions: Figure A shows that thenet charge on a protein is negative at pH valueshigher than its isoelectric pH because the car-boxyl group is ionized. Figure B shows that atthe isoelectric pH, the net charge is zero. Predictthe net charge on a protein at pH values lowerthan the isoelectric point, and draw a diagram to represent the protein.EXTENSIONS1. Relating Ideas: Figure B represents a protein as a dipolar ion, or zwitterion. The charges in a zwitterion suggest that the carboxyl groupdonates a hydrogen ion to the amine group. Isthere any other way to represent the protein inFigure B so that it still has a net charge of zero?2. Designing Experiments: Design a strength-testing device for the glue joint between the two wooden splints. If your teacher approvesyour design, create the device and use it to test the strength of the glue.PREPARATION1. Prepare your notebook for recording observa-tions at each step of the procedure.2. Predict the characteristics of the product thatwill be formed when the acetic acid is added to the milk. Record your predictions in yournotebook.PROCEDURE1. Pour 125 mL of nonfat milk into a 250 mL beaker.Add 20 mL of 4% acetic acid (white vinegar).2. Place the mixture on a hot plate and heat it to 60C. Record your observations in your labnotebook, and compare them with the predic-tions you made in Preparation step 2.3. Filter the mixture through a folded piece ofpaper towel into an Erlenmeyer flask, as shownin Figure C.4. Discard the filtrate, which contains the whey.Scrape the curds from the paper towel back intothe 250 mL beaker.5. Add 1.2 g of NaHCO3 to the beaker and stir.Slowly add drops of water, stirring intermittent-ly, until the consistency of white glue is obtained.6. Use your glue to fasten together two pieces ofpaper. Also fasten together two wooden splints.Allow the splints to dry overnight, and then testthe joint for strength.CLEANUP AND DISPOSAL7. Clean all apparatus and your lab station. Return equipment to its properplace. Dispose of chemicals and solu-tions in the containers designated by yourteacher. Do not pour any chemicals down thedrain or in the trash unless your teacher directsyou to do so. Wash your hands thoroughly beforeyou leave the lab and after all work is finished.ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION1. Organizing Ideas: Write the net ionic equationfor the reaction between the excess acetic acidand the sodium hydrogen carbonate. Include thephysical states of the reactants and products.B I O L O G I C A L C H E M I S T R Y 783FIGURE CUse a folded paper towel in the funnel to separate the curds. CurdsPaper towelWheyE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K784Elements HandbookGROUP 1 ALKALI METALS 786APPLICATION TechnologySodium Vapor Lighting 788APPLICATION HealthElectrolyte Balance in the Body 789GROUP 2 ALKALINE EARTH METALS 792APPLICATION TechnologyFireworks 794APPLICATION HealthCalcium: An Essential Mineral in the Diet 796Magnesium: An Essential Mineral in the Diet 796GROUPS 312 TRANSITION METALS 798APPLICATION GeologyGemstones and Color 801APPLICATION TechnologyAlloys 802APPLICATION The EnvironmentMercury Poisoning 805APPLICATION HealthElements in the Body 806Role of Iron 807GROUP 13 BORON FAMILY 808APPLICATION TechnologyAluminum 810Aluminum Alloys 811E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K 785GROUP 14 CARBON FAMILY 812APPLICATION Chemical IndustryCarbon and the Reduction of Iron Ore 814Carbon Dioxide 815Carbon Monoxide 815APPLICATION BiochemistryCarbon Dioxide and Respiration 816Macromolecules 819APPLICATION The EnvironmentCarbon Monoxide Poisoning 818APPLICATION Chemical IndustrySilicon and Silicates 825Silicones 825APPLICATION TechnologySemiconductors 826GROUP 15 NITROGEN FAMILY 828APPLICATION BiologyPlants and Nitrogen 830APPLICATION Chemical IndustryFertilizers 831GROUP 16 OXYGEN FAMILY 832APPLICATION Chemical IndustryOxides 834APPLICATION The EnvironmentOzone 836APPLICATION Chemical IndustrySulfuric Acid 837GROUP 17 HALOGEN FAMILY 838APPLICATION The EnvironmentChlorine in Water Treatment 840Fluoride and Tooth Decay 841E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K786GROUP 1ALKALI METALSAtomic radiusincreasesIonic radiusincreasesChemical reactivityincreasesElectronegativitydecreasesIonization energydecreases3LiLithium6.941[He]2s 111NaSodium22.989 769 28[Ne]3s 119KPotassium39.0983[Ar]4s 137RbRubidium85.4678[Kr]5s 155CsCesium132.905 4519[Xe]6s 187FrFrancium(223)[Rn]7s 1Lithium was discovered in 1817. It is foundin most igneous rocks and is used in bat-teries as an anode because it has a very lowreduction potential. Lithium is soft and isstored in oil or kerosene to prevent it fromreacting with the air. Sodium derives its name from the wordsoda. It was first isolated in 1807 from theelectrolysis of caustic soda, NaOH. Sodiumis soft enough to be cut with a knife. It isshiny until it reacts with oxygen, whichcauses the surface to lose its luster.Potassium was first isolated in 1807 fromthe electrolysis of caustic potash, KOH. CHARACTERISTICS do not occur in nature as free elements are reactive metals and are obtained by reducingthe 1+ ions in their natural compounds are stored under kerosene or other hydrocarbonsolvent because they react with water vapor oroxygen in air consist of atoms with one electron in the outermost energy level form colorless ions in solution, each of which hasa 1+ charge form ionic compounds form water-soluble bases are strong reducing agents consist of atoms that have low ionization energies are good heat and electrical conductors are ductile, malleable, and soft enough to be cutwith a knife have a silvery luster, low density, and low meltingpointA L K A L I M E T A L S 787ANALYTICAL TESTAlkali metals are easily detected by flame testsbecause each metal imparts a characteristic color to a flame.When sodium and potassium are both present in a sample, the yellow color of the sodium masks the violet color of thepotassium. The violet color can be seen only when the combined sodium-potassiumflame is viewed through a cobalt-blue glass.The glass blocks the yellow flame of sodiumand makes it possible to see the violet flameof potassium.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKWith Water to Form Bases and Hydrogen GasExample: 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)Li, K, Rb, and Cs also follow this pattern.With Acids to Form Salts and Hydrogen GasExample: 2Na(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g) Li, K, Rb, and Cs also follow this pattern.With Halogens to Form SaltsExample: 2Na(s) + F2(g) 2NaF(s)Li, K, Rb, and Cs also follow this pattern in reacting with F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.With Oxygen to Form Oxides, Peroxides, or SuperoxidesLithium forms an oxide.4Li(s) + O2(g) 2Li2O(s)Sodium also forms a peroxide.2Na(s) + O2(g) Na2O2(s)Alkali metals with higher molecular masses can alsoform superoxides.K(s) + O2(g) KO2(s)Rb and Cs also follow this pattern.Alkali-Metal Oxides with Water to Form BasesOxides of Na, K, Rb, and Cs can be prepared indirectly. These basic anhydrides form hydroxides in water.Example: K2O(s) + H2O(l) 2KOH(aq)Li, Na, Rb, and Cs also follow this pattern.Lithium SodiumRubidiumPotassium CesiumA small piece of potassium dropped into water willreact explosively, releasing H2 to form a stronglybasic hydroxide solution. The energy of the reac-tion ignites the hydrogen gas that is produced.Sodium reacts vigorously with chlorine to produceNaCl. Most salts of Group 1 metals are white crystalline compounds.COMMON REACTIONSSodium Vapor LightingThe flame test for sodium shows two bright lines at589.0 and 589.6 nm, which is the yellow range of theemission spectrum. Sodium can be vaporized at hightemperatures in a sealed tube and made to give offlight using two electrodes connected to a powersource. Sodium vapor lighting is often used alonghighways and in parking lots because it providesgood illumination while using less energy than othertypes of lighting. Sodium vapor lighting comes in both low-pressureand high-pressure bulbs. Low-pressure lamps reachan internal temperature of 270C to vaporize thesodium under a pressure of about 1 Pa. High-pressurelamps contain mercury and xenon in addition to sodi-um. These substances reach an internal temperatureof 1100C under a pressure of about 100 000 Pa. Thehigh-pressure lamp provides a higher light intensity.The design of both types of lamps must take intoaccount the high reactivity of sodium, which increasesat high temperatures. Because ordinary glass willreact with sodium at 250C, a special sodium-resistantglass is used for low-pressure lamps. High-pressurelamps use an aluminum oxide material for the columncontaining the sodium, mercury, and xenon. Bothtypes of lamps contain tungsten electrodes. The light intensity per watt for sodium vaporlamps far exceeds that of fluorescent lamps, high-pressure mercury vapor lamps, tungsten halogenlamps, and incandescent bulbs.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKPROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 1 ELEMENTSLi Na K Rb Cs FrMelting point (C) 180.5 97.8 63.25 38.89 28.5 27Boiling point (C) 1342 882.9 760 691 668 677Density (g/cm3) 0.534 0.971 0.862 1.53 1.87 Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 520 496 419 403 376 Atomic radius (pm) 152 186 227 248 265 270Ionic radius (pm) 76 102 138 152 167 180Common oxidation number in compounds +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Crystal structure bcc* bcc bcc bcc bcc Hardness (Mohs scale) 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 *body-centered cubicAPPLICATION TechnologyE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K788ELEMENTS HANDBOOKTABLE 1B Electrolyte ImbalancesCauses of imbalanceElectrolyte Normal range (mmol/L) Excess DeficiencySodium, Na+ 135145 hypernatremia (increased hyponatremia (dehydration;urine excretion; excess diabetes-related low bloodwater loss) pH; vomiting; diarrhea)Potassium, K+ 3.55.0 hyperkalemia (renal hypokalemiafailure; low blood pH) (gastrointestinal conditions)Hydrogen carbonate, 2430 hypercapnia (high blood hypocapnia (low blood pH;HCO3 pH; hypoventilation) hyperventilation; dehydration)Chloride, Cl 100106 hyperchloremia hypochloremia (anemia; heart conditions; (acute infection; burns;dehydration) hypoventilation)TABLE 1A Sodium-Potassium Concentration in Body FluidsInside cells Outside cells or in plasmaCation (mmol/L) (mmol/L)Na+ 12 145K+ 140 4Electrolyte Balance in the BodyThe elements of Group 1 are important to a personsdiet and body maintenance because they form ioniccompounds. These compounds are present in thebody as solutions of the ions. All ions carry an elec-tric charge, so they are electrolyte solutes. Two ofthe most important electrolyte solutes found in thebody are K+ and Na+ ions. Both ions facilitate thetransmission of nerve impulses and control theamount of water retained by cells. The sodium and potassium ion concentrations inbody fluids are shown in Table 1A. Sodium ions arefound primarily in the fluid outside cells, whilepotassium ions are largely found in the fluid insidecells. Anions are present in the fluids to balance theelectrical charge of the Na+ and K+ cations.Abnormal electrolyte concentrations in bloodserum can indicate the presence of disease. The ionconcentrations that vary as a result of disease areNa+, K+, Cl, and HCO3. Sodium ion concentration isa good indicator of the water balance between bloodand tissue cells. Unusual potassium ion levels canindicate kidney or gastrointestinal problems.Chloride ion is the anion that balances the positivecharge of the sodium ion in the fluid outside the cells.It also diffuses into a cell to maintain normal elec-trolyte balance when hydrogen carbonate ions diffuseout of the cell into the blood. Table 1B shows med-ical conditions associated with electrolyte imbalances. APPLICATION HealthDuring situations where the body is losing water rapidly throughintense sweating or diarrhea for a prolonged period (more than 5hours), a sports drink can hydrate the body and restore electrolytebalance.A L K A L I M E T A L S 789E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K790normal operation of the nervous system. Thisunequal concentration of ions creates a voltageacross nerve cell membranes. When a nerve cell isstimulated, sodium ions diffuse into the cell from thesurrounding fluid, raising voltage across the nervecell membrane from 70 mV to nearly +60 mV.Potassium ions then diffuse out of the cell into the surrounding fluid, restoring the voltage across thenerve cell membrane to 70 mV. This voltage fluctua-tion initiates the transmission of a nerve impulse.The amount of Na+ inside the cell has increasedslightly, and the amount of K+ outside the cell hasdecreased. But the sodium-potassium pump willrestore these ions to their proper concentrations.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKSodium-Potassium Pump in the Cell MembraneThe process of active transport allows a cell to maintain its proper electrolyte balance. To keep the ion concentrations at the proper levels shown in Table 1B, a sodium-potassium pump embedded in the cell membrane shuttles sodium ions out of the cell across the cell membrane. A model for the action of the sodium-potassium pump is shown below.Nerve Impulses and Ion ConcentrationThe difference in Na+ and K+ concentrations insideand outside nerve cell membranes is essential for theThe sodium-potassium pump is aprotein embedded within the cellmembrane that allows the passage ofNa+ and K+ into and out of the cell. Eachfigure depicts the action of a single protein.Na+ binds to the pump, which stimulates areaction that changes the shape of the pump.The new shape of the protein allows it to bind with K+, which stimulates another reaction to change the proteins shape.This reaction causes K+ to beexpelled into the cell.(a)Concentration outside the cellNa+ = 145 mmol/LK+ = 4 mmol/L(c)(d)Na+K+INSIDEConcentration inside the cellNa+ = 12 mmol/LK+ = 140 mmol/LWhen thepump changesshape, it expelsNa+ outside ofthe cell. (b)OUTSIDEA L K A L I M E T A L S 791ELEMENTS HANDBOOKThough sodium is an important mineral in your body, a diet that is high in sodium is one ofseveral factors linked to high blood pressure, alsoknown as hypertension. High Na+ levels causewater retention, which results in increased bloodpressure. Sodium is not the direct cause of allhypertension, but reducing sodium levels in thediet can affect individuals with a condition knownas salt-sensitive hypertension. Therefore, theDietary Guidelines for Americans recommendconsuming salt and sodium in moderation. Testyour knowledge about sodium in foods with thequestions below.1. Which of the following condiments do youthink has the lowest salt content?a. mustard c. catsup e. vinegarb. steak sauce d. pickles2. One-fourth of a teaspoon of salt containsabout _____ of sodium.a. 10 mg c. 500 mg e. 1 kgb. 100 g d. 500 g3. According to FDA regulations for foodproduct labels, a food labeled salt-free must contain less than _____ mg of sodium ion per serving.a. 100 c. 0.001 e. 0.00005b. 5 d. 0.0054. The Nutrition Facts label for a particularfood reads Sodium 15 mg. This is theamount of sodium ion per _____.a. package c. serving e. RDAb. teaspoon d. ounce5. The recommended average daily intake ofsodium ion for adults is 2400 mg. For a low-sodium diet the intake should be ______.a. 200 mg c. 750 mg e. 150 mgb. 2000 mg d. 500 mg6. Each of the following ingredients can befound in the ingredients lists for some com-mon food products. Which ones indicate thatthe product contains sodium?a. trisodium phosphate d. sodium sulfateb. sodium bicarbonate e. MSGc. sodium benzoate f. baking soda7. Which of the following spices is NOT a saltsubstitute?a. caraway seeds c. gingerb. dill d. onion salt8. Most salt in the average American dietcomes from salting foods too heavily at thedinner table.a. true b. false9. Which of the following foods are high insodium?a. potato chips c. doughnuts e. figsb. pizza d. banana10. Your body requires about 200 mg of sodiumion, or 500 mg of salt, per day. Why do thesenumbers differ?Whats your sodium IQ?Answers 1. e; 2. c; 3. b; 4. c; 5. c; 6. all of them; 7. d; 8. b, processed foods cancontain very high levels of sodium; 9. a, b, c; 10. Salt is not pure sodium.E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K792GROUP 2ALKALINE EARTHMETALSAtomic radiusincreasesIonic radius increasesChemical reactivityincreasesElectronegativitydecreasesIonization energydecreases4BeBeryllium9.012 182[He]2s 212MgMagnesium24.3050[Ne]3s 220CaCalcium40.078[Ar]4s 238SrStrontium87.62[Kr]5s 256BaBarium137.327[Xe]6s 288RaRadium(226)[Rn]7s 2 do not occur naturally as free elements occur most commonly as the carbonates, phosphates, silicates, and sulfates occur naturally as compounds that are eitherinsoluble or only slightly soluble in water consist of atoms that contain two electrons in theiroutermost energy level consist of atoms that tend to lose two electronsper atom, forming ions with a 2+ charge are less reactive than alkali metals form ionic compounds primarily react with water to form bases and hydrogen gas are good heat and electrical conductors are ductile and malleable have a silvery luster include the naturally radioactive element radiumCalcium carbonate is a major component of marble. CHARACTERISTICSBeryllium is found in themineral compound beryl.Beryl crystals include thedark green emerald andthe blue-green aquama-rine. The colors of thesegems come from othermetal impurities.The mineraldolomite, CaCO3MgCO3, is anatural source ofboth calcium andmagnesium. A L K A L I N E E A R T H M E T A L S 793With Water to Form Bases and Hydrogen GasExample: Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)Ca, Sr, and Ba also follow this pattern.With Acids to Form Salts and Hydrogen GasExample: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)Be, Ca, Sr, and Ba also follow this pattern.With Halogens to Form SaltsExample: Mg(s) + F2(g) MgF2(s)Ca, Sr, and Ba also follow this pattern in reacting with F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.With Oxygen to Form Oxides or PeroxidesMagnesium forms an oxide.2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)Be and Ca also follow this pattern.Strontium also forms a peroxide.Sr(s) + O2(g) SrO2(s)Ba also reacts in this way.With Hydrogen to Form HydridesExample: Mg(s) + H2(g) MgH2(s)Ca, Sr, and Ba also follow this pattern.With Nitrogen to Form NitridesExample: 3Mg(s) + N2(g) Mg3N2(s)Be and Ca also follow this pattern.Flame tests can be used to identify three of the alka-line earth elements. The colors of both calcium andstrontium can be masked by the presence of barium,which produces a green flame. ELEMENTS HANDBOOKCalcium reacts with water to form hydrogen gas.Magnesium reacts with HCl to produceMgCl2(aq).Magnesium burns in air to form MgOand Mg3N2.COMMON REACTIONSCalcium Strontium BariumANALYTICAL TESTE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K794FireworksFireworks are made from pyrotechnicschemicalsubstances that produce light and smoke when theyare ignited. Pyrotechnics are also used in flares,smoke bombs, explosives, and matches. An aerialfireworks device is a rocket made of a cylinder,chemicals inside the cylinder, and fuses attached tothe cylinder. The illustration on the right shows howthe device works. The lift charge at the bottom ofthe cylinder consists of a small amount of black gun-powder. When the side fuse ignites the gunpowder, itexplodes like a small bomb. The gunpowder consistsof potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur. Whenthese three chemicals react with one another, theyproduce gases. In this case, the gases produced arecarbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen monoxide. These hot gases expand very rapidly, providing the thrust that lifts the rocket into the sky.About the time the shell reaches its maximumaltitude and minimum speed, the time fuse ignites the chemicals contained in the cylinder. The chemicals inside the cylinder determine the color of the burst.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKThe cylinder of a multiple-burst rocket contains separate reactionchambers connected by fuses. A common fuse ignites the propel-lant and the time-delay fuse in the first reaction chamber.PROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 2 ELEMENTSBe Mg Ca Sr Ba RaMelting point (C) 1278 5 649 839 2 769 725 700Boiling point (C) 2467 1090 1484 1384 1640 1140Density (g/cm3) 1.85 1.74 1.54 2.6 3.51 5Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 900 738 590 550 503 509Atomic radius (pm) 112 160 197 215 222 220Ionic radius (pm) 45 72 100 118 136 148Common oxidation number +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2in compoundsCrystal structure hcp* hcp fcc** fcc bcc bccHardness (Mohs scale) 4.0 2.0 1.5 1.8 1.5 *hexagonal close-packed **face-centered cubicAPPLICATION TechnologyIgnition fuseactivates thereaction inthe bottom chamberTime-delayfuses activatethe reactionsin the otherchambersRedstar burstsBluestar burstsFlash andsound mixtureBlack powderpropellantChemical Composition and ColorOne of the characteristics of fireworks that weenjoy most is their variety of rich colors. These colors are created in much the same way as the colors produced during a flame test. In a fireworksdevice, the chloride salt is heated to a high tempera-ture, causing the excited atoms to give off a burstof light. The color of light produced depends on the metal used. The decomposition of barium chloride, BaCl2, for example, produces a burst ofgreen light, whereas strontium chloride, SrCl2,releases red light.People who design fireworks combine artistrywith a technical knowledge of chemical properties.They have found ways to combine different colorswithin a single cylinder and to make parts of thecylinder explode at different times. Fireworksdesigners have a technical knowledge of projectilemotion that is used to determine the height, direc-tion, and angle at which a fireworks device willexplode to produce a fan, fountain, flower, stream,comet, spider, star, or other shape.Strontium and the Visible SpectrumWhen heated, some metallic elements and their com-pounds emit light at specific wavelengths that arecharacteristic of the element or compound. Visiblelight includes wavelengths between about 400 and700 nanometers. The figure below shows the emis-sion spectrum for strontium. When heated, strontiumgives off the maximum amount of visible light atabout 700 nanometers, whichfalls in the red-light region ofthe visible spectrum.FlaresFlares operate on a chemical principle that is differ-ent from that of fireworks. A typical flare consists of finely divided magnesium metal and an oxidizingagent. When the flare is ignited, the oxidizing agentreacts with the magnesium metal to produce magne-sium oxide. This reaction releases so much energythat it produces a glow like that of the filaments in a light bulb. The brilliant white light produced by the flare is caused by billions of tiny particles ofmagnesium that glow when they react. If slightlylarger particles of magnesium metal are used in theflare, the system glows for a longer period of timebecause the particles reaction with the oxidizingagent is slower.A colored flare can be thought of as a combina-tion of a white flare and a chemical that producesELEMENTS HANDBOOKThe emission spec-trum for strontiumshows strong bandsin the red region ofthe visible light spectrum.A flare is made up of billions of reacting magnesium particles.colored light when burned.For example, a red flarecan be made from magne-sium metal, an oxidizingagent, and a compound ofstrontium. When the flareis ignited, the oxidizingagent and magnesiummetal react, heating themagnesium to white-hottemperatures. The energyfrom this reaction causesthe strontium compoundto give off its characteris-tic red color.For safety reasons, some fireworks manufacturersstore their products in metal sheds separated bysand banks. Also, people who work with fireworksare advised to wear cotton clothing because cotton is less likely than other fabrics to develop a staticcharge, which can cause a spark and accidentallyignite fireworks.A L K A L I N E E A R T H M E T A L S 795Magnesium: An Essential Mineral in the DietThough magnesium has several functions in the body,one of the more important functions is its role in theabsorption of calcium by cells. Magnesium, like so-dium and potassium, is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Like calcium, magnesium is acomponent of bone.A major source of magnesium in the diet isplants. Magnesium is the central atom in the greenplant pigment chlorophyll. The structure of chloro-phyll in plants is somewhat similar to the structureof hemethe oxygen-carrying molecule in animals.(See page 816 for the heme structure.)Calcium: An Essential Mineral in the DietCalcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. It is the mineral that makes up a good portion of the teeth and the bone mass of the body. A smallpercentage of calcium in the body is used in thereactions by which cells communicate and in the regulation of certain body processes. Calcium is soimportant to normal body functioning that if the calcium level of the blood falls far below normal,hormones signal the release of calcium from boneand signal the gastrointestinal tract to absorb morecalcium during the digestion process. A prolonged diet that is low in calcium is linkedto a disease characterized by a decrease in bonemass, a condition called osteoporosis. Reduced bone mass results in brittle bones that fracture easi-ly. Osteoporosis generally occurs later in life and ismore prevalent in females. However, because youachieve peak bone mass during the late teens orearly twenties, it is critical that your diet meet therecommended requirements to increase your peakbone mass. The recommended dietary intake for calcium is 1000 mg per day. Maintaining that level in the diet along with regular exercise through adult-hood are thought to reduce the rate of bone losslater in life. Excess calcium in the diet (consumingmore than 2500 mg daily) can interfere with theabsorption of other minerals.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K796Dairy products are generally good sources of calcium.TABLE 2A Good Sources of Calcium in the DietFood Serving size Calcium present (mg)Broccoli 6.3 oz 82Cheddar cheese 1 oz 204Cheese pizza, frozen pizza for one 375Milk, low-fat 1% 8 oz 300Tofu, regular 4 oz 130Vegetable pizza, frozen pizza for one 500Yogurt, low-fat 8 oz 415Yogurt, plain whole milk 8 oz 274APPLICATION HealthThe recommended dietary intake of magnesiumis 400 mg per day. This is equivalent to just 4 oz ofbran cereal. Because magnesium levels are easilymaintained by a normal diet, it is unusual for anyone to have a magnesium deficiency. Most magnesium deficiencies are the result of factors that decrease magnesium absorption. People withgastrointestinal disorders, alcohol abusers, and the critically ill are most likely to have these types ofabsorption problems. Excess magnesium in the diet is excreted by thekidneys, so there are no cumulative toxic effects.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKTABLE 2B Good Sources of Magnesium in the DietFood Serving size Magnesium present (mg)Barley, raw 1 cup 244Beef, broiled sirloin 4 oz 36Cabbage, raw 1 med. head 134Cashews, dry-roasted 1 oz 74Chicken, roasted breast 4 oz 31Lima beans, boiled 1/2 cup 63Oatmeal 1 oz 39Potato, baked 7.1 oz 115Prunes, dried 4 oz 51Rice bran 8 oz 648Salmon, canned 4 oz 39Spinach, raw 10 oz 161Spinach is a good source of magnesium. Magnesium is the centralatom in the green plant pigment chlorophyll. The chlorophyllstructure is shown on the right.CH3CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3CH3CHCH2CH3CH2CH3CH3HHNNNMgHOOC OCH3OCONA L K A L I N E E A R T H M E T A L S 797E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K798GROUPS 312TRANSITION METALS consist of metals in Groups 3 through 12 contain one or two electrons in their outermostenergy level are usually harder and more brittle than metals in Groups 1 and 2 have higher melting and boiling points than metals in Groups 1 and 2 are good heat and electrical conductors are malleable and ductile have a silvery luster, except copper and gold include radioactive elements with numbers 89 through 112 include mercury, the only liquid metal at roomtemperature have chemical properties that differ from each other tend to have two or more common oxidation states often form colored compounds may form complex ionsGold, silver, platinum, palladium, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, andosmium are sometimes referred to as the noble metals becausethey are not very reactive. These metals are found in coins, jewel-ry, and metal sculptures.CHARACTERISTICSIron ore is obtained from surface mines. Hematite, Fe2O3, is the most common iron ore. Copper ores are also obtained from surface mines. Copper ore is shown here.Because this region of the periodic table is so large,you would expect great variety in the types of reac-tion characteristics of transition metals. For exam-ple, copper oxidizes in air to form the green patinayou see on the Statue of Liberty. Copper reacts withconcentrated HNO3 but not with dilute HNO3. Zinc,on the other hand, reacts readily with dilute HCl.Iron oxidizes in air to form rust, but chromium isgenerally unreactive in air. Some common reactionsfor transition elements are shown by the following.May form two or more different ionsExample: Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2eExample: Fe(s) Fe3+(aq) + 3eMay react with oxygen to form oxidesExample: 4Cr(s) + 3O2(g) 2Cr2O3(s)Example: 2Cu(s) + O2(g) 2CuO(s)May react with halogens to form halidesExample: Ni(s) + Cl2(g) NiCl2(s)May form complex ionsSee examples in the lower right.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKChromium has several common oxidation states, represented here by aqueous solutions of its compounds. The violet and green solutions contain chromium in the +3state, and the yellow and orange solutions contain chromium in the +6 oxidation state.Complex ions belong to a class of compoundscalled coordination compounds. Coordinationcompounds show great variety in colors.Several transition-metal coordination com-pounds are shown.COMMON REACTIONSCopper reacts with oxygen in air.Copper reacts with concen-trated nitric acid.Zinc reacts with dilutehydrochloric acid.Soluble iron(III) salts form insolu-ble Fe(OH)3 when they are reactedwith a hydroxide base.Cu(NH3)4SO4H2OCu[(CH3)2SO]2Cl2[Co(NH3)4CO3]NO3[Co(NH3)5 (NO2)]Cl2 K3[Fe(C2O4)3]CrCl3 Cr(NO3)3 K2Cr2O7 K2CrO4T R A N S I T I O N M E T A L S 799E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K800Flame tests are not commonly used to identify tran-sition metals. The presence of a certain transition-metal ion in a solution is sometimes obvious fromthe solutions color. Some transition-metal ions canbe more accurately identified using a procedurecalled qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is theidentification of ions by their characteristic reactions.The transition-metal ions most often identifiedthrough qualitative analysis include copper, nickel,zinc, chromium, iron cobalt, cadmium, manganese,and tin. Most tests to identify the presence of an ionin a mixture involve causing the ion to precipitateout of solution. Some of the more dramatic precipi-tation reactions for transition metals are shown.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKCopper (formation of[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2)Cadmium (formation of CdS)Zinc (formation of ZnS) Chromium (formation of PbCrO4)Iron (formation of [Fe(SCN)]2+)Manganese (formation of MnO4)Nickel (formation of a nickeldimethylglyoxime complex)ANALYTICAL TESTSome transition metal ions can be identified by characteristic colors of their salt solutions.KMnO4 NiCl2 CoCl2 CuSO4Gemstones and ColorA gemstone is a mineral that can be cut and pol-ished to make gems for an ornament or piece of jewelry. At one time, all gemstones were naturallyoccurring minerals mined from Earths crust. Today,however, chemists can duplicate natural processes toproduce artificial gemstones. Amethyst, emerald,jade, opal, ruby, sapphire, and topaz occur naturallyand can also be produced synthetically.The color of a gemstone is determined by the pres-ence of small amounts of one or more transition met-als. For example, aluminum oxide, Al2O3, oftenoccurs naturally as corunduma clear, colorless min-eral. However, if as few as 1 to 2% of the aluminumions, Al3+, are replaced by chromium ions, Cr3+, thecorundum takes on a reddish color and is known asruby. If a small fraction of aluminum ions in corun-dum are replaced by Fe3+ and Ti3+, the corundum hasELEMENTS HANDBOOKSapphire Ruby Peridot Garneta greenish color and is known as emerald. In anothervariation, if vanadium ions, V3+, replace a few Al3+ions in corundum, the result is a gemstone known asalexandrite. This gemstone appears green in reflectednatural light and red in transmitted or artificial light.Table 3A lists transition metals that are respon-sible for the colors of various gemstones. The tableprovides only a general overview, however, as mostnaturally occurring gemstones occur in a range of hues, depending on the exact composition of the stone.Artificial GemstonesIn 1902, the French chemist Auguste Verneuil founda way to melt a mixture of aluminum oxide andchromium salts and then cool the mixture very slowly to produce large crystals of reddish aluminumoxiderubies.PROPERTIES OF SOME TRANSITION METALSCr Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ag Au HgMelting point (C) 1857 20 1535 1495 1455 1083 420 962 1064 38.8Boiling point (C) 2672 2750 2870 2732 2567 907 2212 2808 2 356.6Density (g/cm3) 7.20 7.86 8.9 8.92 8.96 7.14 10.5 19.3 13.5Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 653 762 760 737 746 906 731 890 1007Atomic radius (pm) 128 126 125 124 128 134 144 144 151Common oxidation numbers +2, +3, +6 +2, +3 +2, +3 +2 +1, +2 +2 +1 +1, +3 +1, +2APPLICATION GeologyT R A N S I T I O N M E T A L S 801E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K802Verneuils method, although somewhat modified,is still the one most widely used today for the manu-facture of colored gemstones. When magnesiumoxide is substituted for aluminum oxide, a colorlessspinel-like product is formed. The addition of vari-ous transition metals then adds a tint to the spinelthat results in the formation of synthetic emerald,aquamarine, tourmaline, or other gemstones.Synthetic gems look very much like their naturalcounterparts.AlloysAn alloy is a mixture of a metal and one or moreother elements. In most cases, the second compo-nent of the mixture is also a metal. Alloys are desirable because mixtures of elementsusually have properties different from and often superior to the properties of individual metals. Forexample, many alloys that contain iron are harder,stronger, and more resistant to oxidation than ironitself. ELEMENTS HANDBOOKTABLE 3A Transition Metals and Gemstone ColorsGemstone Color ElementAmethyst purple ironAquamarine blue ironEmerald green iron/titaniumGarnet red ironPeridot yellow-green ironRuby red chromiumSapphire blue iron/titaniumSpinel colorless to red to black variesTurquoise blue copperSynthetic sapphire Synthetic rubyAPPLICATION TechnologyAmalgams are alloys that contain mercury. They are soft and pliable when first produced, but later become solid and hard. Dental fillings were once made of an amalgam of mercury and silver. Concerns about the possible toxicity of mercury led to the development of other filling materials.Stainless steel, which is hard and resists corrosion, is made of ironand chromium (1230%). The properties of stainless steel make it a suitable alloy for making cutlery and utensils.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKTABLE 3B Composition and Uses of Some AlloysName of alloy Composition UsesBrass copper with up to 50% zinc, inexpensive jewelry; hose nozzles and couplings; piping;some lead, and a small stamping diesamount of tinBronze copper with up to 12% tin coins and medals; heavy gears; tools; electrical hardwareCoin metal copper: 75% United States coinsnickel: 25%Duralumin aluminum: 95% aircraft, boats, railroad cars, and machinery because of itscopper: 4% high strength and resistance to corrosionmagnesium: 0.5%manganese: E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K804ELEMENTS HANDBOOKStructures and Preparation of AlloysAlloys generally crystallize in one of two ways,depending on relative sizes of atoms. If the atoms ofone of the metals present are small enough to fit intothe spaces between the atoms of the second metal,they form an alloy with an interstitial structure (intermeans between, and stitial means to stand). Ifatoms of the two metals are of similar size or if oneis larger, the atoms of one metal can substitute forthe atoms of the second metal in its crystalline struc-ture. Such alloys are substitutional alloys. Models forboth types of crystals are shown above. Techniques for making alloys depend on the metals used in the mixture. In some cases, the twometals can simply be melted together to form a mix-ture. The composition of the mixture often varieswithin a range, evidence that the final product isindeed a mixture and not a compound. In othercases, one metal may be melted first and the seconddissolved in it. Brass is prepared in this way. If copper and zinc were heated together to a high tem-perature, zinc (bp 907C) would evaporate beforecopper (mp 1084C) melted. Therefore, the copper is melted first, and the zinc is added to it.Substitutional crystalA larger atom or ion is substituted for a particle in the array.Interstitial crystalA smaller atom or ion fits into a small space between particles in the array.Sterling silver is more widely used than puresilver because it is stronger and more durable. Brass has a high luster and resembles gold when cleaned and polished. A brass objectcan be coated with a varnish to prevent reactions of the alloy with air and water.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKAPPLICATION The EnvironmentConcentrations of methylmercury increaseat higher levels of the food chain.SewageMercury enters water ecosystem from lab chemicals, industrial waste, runoff of fungicidesBacteria convert Hg and inorganic Hg compounds to (CH3)Hg+Plankton eat bacteriaFish eat plankton and each otherPeople eat fishHatters often displayed the nerve and mental impair-ments associated with overexposure to mercury.Methylmercury in Freshwater EcosystemsMercury, Hg, can be found in our environment and in our food supply. Fortunately, the body has someprotective mechanisms to deal with trace amounts of mercury. However, levels of mercury and ofmethylmercury, (CH3)Hg+, are increasing in the environment due to mercury mining operations and runoff from the application of pesticides andfungicides. Mercury is easily converted to methylmercury bybacteria. Methylmercury is more readily absorbed bycells than mercury itself. As a result, methylmercuryaccumulates in the food chain as shown in the dia-gram below. A serious incident of methylmercury poi-soning occurred in Japan in the 1950s. People living inMinamata, Japan, were exposed to high levels ofmethylmercury from eating shellfish. In the United States, there is concern about mer-cury levels in fish from some freshwater lakes.Though environmental regulations have reduced thelevel of lake pollutants, it takes time to see a reduc-tion in the concentration of an accumulated poison. Mercury PoisoningMercury is the only metal that is liquid at room tem-perature. It has a very high density compared withmost other common transition metals and has a verylarge surface tension and high vapor pressure. Mercuryand many of its compounds must be handled withextreme care because they are highly toxic. Mercuryspills are especially hazardous because the dropletsscatter easily and are often undetected during cleanup.These droplets release toxic vapors into the air.Overexposure to mercury vapor or its compoundscan occur by absorption through the skin, respiratorytract, or digestive tract. Mercury is a cumulative poi-son, which means that its concentration in the bodyincreases as exposure increases. Mercury that enters the body damages the kid-neys, heart, and brain. The action of mercury on thebrain affects the nervous system. Symptoms of mer-cury poisoning include numbness, tunnel vision, gar-bled speech, bleeding and inflammation of the gums,muscle spasms, anemia, and emotional disorders, suchas depression, irritability, and personality changes.The saying mad as a hatter probably came aboutbecause of mercury poisoning. Mercury salts wereonce routinely used to process the felt used in hats.T R A N S I T I O N M E T A L S 805E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K806ELEMENTS HANDBOOKElements in the BodyThe four most abundant elements in thebody (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitro-gen) are the major components of organicbiomolecules, such as carbohydrates, pro-teins, fats, and nucleic acids. Other elements compose a dietary category ofcompounds called minerals. Minerals areconsidered the inorganic elements of thebody. Minerals fall into two categoriesthe major minerals and the trace min-erals, or trace elements, as they aresometimes called. Notice in theperiodic table below that most ele-ments in the trace elements categoryof minerals are transition metals. Trace elements are minerals withdietary daily requirements of 100 mg orless. They are found in foods derived fromboth plants and animals. Though theseelements are present in very small quanti-ties, they perform a variety of essentialfunctions in the body, as shown in Table3C on the next page.APPLICATION HealthElements in organic matter Trace elementsMajor minerals Oxygen65.0%Carbon18.5%Hydrogen9.5%Phosphorus 1.0%Nitrogen 3.2%Calcium 1.5%Other 1.3%PotassiumSulfurSodiumChlorineMagnesiumTrace elementsAbundance of Elements in the Body(by mass)Group 1 Group 2Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 Group 9 Group 10 Group 11Group 13 Group 14 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17Group 187N15P8O9F10Ne2He16S17Cl18Ar33As34Se35Br36Kr51Sb52Te53I54Xe83Bi84Po5B13Al6C14Si31Ga32Ge49In50Sn81Tl82Pb85At86Rn3Li4Be1H11Na12Mg21Sc22Ti23V24Cr39Y40Zr41Nb42Mo57La72Hf19K20Ca37Rb38Sr55Cs56Ba73Ta74W25Mn43Tc75Re26Fe44Ru76Os27Co45Rh77Ir89Ac87Fr88Ra28Ni46Pd78Pt29Cu47Ag79Au30Zn48Cd80HgGroup 12807ELEMENTS HANDBOOKTABLE 3C Transition Metal Trace Elements Transitionmetal FunctionVanadium, function not fully determined, butlinked to a reduced growth rate andimpaired reproductionChromium needed for glucose transport to cellsManganese used in the enzyme reactions thatsynthesize cholesterol and metabo-lize carbohydratesIron central atom in the heme mol-eculea component of hemoglobin,which binds oxygen in the blood fortransport to cellsCobalt a component of vitamin B12Nickel enzyme cofactor in the metabolismof fatty acids and amino acidsCopper a major component of an enzymethat functions to protect cells fromdamageZinc needed for tissue growth and repairand as an enzyme cofactorMolybdenum enzyme cofactor in the productionof uric acidRole of IronMost iron in the body is in hemoglobin. Fe3+ is thecentral ion in the heme molecule, which is a compo-nent of the proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.Hemoglobin in red blood cells transports oxygen tocells and picks up carbon dioxide as waste. Myoglobinis a protein that stores oxygen to be used in musclecontraction. Iron is also in the proteins of the elec-tron transport system and the immune system. Mechanisms of the body control the rate of ironabsorption from food in the diet. When ironreserves are low, chemical signals stimulate cells ofthe intestines to absorb more iron during digestion.If the diet is low in iron, causing a deficiency, hemo-globin production stops and a condition called iron-deficiency anemia results. The blood cells producedduring this state are stunted and unable to deliveradequate oxygen to cells. As a result, a person withiron-deficiency anemia feels tired and weak and hasdifficulty maintaining normal body temperature.The recommended daily intake of iron is 15 mg. Therecommended level doubles for pregnant women.Iron supplements are for people who do not getenough iron in their daily diets. Table 3D lists somefoods that are good sources of iron in the diet. Toomuch iron can be toxic because the body stores irononce it is absorbed. Abusing iron supplements cancause severe liver and heart damage. TABLE 3D Sources of Iron in FoodsFood Serving size Iron present (mg)Beef roast (lean cut) 4 oz 3.55Beef, T-bone steak (lean cut) 4 oz 3.40Beef, ground (hamburger) 4 oz 2.78Broccoli 6.3 oz 1.50Chicken, breast 4 oz 1.35Chicken, giblets 4 oz 7.30Oatmeal, instant enriched 1 pkg 8.35Pita bread, white enriched 6 1/2 in. diameter 1.40Pork roast 4 oz 1.15Prunes 4 oz 2.00Raisins 4 oz 1.88CadmiumT R A N S I T I O N M E T A L S 807E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K808GROUP 13BORON FAMILYAtomic radiusincreasesIonic radius increasesIonization energydecreases5BBoron10.811[He]2s 22p113AlAluminum26.981 5386[Ne]3s 23p131GaGallium69.723[Ar]3d 104s 24p149InIndium114.818[Kr]4d 105s 25p181TlThallium204.3833[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p1 do not occur in nature as free elements are scarce in nature (except aluminum, which isthe most abundant metallic element) consist of atoms that have three electrons in theirouter energy level are metallic solids (except boron, which is a solidmetalloid) are soft and have low melting points (exceptboron, which is hard and has a high melting point) are chemically reactive at moderate temperatures(except boron)CHARACTERISTICSAluminum is the most abundant metal in Earths crust. It exists in nature as an ore called bauxite.Boron is a covalentsolid. Other membersof the family aremetallic solids.The warmth of a persons hand will melt gal-lium. Gallium metal has the lowest meltingpoint (29.77C) of any metal except mercury.B O R O N F A M I L Y 809The reaction chemistry of boron differs greatly from that of the other members of this family. Pure boron is a covalent network solid, whereas the other mem-bers of the family are metallic crystals in pure form.Boron resembles silicon more closely than it resemblesthe other members of its family.With Strong Bases to Form Hydrogen Gas and a SaltExample: 2Al(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2NaAlO2(aq) + 3H2(g)Ga also follows this pattern.With Dilute Acids to Form Hydrogen Gas and a SaltExample: 2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)Ga, In, and Tl follow this pattern in reacting with dilute HF, HCl, HBr, and HI.With Halogens to Form HalidesExample: 2Al(s) + 3Cl2(g) 2AlCl3(s)B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl also follow this pattern in react-ing with F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2 (except BF3).With Oxygen to Form OxidesExample: 4Al(s) + 3O2(g) 2Al2O3(s)Ga, In, and Tl also follow this pattern.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKCOMMON REACTIONSA mixture of powdered alu-minum and iron(III) oxide iscalled thermite. Al reacts withFe2O3 using Mg ribbon as afuse to provide activation energy. The energy producedby the thermite reaction is suf-ficient to produce molten ironas a product.MgFe2O3AlOther than atomic absorption spec-troscopy, there is no simple analyticaltest for all the members of the boronfamily.The confirmatory test for the presence of aluminum in qualitative analysis is the red colorformed by aluminum and the organic compoundaluminon, C22H23N3O9. Aluminum forms a thin layer of Al2O3, which protects the metal from oxidation and makes it suitable for outdoor use.ANALYTICAL TESTE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K810AluminumChemically, aluminum is much more active than cop-per, and it belongs to the category of self-protectingmetals. These metals are oxidized when exposed tooxygen in the air and form a hard, protective metaloxide on the surface. The oxidation of aluminum isshown by the following reaction.4Al(s) + 3O2(g) 2Al2O3(s)This oxide coating protects the underlying metalfrom further reaction with oxygen or other sub-stances. Self-protecting metals are valuable in them-selves or when used to coat iron and steel to keepthem from corroding. Aluminum is a very good conductor of electric current. Many years ago, most high-voltage electricpower lines were made of copper. Although copperis a better conductor of electricity than aluminum,copper is heavier and more expensive. Today morethan 90% of high-voltage transmission lines aremade of relatively pure aluminum. The aluminumwire does not have to be self-supporting becausesteel cable is incorporated to bear the weight of the wire in the long spans between towers.In the 1960s, aluminum electric wiring was used inmany houses and other buildings. Over time, however,ELEMENTS HANDBOOKPROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 13 ELEMENTSB Al Ga In TlMelting point (C) 2300 660.37 29.77 156.61 303.5Boiling point (C) 2550 2467 2403 2080 1457Density (g/cm3) 2.34 2.702 5.904 7.31 11.85Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 801 578 579 558 589Atomic radius (pm) 85 143 135 167 170Ionic radius (pm) 54 62 80 89Common oxidation +3 +3 +1, +3 +1, +3 +1, +3number in compoundsCrystal structure monoclinic fcc orthorhombic fcc hcpHardness (Mohs scale) 9.3 2.75 1.5 1.2 1.2APPLICATION Technologybecause the aluminum oxidized, Al2O3 built up andincreased electric resistance at points where wiresconnected to outlets, switches, and other metals. Ascurrent flowed through the extra resistance, enoughenergy as heat was generated to cause a fire. Thoughsome homes have been rewired, aluminum wiring isstill prevalent in many homes.These high-voltage transmission lines are made of aluminum supported with steel cables.B O R O N F A M I L Y 811Aluminum AlloysBecause aluminum has a low density and is inexpen-sive, it is used to construct aircraft, boats, sportsequipment, and other lightweight, high-strengthobjects. The pure metal is not strong, so it is mixedwith small quantities of other metalsusually man-ganese, copper, magnesium, zinc, or siliconto pro-duce strong low-density alloys. Typically, 80% of amodern aircraft frame consists of aluminum alloy.Aluminum and its alloys are good heat conduc-tors. An alloy of aluminum and manganese is usedto make cookware. High-quality pots and pans made of stainless steel may have a plate of aluminumon the bottom to help conduct energy as heat quick-ly to the interior.Automobile radiators made of aluminum conduct energy as heat as hot coolant from theengine enters the bottom of the radiator. Thecoolant is deflected into several channels. Thesechannels are covered by thin vanes of aluminum,which conduct energy away from the coolant andtransfer it to the cooler air rushing past. By the timethe coolant reaches the top of the radiator, its tem-perature has dropped so that when it flows back intothe engine it can absorb more energy as heat. Tokeep the process efficient, the outside of a radiatorshould be kept unobstructed and free of dirtbuildup.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKIn this aluminum car radiator,many thin vanes of aluminum conduct energy as heat, transfer-ring it from the coolant to the air.Coolant is cycled from the hot enginethrough the radiator and back to the engine.TABLE 4A Alloys of Aluminum and Their UsesPrincipal alloyingelement(s)* Characteristics Application examplesManganese moderately strong, easily worked cookware, roofing, storage tanks, lawn furnitureCopper strong, easily formed aircraft structural parts; large, thin structuralpanelsMagnesium strong, resists corrosion, easy to weld parts for boats and ships, outdoor decorativeobjects, tall polesZinc and magnesium very strong, resists corrosion aircraft structural parts, vehicle parts, anythingthat needs high strength and low weightSilicon expands little on heating and cooling aluminum castingsMagnesium and silicon resists corrosion, easily formed exposed parts of buildings, bridges* All these alloys have small amounts of other elements.To heater BypassFrom heaterto engineFan areaCross-flowradiatorWater coolsE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K812GROUP 14CARBON FAMILYAtomic radius increasesIonization energydecreases6CCarbon12.0107[He]2s 22p214SiSilicon28.0855[Ne]3s 23p 232GeGermanium72.64[Ar]3d 104s 24p 250SnTin118.710[Kr]4d 105s 25p 282PbLead207.2[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p2 include a nonmetal (carbon), two metalloids (silicon and germanium), and two metals (tin and lead) vary greatly in both physical and chemicalproperties occur in nature in both combined and elementalforms consist of atoms that contain four electrons in theoutermost energy level are relatively unreactive tend to form covalent compounds (tin and leadalso form ionic compounds)CHARACTERISTICSSilicon has a lusterbut does notexhibit metallicproperties. Mostsilicon in nature isa silicon oxide,which occurs insand and quartz,which is shownhere.Tin, which is shown on the right, is a self-protecting metal like lead, but unlike lead it has a high luster. Tin occurs in nature in cassiterite ore, which is shown above.Lead has a low reactivity and is resistant to corrosion. It is very soft, highly ductile, and malleable. Lead is toxic and, like mercury, it is a cumulative poison.C A R B O N F A M I L Y 813With Oxygen to Form OxidesExample: Sn(s) + O2(g) SnO2(s)Pb follows this pattern, as do C, Si, and Ge at high temperatures.With Acids to Form Salts and Hydrogen GasOnly the metallic elements of this group react slowly with aqueous acids.Example: Sn(s) + 2HCl(aq) SnCl2(aq) + H2(g)Both Sn and Pb can also react to form tin(IV) and lead(IV) salts, respectively.With Halogens to Form HalidesExample: Sn(s) + 2Cl2(g) SnCl4(s)Si, Ge, and Pb follow this pattern, reacting with F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2. ELEMENTS HANDBOOKCOMMON REACTIONSIonic compounds of tin and lead can be identified inaqueous solutions by adding a solution containingsulfide ions. The formation of a yellow precipitateindicates the presence of Sn4+, and the formation ofa black precipitate indicates the presence of Pb2+.Sn4+(aq) + 2S2(aq) SnS2(s)Pb2+(aq) + S2(aq) PbS(s)PROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 14 ELEMENTSC Si Ge Sn PbMelting point (C) 3500/3652* 1410 937.4 231.88 327.502Boiling point (C) 4827 2355 2830 2260 1740Density (g/cm3) 3.51/2.25* 2.33 0.01 5.323 7.28 11.343Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 1086 787 762 709 716Atomic radius (pm) 77 118 122 140 175Ionic radius (pm) 260 (C4 ion) 118 (Sn2+ ion) 119 (Pb2+ ion)Common oxidation +4, 4 +4 +2, +4 +2, +4 +2, +4number in compoundsCrystal structure cubic/hexagonal* cubic cubic tetragonal fccHardness (Mohs scale) 10/0.5* 6.5 6.0 1.5 1.5* The data are for two allotropic forms: diamond/graphite.ANALYTICAL TESTPbS SnS2E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K814The calcium oxide then combines with silica, a silicon compound, to form calcium silicate slag.The relatively high carbon content of iron produced in a blast furnace makes the metal hard butbrittle. It also has other impurities, like sulfur andphosphorus, that cause the recovered iron to be brit-tle. The conversion of iron to steel is essentially apurification process in which impurities are removedby oxidation. This purification process is carried outin another kind of furnace at very high temperatures.All steel contains 0.02 to 1.5% carbon. In fact, steelsare graded by their carbon content. Low-carbonsteels typically contain 0.02 to 0.3% carbon. Medium-carbon steels typically contain 0.03 to 0.7% carbon.High-carbon steels contain 0.7 to 1.5% carbon.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKCarbon and the Reduction of Iron OreSome metals, especially iron, are separated from theirores through reduction reactions in a blast furnace.The blast furnace gets its name from the fact that air or pure oxygen is blown into the furnace, whereit oxidizes carbon to form carbon monoxide, CO.Carbon and its compounds are important reactantsin this process.What happens inside the blast furnace to recoverthe iron from its ore? The actual chemical changesthat occur are complex. A simplified explanationbegins with the reaction of oxygen in hot air withcoke, a form of carbon. Some of the coke burns toform carbon dioxide.C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)As the concentration of oxygen is decreased, the carbon dioxide comes in contact with pieces of hotcoke and is reduced to carbon monoxide.CO2(g) + C(s) 2CO(g)The carbon monoxide now acts as a reducing agentto reduce the iron oxides in the ore to metallic iron.Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g)The reduction is thought to occur in steps as thetemperature in the furnace increases. The followingare some of the possible steps.Fe2O3 Fe3O4 FeO FeThe white-hot liquid iron collects in the bottom ofthe furnace and is removed every four or five hours.The iron may be cast in molds or converted to steelin another process.Limestone, present in the center of the furnace,decomposes to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)Molten iron flowing from the bottom of a blast furnace has been reduced from its ore through a series of reactions at hightemperatures in different regions of the furnace.APPLICATION Chemical IndustrySlagCompressed air or pure O2Exhaust gases(mostly H2 and CO)Limestone, coke (a source of carbon) and iron oreMoltenironCO2 in atmospherePhotosynthesisDecompositionPlant lifeExhaustCombustionFossil fuelsRespirationRespirationDiffusionDeep oceanDissolved organic matterELEMENTS HANDBOOKCarbon DioxideCarbon dioxide is a colorless gas with a faintly irri-tating odor and a slightly sour taste. The sour taste is the result of the formation of carbonic acid whenCO2 dissolves in the water in saliva. It is a stable gasthat does not burn or support combustion. At tem-peratures lower than 31C and at pressures higherthan 72.9 atm, CO2 condenses to the liquid form. A phase diagram for CO2 is found in the chapterreview section of Chapter 10. At normal atmospher-ic pressure, solid CO2 (dry ice) sublimes at 78.5C.The linear arrangement of carbon dioxide moleculesmakes them nonpolar. CO2 is produced by the burning of organic fuelsand from respiration processes in most living things.Most CO2 released into the atmosphere is used byplants during photosynthesis. Recall that photosyn-thesis is the process by which green plants and someforms of algae and bacteria make food. Duringphotosynthesis, CO2 reacts with H2O, using theenergy from sunlight. The relationships among thevarious processes on Earth that convert carbon tocarbon dioxide are summarized in the diagram ofthe carbon cycle, which is pictured below.Carbon MonoxideCarbon monoxide is a poisonous gas produced naturally by decaying plants, certain types of algae,volcanic eruptions, and the oxidation of methane inthe atmosphere.Because CO is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, it is difficult to detect. It is slightly less dense than air and slightly soluble in water. Its main chemicaluses are in the reduction of iron, described on page814, and the production of organic compounds, suchas methanol.CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(l)Carbon monoxide is also produced during theincomplete combustion of organic fuels. Incompletecombustion of methane occurs when the supply ofoxygen is limited.2CH4(g) + 3O2(g) 2CO(g) + 4H2O(g)The processes that recycle CO2 are collectively called the carbon cycle.C A R B O N F A M I L Y 815E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K816HemeCH3CH3CH CH2CH CH2CH2CH2COOHH3CH3CCH2CH2COOHFeNNNNOOOxygenmoleculeELEMENTS HANDBOOKThe oxygen carrier molecule, heme, is a component of the more-complex protein hemoglobin. Note that each hemoglobin molecule has four heme subunits. Hemoglobin is a component of red blood cells.APPLICATION BiochemistryCarbon Dioxide and RespirationMany organisms, including humans, carry out cellularrespiration. In this process, cells break down foodmolecules and release the energy used to build thosemolecules during photosynthesis. Glucose, C6H12O6, isa common substance broken down in respiration. Thefollowing chemical equation expresses this process.C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energyIn humans and most other vertebrate animals, theoxygen needed for this reaction is delivered to cellsby hemoglobin found in red blood cells. Oxygenbinds with hemoglobin as blood passes through cap-illaries in the lungs, as represented by the followingreaction.Hb + O2 HbO2Hb represents the hemoglobin molecule, and HbO2represents oxyhemoglobin, which is hemoglobin with bound oxygen. When the red blood cells passthrough capillaries near cells that have depletedtheir oxygen supply through respiration, the reactionreverses and oxyhemoglobin gives up its oxygen.HbO2 Hb + O2Carbon dioxide produced during respiration is a waste product that must be expelled from anorganism. Various things happen when CO2 entersthe blood. Seven percent dissolves in the plasma,about 23% binds loosely to hemoglobin, and the remaining 70% reacts reversibly with water in plasma to form hydrogen carbonate,HCO3 ions. To form HCO3 ions, CO2 first combineswith H2O to form carbonic acid, H2CO3, in areversible reaction.CO2(aq) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq)The dissolved carbonic acid ionizes to HCO3 ionsand aqueous H+ ions in the form of H3O+.H2CO3(aq) + H2O H3O+(aq) + HCO3(aq)The combined equilibrium reaction follows.CO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3(aq)When the blood reaches the lungs, the reactionreverses and the blood releases CO2, which is then exhaled to the surroundings.Red blood cellsHemoglobin (protein)Exchange of CO2 and O2 in the LungsWhy does CO2 leave the blood as it passes throughthe lungs capillaries, and why does O2 enter theblood? The exchange is caused by the difference inconcentrations of CO2 and O2 in the blood and inthe atmosphere. Oxygen is 21% of the atmosphere.Although the amount of CO2 varies from place toplace, it averages about 0.033% of the atmosphere.Thus, O2 is about 640 times more concentrated inthe atmosphere than is CO2. Substances tend to diffuse from regions of higherconcentration toward regions of lower concentration.Thus, when blood reaches the capillaries of the lung,O2 from the air diffuses into the blood, where itspressure is only 40 mm Hg, while CO2 diffuses out ofthe blood, where its pressure is 45 mm Hg, and intothe air. The diagram below summarizes the process.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKAcidosis and AlkalosisIn humans, blood is maintained between pH 7.3 and7.5. The pH of blood is dependent on the concentra-tion of CO2 in the blood. Look again at this equilib-rium system.CO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3(aq)Notice that the right side of the equation containsthe H3O+ ion, which determines the pH of theblood. If excess H3O+ enters the blood from tissues,the reverse reaction is favored. Excess H3O+ com-bines with HCO3 to produce more CO2 and H2O. Ifthe H3O+ concentration begins to fall, the forwardreaction is favored, producing additional H3O+ andHCO3. To keep H3O+ in balance, adequate amountsof both CO2 and HCO3 must be present. If some-thing occurs that changes these conditions, a personcan become very ill and can even die.Hyperventilation occurs when a person breathestoo rapidly for an extended time. Too much CO2 iseliminated, causing the reverse reaction to be favored,and H3O+ and HCO3 are used up. As a result, theperson develops a condition known as alkalosisbecause the pH of the blood rises to an abnormalalkaline level. The person begins to feel lightheadedand faint, and, unless treatment is provided, he or shemay fall into a coma. Alkalosis is treated by havingthe victim breathe air that is rich in CO2. One way toaccomplish this is to have the person breathe with abag held tightly over the nose and mouth. Alkalosisis also caused by fever, infection, intoxication, hys-teria, and prolonged vomiting.The reverse of alkalosis is a condition known asacidosis. This condition is often caused by a depletionof HCO3 ions from the blood, which can occur as aresult of kidney dysfunction. The kidney controls theexcretion of HCO3 ions. If there are too few HCO3ions in solution, the forward reaction is favored andH3O+ ions accumulate, which lowers the bloods pH.Acidosis can also result from the bodys inability toexpel CO2, which can occur during pneumonia,emphysema, and other respiratory disorders. Perhapsthe single most common cause of acidosis is uncon-trolled diabetes, in which acids normally excreted inthe urinary system are instead retained by the body.The pressure of O2 in the blood entering the lung is much lowerthan it is in the atmosphere. As a result, O2 diffuses into the blood.The opposite situation exists for CO2, so it diffuses from the bloodinto the air. Note that blood leaving the lung still contains a significant concentration of CO2.O2 moleculeCO2 moleculeCO2 diffuses intothe alveoli to be exhaledO2 diffuses fromthe alveoli intothe blood to becarried to cellsthrough thecapillariesAlveolus of the lungCapillary in the lungC A R B O N F A M I L Y 817The level of danger posed by carbon monoxidedepends on two factors: the concentration of the gas in the air and the amount of time that a person is exposed to the gas. Table 5A shows the effects ofincreasing levels of carbon monoxide in the blood-stream. These effects vary considerably dependingon a persons activity level and metabolic rate.Carbon Monoxide PoisoningStanding on a street corner in any major city exposesa person to above-normal concentrations of carbonmonoxide from automobile exhaust. Carbon monox-ide also reacts with hemoglobin. The following reac-tion takes place in the capillaries of the lung.Hb + CO HbCOUnlike CO2 or O2, CO binds strongly to hemo-globin. Carboxyhemoglobin, HbCO, is 200 timesmore stable than oxyhemoglobin, HbO2. So as bloodcirculates, more and more CO molecules bind tohemoglobin, reducing the amount of O2 bond sitesavailable for transport. Eventually, CO occupies somany hemoglobin binding sites that cells die fromlack of oxygen. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, mental confusion, dizzi-ness, weakness, nausea, loss of muscular control, anddecreased heart rate and respiratory rate. The victimloses consciousness and will die without treatment.If the condition is caught in time, a victim of carbon monoxide poisoning can be revived by breath-ing pure oxygen. This treatment causes carboxy-hemoglobin to be converted slowly to oxyhemoglo-bin according to the following chemical equation.O2 + HbCO CO + HbO2Mild carbon monoxide poisoning usually does nothave long-term effects. In severe cases, cells aredestroyed. Damage to brain cells is irreversible.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K818APPLICATION The EnvironmentCarbon monoxide detectors are now available to reduce the risk of poisoning from defective home heating systems. The ConsumerProducts Safety Commission recommends that all homes have a COdetector with a UL label.TABLE 5A Symptoms of CO Poisoning at Increasing Levels of CO Exposure and ConcentrationConcentration of CO in air (ppm)* Hemoglobin molecules as HbCO Visible effects100 for 1 hour or less 10% or less no visible symptoms500 for 1 hour or less 20% mild to throbbing headache, somedizziness, impaired perception500 for an extended period of time 3050% headache, confusion, nausea, dizziness,muscular weakness, fainting1000 for 1 hour or less 5080% coma, convulsions, respiratory failure,death* ppm is parts per millionMacromoleculesLarge organic polymers are called macromolecules(the prefix macro means large). Macromoleculesplay important roles in living systems. Most macro-molecules essential to life belong to four main classes, three of which we know as nutrients in food:1. Proteins Hair, tendons, ligaments, and silk aremade of protein. Other proteins act as hormones,transport substances throughout the body, andfight infections. Enzymes are proteins that con-trol the bodys chemical reactions. Proteins pro-vide energy, yielding 17 kJ/g.2. Carbohydrates Sugars, starches, and cellulose are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are sources of energy, yielding 17 kJ/g.3. Lipids Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids are lipids,nonpolar substances that do not dissolve in water.Fats are sources of energy, yielding 38 kJ/g.4. Nucleic acids DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.In most organisms, DNA is used to store heredi-tary information and RNA helps to assembleproteins. ELEMENTS HANDBOOKHAlanineCH3ICICNH2 OOH HAsparagineH2NICICH2ICICNH2 OOOH HGlutamineH2NICICH2ICH2ICICNH2 OOOHHHIsoleucineCH3CH2ICIIICICNH2 OOH HLeucineHICICH2ICICNH2 OCH3CH3 OH HMethionineCH3ISICH2ICH2ICICNH2 OOHCH3HPhenylalanineICH2ICICNH2 OOH HThreonineCH3ICHICICNH2 OOH OH HTyrosineICH2ICICHOINH2 OOHRICICHGeneral structureOOHNH2APPLICATION BiochemistryProteinsProteins are macromolecules formed by condensationreactions between amino acid monomers. Proteinscontain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually some sulfur.All amino acids have a carboxyl group, COOH,and an amino group, NH2, attached to a central car-bon atom, which is also attached to hydrogen, H.Amino acids differ from one another at the fourthbond site of the central carbon, which is attached toa group of atoms (called an R group). R groups dif-fer from one amino acid to another, as shown in thestructures for several amino acids below. The proteinsof all organisms contain a set of 20 common aminoacids. The reaction that links amino acids is a con-densation reaction, which is described in Chapter 22.Each protein has its own unique sequence ofamino acids. A complex organism has at least severalthousand different proteins, each with a special structure and function. For instance, insulin, a hor-mone that helps the body regulate the level of sugar in the blood, is made up of two linked chains.Amino acids have the same general structure. These examples show some of the variations within this class of compounds.C A R B O N F A M I L Y 819E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K820ELEMENTS HANDBOOKThe chains are held together by SS bonds betweensulfur atoms in two cysteine amino acids. Insulin isone of the smaller proteins, containing only 51 aminoacids. In contrast, hemoglobin, which carries oxygenin the blood, is a large protein consisting of four longchains with the complicated three-dimensional struc-tures shown above. Proteins can lose their shape withincreases in temperature or changes in the chemicalcomposition of their environment. When they arereturned to normal surroundings, they may fold orcoil up again and re-form their original structure.Changing even one amino acid can change a proteins structure and function. For example, thedifference between normal hemoglobin and thehemoglobin that causes sickle cell anemia is just one amino acid substituted for another.EnzymesYou learned how enzymes alter reaction rates inChapter 17. Some enzymes cannot bind to their substrates without the help of additional molecules.These may be minerals, such as calcium or iron ions,or helper molecules called coenzymes that playaccessory roles in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Manyvitamins are coenzymes or parts of coenzymes.Vitamins are organic molecules that we cannotmanufacture and hence need to eat in small amounts.You can see why we need vitamins and minerals inour dietto enable our enzymes to work. You canalso see why we need only small amounts of them.Minerals and coenzymes are not destroyed in bio-chemical reactions. Like enzymes, coenzymes andminerals can be used over and over again.Temperature and pH have the most significanteffects on the rates of reactions catalyzed by enzymes.Most enzymes work best in a solution of approxi-mately neutral pH. Most body cells have a pH of 7.4.However, some enzymes function only in acidic orbasic environments. For example, pepsin, the collectiveHemoglobin is a complex proteinmade of hundreds of amino acids.Its 3-dimensional shape is called a tertiary structure. Tertiary structures break down when a protein is denatured.CH3CH3CH3 CH3CH3OHOHOHOOHOVitamin C, C6H8O6Water-solubleVitamin A, C20H30OFat-solubleHOELEMENTS HANDBOOKHICIOHHOICIHCHICIOHHICIOHCH2OHD-GlucoseH OHICIOHHOICIHCJOHICIOHHICIOHCH2OHD-FructoseHICIOHCHICIOHHICIOHCH2OHD-RiboseMonosaccharides chain representationH OCH2CHICIOHHICIOHCH2OH2-Deoxy-D-riboseH OHterm for the digestive enzymes found in the humanstomach, works best at a very acidic pH of about 1.5.Cells that line the stomach secrete hydrochloric acidto produce this low pH environment. When foodtravels down the digestive tract, it carries theseenzymes out of the stomach into the intestine. In theintestine, stomach enzymes stop working becausesodium bicarbonate in the intestine raises the pH to about 8. Digestive enzymes in the intestine areformed by the pancreas and work best at pH 8.Most chemical reactions, including enzyme reactions, speed up with increases in temperature.However, high temperatures (above about 60C)destroy, or denature, protein by breaking up thethree-dimensional structure. For example, the proteinin an egg or a piece of meat denatures when the eggor meat is cooked. Proteins in the egg white becomeopaque when denatured. Heating can preserve foodby denaturing the enzymes of organisms that causedecay. In milk pasteurization, the milk is heated to denature enzymes that would turn it sour.Refrigeration and freezing also help preserve foodby slowing the enzyme reactions that cause decay.CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are sugars, starches, and related compounds. The monomers of carbohydrates aremonosaccharides, or simple sugars, such as fructoseand glucose. A monosaccharide contains carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen in about a 1:2:1 ratio, which is an empirical formula of CH2O.Two monosaccharides may be joined together toform a disaccharide. Sucrose, shown below, is a di-saccharide. A disaccharide can be hydrolyzed to pro-duce the monosaccharides that formed it. By aseries of condensation reactions, many monosac-charides can be joined to form a polymer called apolysaccharide (commonly known as a complexcarbohydrate).The protein in fish is denatured by the low pH of lime juice. Noticethat the flesh shown with the limes has turned white comparedwith the flesh at normal pH.CH2OHOHOOHOHLactosemade from glucose and galactoseCH2OHOO HOHOHOHCH2OHCH2OHO OHOHOHOHOHSucrosemade from glucose and fructoseHOH2COOHC A R B O N F A M I L Y 821E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K822Three important polysaccharides made of glucosemonomers are glycogen, starch, and cellulose. Ani-mals store energy in glycogen. The liver and musclesremove glucose from the blood and condense it intoglycogen, which can later be hydrolyzed back intoglucose and used to supply energy as needed.Starch consists of two kinds of glucose polymers.It is hydrolyzed in plants to form glucose for energyand for building material to produce more cells. The structural polysaccharide cellulose is probablythe most common organic compound on Earth.Glucose monomers link cellulose chains together atthe hydroxyl groups to form cellulose fibers. Cottonfibers consist almost entirely of cellulose.LipidsLipids are a varied group of organic compounds that share one property: they are not very soluble inwater. Lipids contain a high proportion of CHbonds, and they dissolve in nonpolar organic sol-vents, such as ether, chloroform, and benzene.Fatty acids are the simplest lipids. A fatty acidconsists of an unbranched chain of carbon andhydrogen atoms with a carboxyl group at one end.Bonding within the carbon chain gives both saturat-ed and unsaturated fatty acids, just as the simplehydrocarbons (see Chapter 22) can be saturated orunsaturated.The bonds in a carboxyl group are polar, and so the carboxyl end of a fatty acid attracts waterELEMENTS HANDBOOKglucose monomersglycogenglucosecelluloseCellulose chainslinked byhydrogen bondsstarchHHOCC CCCCH2OHHHOHOHOHOHHHICICICICICICICICICICICICICICICICHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHPalmitic acid saturatedHHHHHHHHHHHHH OOHHHICICICICICICICICICJCICICICICICICICICHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHOleic acid monounsaturatedH HHHHHHHHHH OOHHHHHHHICICICICICICJCICICJCICICICICICICICICHHHHHHHHHH H HHHLinoleic acid polyunsaturatedH HHHHHHHHHH OOHHHHHHThese examples of common fatty acids show the differences in saturation level.Glucose is the structural unit for glycogen, cellulose, and starch. Notice that these threepolymers differ in the arrangement of glucose monomers.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKSaturated fatty acids Glycerol TriglycerideHHHHOOHHICICnH2nICHOICIHHOICIHHOICIH( )H HOHHICICnH2nICIOICIH( )HHOOHHICICnH2nIC( )HHOOHHICICnH2nIC( )+ + H OHHICICnH2nICIOICIH( )H OH HHICICnH2nICIOICIH( )molecules. The carbon-hydrogen bonds of a lipidshydrocarbon chain are nonpolar, however. The polarend will dissolve in water, and the other end will dis-solve in nonpolar organic compounds. This behaviorenables fatty acids to form membranes when theyare dropped into water. It also gives soaps and deter-gents their cleaning power. Lipids are the main compounds in biological mem-branes, such as the cell membrane. Because lipids areinsoluble, the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane isadapted to keep the contents of the cell inside sepa-rated from the outer environment of the cell.The structural component of a cell membrane is aphospholipid. The head of the phospholipid is polar,and the fatty acid tails are nonpolar, as shown in themodel above.Most fatty acids found in foods and soaps belongto a class of compounds called triglycerides. The fatcontent shown on a nutrition label for packaged foodrepresents a mixture of the triglycerides in the food.Triglycerides have the general structure shown below.Fatty acids are usually combined with other molecules to form classes of biomolecules called glycolipids (made from a carbohydrate and a lipid)or lipoproteins (made from a lipid and a protein).These compounds are also parts of more-complexlipids found in the body.Triglycerides are made from three long-chain fatty acids bonded to a glycerol backbone.This phospholipidmolecule containstwo fatty-acid chains.This phospholipidchain is part ofthe lipid bilayer.The lipid bilayer is the frameworkof the cell membrane.The fatty acids are oriented toward theinterior of the bilayer because they have a low attraction for water.C A R B O N F A M I L Y 823E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K824Nucleic AcidsNucleic acids are macromolecules that transmitgenetic information. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)is the material that contains the genetic informationthat all organisms pass on to their offspring duringreproduction. This information includes instructionsfor making proteins as well as for making the othernucleic acid, ribonucleic acid (RNA). Ribonucleicacid (RNA) assists in protein synthesis by helping tocoordinate the process of protein assembly.Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids.A nucleotide has three parts: one or more phos-phate groups, a sugar containing five carbon atoms,and a ring-shaped nitrogen base, as shown below.RNA nucleotides contain the simple sugar ribose.DNA nucleotides contain deoxyribose (ribosestripped of one oxygen atom). Structures for both ofthese sugars are shown on page 821. Cells containnucleotides with one, two, or three phosphategroups attached. Besides being the monomers ofnucleic acids, several nucleotides play other roles.For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is thenucleotide that supplies the energy for many meta-bolic reactions.The bases in nucleic acids attract each other inpairs, a phenomenon known as base-pairing. DNA ismade of four different nucleotidesthose containingthe bases adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), andcytosine (C). The attraction between base pairs ishydrogen bonding. Adenine forms hydrogen bondswith thymine. Similarly, cytosine bonds to guanine.This base-pairing holds strands of DNA together. ELEMENTS HANDBOOKOOOIPIOIPIOIPIHICOOTriphosphateOOONNNNH2NCCCIHCCH2 OH H HHOH OHAdenineRiboseATP structureCICCJNNNNHAdenineHHCCH2NThymineH3CCCNHHHCOONCCytosineHCCNHHCNH2ONCNH2GuanineNICHICNICNHHCONCUracil, RNA onlyHCCNHHHCOONCDeoxyribosePhosphate groupHydrogen bondsELEMENTS HANDBOOKSilicon has theability to formlong chain com-pounds by bond-ing with oxygen.The SiO4 subunitin this silicate istetrahedral.Silicates exist in a variety of mineral forms, including mica.Silicones alsohave a tetrahe-dral structure.How does thisstructure differfrom that of asilicate?Because of their protective properties, silicones are used in a number of consumer products, from cosmetics to caulkings.APPLICATION Chemical IndustryIt is now known that asbestos is a carcinogen.When handled, asbestos releases dust particles thatare easily inhaled and can cause lung cancer.Asbestos materials found in older homes and build-ings should be removed by firms licensed by theEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA).SiliconesSilicones are a class of organic silicon polymers composed of silicon, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.The silicon chain is held together by bonding withthe oxygen atoms. Each silicon atom is also bondedto different hydrocarbon groups to create a varietyof silicone structures. Silicones are widely used for their adhesive andprotective properties. They have good electric insulat-ing properties and are water-repellent. Some siliconeshave the character of oils or greases, so they are usedas lubricants. Silicones are also used in automobileand furniture polishes as protective agents.Silicon and SilicatesSilicon is as important in the mineral world as car-bon is in living systems. Silicon dioxide and silicatesmake up about 87% of Earths crust. Silicates are aclass of compounds containing silicon, oxygen, oneor more metals, and possibly hydrogen. Many miner-al compounds are silicates. Sand is probably themost familiar silicate. Glasses consist of 75% silicate. Borosilicate glassis the special heat-resistant glass used in makinglaboratory beakers and flasks. The addition of 5%boron oxide to the glass increases the softeningtemperature of the glass. Because boron and siliconatoms have roughly similar radii, these atoms can be substituted for one another to make boro-silicate glass.Asbestos is the name given to a class of fibrousmagnesium silicate minerals. Asbestos is very strongand flexible, and it does not burn, so it was widelyused as a heat-insulating material. Si OCHSiOC A R B O N F A M I L Y 825E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K826SemiconductorsWhen electrons can move freely through a material,the material is a conductor. The electrons in metalsare loosely held and require little additional energyto move from one vacant orbital to the next. A set ofoverlapping orbitals is called a conduction band.Because electrons can easily jump to the conductionband, metals conduct electricity when only a verysmall voltage is applied.Semiconductors conduct a current if the voltageapplied is large enough to excite the outer-level elec-trons of their atoms into the higher energy levels.With semiconductors, more energy, and thus a highervoltage, is required to cause conduction. By contrast,nonmetals are insulators because they do not con-duct at ordinary voltages. Too much energy is neededto raise their outer electrons into conduction bands. Semiconductor devices include transistors; diodes,including light-emitting diodes (LEDs); some lasers;and photovoltaic cells (solar cells). Though siliconis the basis of most semiconductor devices in thecomputer industry, pure silicon has little use as asemiconductor. Instead, small amounts of impuritiesare added to increase its conductive properties.Adding impurities to silicon is called doping, and thesubstances added are dopants. The dopant is usuallyincorporated into just the surface layer of a siliconchip. Typical dopants include the Group 15 elementsphosphorus and arsenic and the Group 13 elementsboron, aluminum, gallium, and indium.A silicon atom has four electrons in its outerenergy level whereas Group 13 atoms have threeand Group 15 atoms have five. Adding boron to silicon creates a mix of atoms having four valenceelectrons and atoms having three valence electrons.Boron atoms form only three bonds with silicon,whereas silicon forms four bonds with other siliconatoms. The unbonded spot between a silicon atomELEMENTS HANDBOOKLarge energy gapforbidden zoneSmall energy gapEnergyConduction band(empty)Filled bandOverlappingbandsPartiallyfilled bandorConduction band(empty)Filled bandConduction bandsThis model shows the difference in the levels of energy required to excite electrons into theconduction band in metals, semiconductors, and insulators. The forbidden zone is too great an energy gap in insulators for these elements to function as conductors. The energy gap forsemiconductors is small enough that it can be crossed under certain conditions.APPLICATION TechnologyELEMENTS HANDBOOKPure Si crystal p-type n-typePositive hole Mobile electronB AsEach silicon atom in the pure crystal is surrounded by four pairs of electrons. The p-typesemiconductor model contains an atom of boron with a hole that an electron can occupy.The n-type semiconductor model contains an atom of arsenic, which provides the extraelectron that can move through the crystal.and a boron atom is a hole that a free electron canoccupy. Because this hole attracts an electron, it isviewed as if it were positively charged. Semiconduc-tors that are doped with boron, aluminum, or galliumare p-type semiconductors, the p standing for posi-tive. P-type semiconductors conduct electricity better than pure silicon because they provide spacesthat moving electrons can occupy as they flowthrough the material.Doping silicon with phosphorus or arsenic pro-duces the opposite effect. When phosphorus isadded to silicon, it forms four bonds to silicon atomsand has a nonbonding electron left over. This extraelectron is free to move through the material when avoltage is applied, thus increasing its conductivitycompared with pure silicon. These extra electronshave a negative charge. Therefore, the material is an n-type semiconductor. Compare these two typesof semiconductors in the models below.Semiconductor elements and dopants fall in the metalloid region of the periodic table.Semiconductor compounds often contain metals.DopantsSemiconductor elementsForms semiconductor compoundsGroup 1 Group 2Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 Group 9 Group 10 Group 11Group 13 Group 14 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17Group 187N15P8O9F10Ne2He16S17Cl18Ar33As34Se35Br36Kr51Sb52Te53I54Xe83Bi84Po5B13Al6C14Si31Ga32Ge49In50Sn81Tl82Pb85At86Rn3Li4Be1H11Na12Mg21Sc22Ti23V24Cr39Y40Zr41Nb42Mo57La72Hf19K20Ca37Rb38Sr55Cs56Ba73Ta74W25Mn43Tc75Re26Fe44Ru76Os27Co45Rh77Ir89Ac87Fr88Ra28Ni46Pd78Pt29Cu47Ag79Au30Zn48Cd80HgGroup 12C A R B O N F A M I L Y 827E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K828GROUP 15NITROGEN FAMILYAtomic radius increasesIonic radius increasesIonization energydecreasesElectronegativitydecreases7NNitrogen14.0067[He]2s 22p315PPhosphorus30.973 762[Ne]3s 23p333AsArsenic74.921 60[Ar]3d 104s 24p351SbAntimony121.760[Kr]4d 105s 25p383BiBismuth208.980 40[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p3 consist of two nonmetals (nitrogen and phospho-rus), two metalloids (arsenic and antimony), andone metal (bismuth) Nitrogen is most commonly found as atmosphericN2; phosphorus as phosphate rock; and arsenic,antimony, and bismuth as sulfides or oxides.Antimony and bismuth are also found as free elements. range from very abundant elements (nitrogen andphosphorus) to relatively rare elements (arsenic,antimony, and bismuth) consist of atoms that contain five electrons in theiroutermost energy level tend to form covalent compounds, most common-ly with oxidation numbers of +3 or +5 exist in two or more allotropic forms, except nitrogen and bismuth are solids at room temperature, except nitrogenCHARACTERISTICSYou can see the contrast in physical properties among the ele-ments of this family. Arsenic, antimony, and bismuth are shown.Phosphorus exists in threeallotropic forms. White phosphorus must be keptunderwater because it catcheson fire when exposed to air.The red and black forms arestable in air.Some matches con-tain phosphoruscompounds in thematch head. Safetymatches containphosphorus in thestriking strip onthe matchbox.BiAsSbWith Oxygen to Form OxidesExample: P4(s) + 5O2(g) P4O10(s)As, Sb, and Bi follow this reaction pattern, but asmonatomic elements. N reacts to form NO and NO2.It also reacts as N2 to form N2O3 and N2O5.With Metals to Form Binary CompoundsExample: 3Mg(s) + N2(g) Mg3N2(s)There are no simple analytical tests for the presenceof nitrogen or phosphorus compounds in a sample.Antimony produces a pale green color in a flametest, and arsenic produces a light blue color. Arsenic,antimony, and bismuth are recognized in qualitativeanalyses by their characteristic sulfide colors.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKN I T R O G E N F A M I L Y 829COMMON REACTIONSANALYTICAL TESTArsenic flame test Antimony flame testFormation of sulfides is the confirmatory qualitative analysis test for the presence of bismuth, antimony, and arsenic.PROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 15 ELEMENTSN P* As Sb BiMelting point (C) 209.86 44.1 817 (28 atm) 630.5 271.3Boiling point (C) 195.8 280 613 (sublimes) 1750 1560 5Density (g/cm3) 1.25 103 1.82 5.727 6.684 9.80Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 1402 1012 947 834 703Atomic radius (pm) 75 110 120 140 150Ionic radius (pm) 146 (N3) 212 (P3) 76 (Sb3+) 103 (Bi3+)Common oxidation 3, +3, +5 3, +3, +5 +3, +5 +3, +5 +3number in compoundsCrystal structure cubic (as a solid) cubic rhombohedral hcp rhombohedralHardness (Mohs scale) none (gas) 3.5 3.0 2.25* Data given apply to white phosphorus. Crystal structures are for the most common allotropes.E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K830Soybeans are legumes that live in a symbioticrelationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKAPPLICATION Biologypheric N2 to make NH3 is called nitrogen fixation.Several kinds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in the soil and in the root nodules of plants called legumes.Legumes obtain the nitrogen they need through asymbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.Legumes include peas, beans, clover, alfalfa, andlocust trees. The bacteria convert nitrogen into ammo-nia, NH3, which is then absorbed by the host plants.Because wheat, rice, corn, and potatoes cannotperform the same feat as legumes, these plantsdepend on nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. Soilbacteria convert NH3 into nitrate ions, NO3, theform of nitrogen that can be absorbed and used byplants. These plants also often need nitrogen fertil-izers to supplement the work of the bacteria. Besidessupplying nitrogen, fertilizers are manufactured tocontain phosphorus, potassium, and trace minerals.Plants and NitrogenAll organisms, including plants, require certain ele-ments to survive and grow. These elements includecarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium, sulfur, and several other elements neededin small amounts. An organism needs nitrogen tosynthesize structural proteins, enzymes, and thenucleic acids DNA and RNA.Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are available toplants from carbon dioxide in the air and from waterin both the air and the soil. Nitrogen is necessary forplants survival. Although nitrogen gas, N2, makes up78% of air, most plants cannot take nitrogen out ofthe air and incorporate it into their cells, because thestrong triple covalent bond in N2 is not easily broken.Plants need nitrogen in the form of a compound thatthey can take in and use. The process of using atmos-Nitrogen-fixing bacteria,Rhizobium, live in these small nodules that grow on the roots of soybeans.FertilizersFertilizers can supply nitrogen to plants in the formof ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and urea,all of which are made from NH3. Now you knowwhy there is such a demand for ammonia. Thoughsome soils contain sufficient concentrations of phos-phorus and potassium, most soils need additionalnitrogen for adequate plant growth. Ammonia,ammonium nitrate, or urea can fill that need.Most fertilizers contain all three major plant nutri-ents N, P, and K, and are called complete fertilizers.A typical complete fertilizer might contain ammo-nium nitrate or sodium nitrate to provide nitrogen.Calcium dihydrogen phosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2, or theanhydrous form of phosphoric acid, P4O10, can pro-vide phosphorus. Potassium chloride, KCl, or potas-sium oxide, K2O, can provide potassium.The proportion of each major nutrient in a fertil-izer is indicated by a set of three numbers printed onthe container. These numbers are the N-P-K formulaof the fertilizer and indicate the percentage of N, P,and K, respectively. A fertilizer graded as 6-12-6, forexample, contains 6% nitrogen, 12% phosphorus,and 6% potassium by weight.Nitrogen stimulates overall plant growth.Phosphorus promotes root growth and flowering.Potassium regulates the structures in leaves thatallow CO2 to enter the leaf and O2 and H2O to exit.Fertilizers are available in N-P-K formulas best suit-ed for their intended use. For example, plants thatproduce large amounts of carbohydrates (sugars)need more potassium than most other types ofplants. Grain crops need higher concentrations ofphosphorus. Lawn fertilizers applied in the springare generally high in nitrogen to stimulate shootgrowth in grasses. Lawn fertilizers applied in the fallof the year should have a higher phosphorus contentto stimulate root growth during the winter.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKAPPLICATION Chemical IndustryFertilizer composition (N-P-K) Uses1-2-1 ratio early-spring application for trees and shrubs with flowers and fruit; 10-20-10 15-30-15 general-purpose feedings of the following: cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes3-1-2 ratio lawns and general-purpose feedings of the following: trees, shrubs, 12-4-8 15-5-10 21-7-4 16-4-8 most berries, apple trees, grapes, vines, walnut trees, broccoli, cabbage, 20-5-10 carrots, onionsHigh nitrogen pecan trees, lawns, early feedings of corn33-0-0 21-0-0 40-4-4 36-6-6Balanced general purpose feeding of the following: broccoli, cabbage, melons, 13-13-13 potatoesSpecial purpose: acid-loving azaleas, rhododendrons, camellias, gardeniasflowering shrubs12-10-4Special purpose roses18-24-16Special purpose: flowering flowering plants and shrubs (annuals and perennials)12-55-6Special purpose: root growth starter fertilizer for transplants5-20-10TABLE 6A Some Commercial Fertilizers and UsesN I T R O G E N F A M I L Y 831E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K832GROUP 16OXYGEN FAMILY occur naturally as free elements and in combinedstates consist of three nonmetals (oxygen, sulfur, andselenium), one metalloid (tellurium), and onemetal (polonium) consist of atoms that have six electrons in theiroutermost energy level tend to form covalent compounds with other elements exist in several allotropic forms tend to exist as diatomic and polyatomic molecules,such as O2, O3, S6, S8, and Se8 commonly exist in compounds with the 2 oxida-tion state but often exhibit other oxidation statesAtomic radius increasesIonic radius increasesIonization energydecreasesElectronegativitydecreases8OOxygen15.9994[He]2s 22p416SSulfur32.065[Ne]3s 23p434SeSelenium78.96[Ar]3d 104s 24p452TeTellurium127.60[Kr]4d 105s 25p484PoPolonium(209)[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p4CHARACTERISTICSSulfur is found naturally in underground deposits and in the steam vents near volcanoes.Two allotropic formsof sulfur areorthorhombic andmonoclinic. Each hasa different crystalstructure.MonoclinicOrthorhombicSulfur exists in combined forms in many minerals. Iron pyrite, FeS2,black galena, PbS, and yellow orpiment, As2S3, are shown.There is no simple analytical test to identify all ele-ments of this family. Selenium and tellurium can beidentified by flame tests. A light blue flame is charac-teristic of selenium, and a green flame is characteris-tic of tellurium. Oxygen can be identified by thesplint test, in which a glowing splint bursts into flamewhen thrust into oxygen. Elemental sulfur is typicallyidentified by its physical characteristics, especially itscolor and its properties when heated. It melts to forma viscous brown liquid and burns with a blue flame.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKWith Metals to Form Binary CompoundsExample: 8Mg(s) + S8(l) 8MgS(s)O2, Se, and Te follow this pattern in reacting with Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Al.With Oxygen to Form OxidesExample: Se(s) + O2(g) SeO2(s)S, Te, and Po follow this pattern. S, Se, and Te can form SO3, SeO3, and TeO3.With Halogens to Form Binary CompoundsExample: S8(l) + 8Cl2(g) 8SCl2(l)O, Se, Te, and Po follow this pattern in reacting with F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.With Hydrogen to Form Binary Compounds2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)ANALYTICAL TESTCOMMON REACTIONSA glowing splint thrust into oxygen burstsinto a bright flame.Molten sulfur returns to its orthorhombicform upon cooling.Sulfur burns with a characteristically deepblue flame.SSS SSSSSSulfur exists as S8 molecules in which theatoms are bonded in a ring, as shown bythe ball-and-stick and space-filling models. O X Y G E N F A M I L Y 833E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K834ELEMENTS HANDBOOKOxidesOxides of the reactive metals are ionic compounds.The oxide ion from any soluble oxide reacts immedi-ately with water to form hydroxide ions as repre-sented by the following equation. O2(aq) + H2O(l) 2OH(aq)The reactive metal oxides of Groups 1 and 2 reactvigorously with water and release a large amount ofenergy as heat. The product of the reaction is a metalhydroxide. The following equation is an example ofthis reaction.Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq)A basic oxide can be thought of as the dehydratedform of a hydroxide base. Oxides of the less reactivemetals, such as magnesium, can be prepared byusing thermal decomposition to drive off the water.Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(s) + H2O(g)Hydroxides of the reactive metals of Group 1 aretoo stable to decompose in this manner.heatPROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 16 ELEMENTSO S Se Te PoMelting point (C) 218.4 119.0 217 449.8 254Boiling point (C) 182.962 444.674 685 989.9 962Density (g/cm3) 1.429 103 1.96 4.82 6.24 9.4Ionization energy (kJ/mol) 1314 1000 941 869 812Atomic radius (pm) 73 103 119 142 168Ionic radius (pm) 140 184 198 221 Common oxidation 2 2, +4, +6 2, +2, +4, +6 2, +2, +4, +6 2, +2, +4, +6number in compoundsCrystal structure* orthorhombic, orthorhombic, hexagonal hexagonal cubic,rhombohedral, monoclinic rhombohedralcubic (when solid)Hardness (Mohs scale) none (gas) 2.0 2.0 2.3 * Most elements of this family can have more than one crystal structure.If a hydroxide formed by a metal oxide is water-soluble, it dissolves to form a basic solution. Anoxide that reacts with water to form a basic solutionis called a basic oxide or a basic anhydride. Table 7Aon the next page lists oxides that form basic solu-tions with water.Molecular OxidesNonmetals, located on the right side of the periodictable, form molecular oxides. For example, sulfurforms two gaseous oxides: sulfur dioxide, SO2, andsulfur trioxide, SO3. In reactions typical of nonmetaloxides, each of the sulfur oxides reacts with water toform an oxyacid.An oxide that reacts with water to form an acid iscalled an acidic oxide or an acid anhydride. As withthe basic anhydrides, each acid anhydride can bethought of as the dehydrated form of the appro-priate oxyacid. For example, when sulfuric aciddecomposes, the loss of H2O leaves the oxide SO3,which is an anhydride.H2SO4(aq) H2O(g) + SO3(g)heatAPPLICATION Chemical IndustryAmphoteric OxidesTable 7A lists some common oxides of main-groupelements. You can see that the active metal oxidesare basic and that the nonmetal oxides are acidic.Between these lies a group of oxides, the amphotericoxides. The bonding in amphoteric oxides is inter-mediate between ionic and covalent bonding. As a result, oxides of this type show behavior inter-mediate between that of acidic oxides and basicoxides, and react as both acids and bases.Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, is a typical amphotericoxide. With hydrochloric acid, aluminum oxide actsas a base. The reaction produces a salt and water.Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)With aqueous sodium hydroxide, aluminum oxideacts as an acid. The reaction forms a soluble ioniccompound and water. That compound contains aluminate ions, AlO2. (The AlO2 formula is usedhere rather than the more precise hydrated alumi-nate formula, Al(OH)4.)Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaAlO2(aq) + H2O(l)Reactions of OxidesIn the reaction between an acid and a metal oxide,the products are a salt and waterthe same as theproducts in a neutralization reaction. For example,when magnesium oxide reacts with dilute sulfuricacid, magnesium sulfate and water are produced.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKTABLE 7A Periodicity of Acidic and Basic Oxides of Main-Group ElementsGroup Number1 2 13 14 15 16 17Li2O BeO B2O3 CO2 N2O5basic amphoteric acidic acidic acidicNa2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO3 Cl2Obasic basic amphoteric acidic acidic acidic acidicK2O CaO Ga2O3 GeO2 As4O6 SeO3basic basic amphoteric amphoteric amphoteric acidicRb2O SrO In2O3 SnO2 Sb4O6 TeO3 I2O5basic basic basic amphoteric amphoteric acidic acidicCs2O BaO Tl2O3 PbO2 Bi2O3basic basic basic amphoteric basicMgO(s) + H2SO4(dil. aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l)The reaction between a basic metal oxide, such as MgO, and an acidic nonmetal oxide, such as CO2,tends to produce an oxygen-containing salt. The dryoxides are mixed and heated without water. Saltssuch as metal carbonates, phosphates, and sulfatescan be made by this synthesis reaction.MgO(s) + CO2(g) MgCO3(s)6CaO(s) + P4O10(s) 2Ca3(PO4)2(s)CaO(s) + SO3(g) CaSO4(s)Reactions of Hydroxides with Nonmetal OxidesNonmetal oxides tend to be acid anhydrides. Thereaction of a hydroxide base with a nonmetal oxideis an acid-base reaction. The product is either a saltor a salt and water, depending on the identities andrelative quantities of reactants. For example, 2 molof the hydroxide base sodium hydroxide and 1 molof the nonmetal oxide carbon dioxide form sodiumcarbonate, which is a salt, and water.CO2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)However, if sodium hydroxide is limited, only sodiumhydrogen carbonate is produced.CO2(g) + NaOH(aq) NaHCO3(aq)O X Y G E N F A M I L Y 835to reach Earths surface in large amounts, life wouldbe impossible. Even now, the normal amount of ultra-violet light reaching Earths surface is a major causeof skin cancer and the damage to DNA moleculesthat causes mutations. One life-form that is very sen-sitive to ultraviolet radiation is the phytoplankton inthe oceans. These organisms carry out photosynthesisand are the first level of oceanic food webs.Ozone and Air PollutionOzone in the lower atmosphere is a harmful pollu-tant. Ozone is highly reactive and can oxidize or-ganic compounds. The products of these reactionsare harmful substances that, when mixed with air,water vapor, and dust, make up photochemical smog.This mixture is the smog typically found in cities.Typically, ozone is produced in a complex seriesof reactions involving unburned hydrocarbons andnitrogen oxides given off from engines in the form of exhaust and from fuel-burning power plants.When fuel burns explosively in the cylinder of aninternal-combustion engine, some of the nitrogen inthe cylinder also combines with oxygen to form NO,a very reactive nitrogen oxide free radical.N2(g) + O2(g) 2NOWhen the free radical reaches the air, it reacts with oxygen to produce NO2 radicals, which react withwater in the air to produce HNO3.2NO + O2(g) 2NO23NO2 + H2O(l) NO + 2HNO3(aq)In sunlight, nitrogen dioxide decomposes to givenitric oxide and an atom of oxygen. Note that the NO produced is free to undergo the previous reactiononce more. NO2 NO + OJust as it is in the stratosphere, a free oxygen atom in the lower atmosphere is highly reactive and reactswith a molecule of diatomic oxygen to form ozone.O + O2(g) O3(g)sunlightOzoneOzone, O3, is an allotrope of oxygen that is importantfor life on Earth. Like O2, O3 is a gas at room tem-perature. However, unlike O2, O3 is a poisonousbluish gas with an irritating odor at high concentra-tions. The triatomic ozone molecule is angular (bent)with a bond angle of about 116.5. The OO bonds inozone are shorter and stronger than a single bond, butlonger and weaker than a double bond. The ozonemolecule is best represented by two resonance hybridstructures.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKE L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K836APPLICATION The EnvironmentOOOOOOOzone forms naturally in Earths atmosphere morethan 24 km above the Earths surface in a layer calledthe stratosphere. There, O2 molecules absorb energyfrom ultraviolet light and split into free oxygen atoms. O2(g) 2OA free oxygen atom has an unpaired electron and ishighly reactive. A chemical species that has one ormore unpaired or unshared electrons is referred to asa free radical. A free radical is a short-lived fragmentof a molecule. The oxygen free radical can react witha molecule of O2 to produce an ozone molecule.O + O2(g) O3(g)A molecule of O3 can then absorb ultraviolet lightand split to produce O2 and a free oxygen atom.O3(g) O2(g) + OThe production and breakdown of ozone in thestratosphere are examples of photochemical pro-cesses, in which light causes a chemical reaction.In this way, O3 is constantly formed and destroyedin the stratosphere, and its concentration is deter-mined by the balance among these reactions. Thebreakdown of ozone absorbs the suns intense ultra-violet light in the range of wavelengths between 290 nm and 320 nm. Light of these wavelengths dam-ages and kills living cells, so if these wavelengths wereultraviolet lightultraviolet lightELEMENTS HANDBOOKSulfuric AcidSulfuric acid is the so-called king of chemicalsbecause it is produced in the largest volume in theUnited States. It is produced by the contact process.This process starts with the production of SO2 byburning sulfur or roasting iron pyrite, FeS2. The purified sulfur dioxide is mixed with air and passedthrough hot iron pipes containing a catalyst. Thecontact between the catalyst, SO2, and O2 producessulfur trioxide, SO3, and gives the contact process itsname. SO3 is dissolved in concentrated H2SO4 toproduce pyrosulfuric acid, H2S2O7.SO3(g) + H2SO4(aq) H2S2O7(aq)The pyrosulfuric acid is then diluted with water toproduce sulfuric acid.H2S2O7(aq) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq)Properties and Uses of Sulfuric AcidConcentrated sulfuric acid is a good oxidizing agent.During the oxidation process, sulfur is reduced from+6 to +4 or 2. The change in oxidation state for areaction depends on the concentration of the acidand on the nature of the reducing agent used in thereaction.Sulfuric acid is also an important dehydratingagent. Gases that do not react with H2SO4 can be dried by being bubbled through concentrated sulfuric acid. Organic compounds, like sucrose, aredehydrated to leave carbon, as shown by the follow-ing reaction.C12H22O11(s) + 11H2SO4(aq) 12C(s) + 11H2SO4H2O(l)The decomposition of sucrose proceeds rapidly, asshown in Figure 17 on page 737.About 60% of the sulfuric acid produced in thiscountry is used to make superphosphate, which is amixture of phosphate compounds used in fertilizers.TABLE 7B Top Ten ChemicalsProduced in the U.S.PhysicalRank Chemical state Formula1 sulfuric acid l H2SO42 nitrogen g N23 oxygen g O24 ethylene g C2H45 calcium oxide s CaO(lime)6 ammonia g NH37 phosphoric acid l H3PO48 sodium hydroxide s NaOH9 propylene g C3H610 chlorine g Cl2Fertilizer60%15%15%5%5%Other: detergents,drugs, dyes,paint, paper,explosivesRaw materialfor other chemicalsPetroleumrefiningMetalprocessingH2SO4Important uses of the U.S. supply of sulfuric acidAPPLICATION Chemical IndustryO X Y G E N F A M I L Y 837E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K838GROUP 17HALOGEN FAMILY are all nonmetals and occur in combined form in nature, mainly as metal halides are found in the rocks of Earths crust and dissolved in sea water range from fluorine, the 13th most abundant ele-ment, to astatine, which is one of the rarest elements exist at room temperature as a gas (F2 and Cl2), aliquid (Br2), and a solid (I2 and At) consist of atoms that have seven electrons in theiroutermost energy level tend to gain one electron to form a halide, X ion,but also share electrons and have positive oxidation states are reactive, with fluorine being the most reactiveof all nonmetalsIodine sublimes to produce a violet vapor thatrecrystallizes on the bottom of the evaporating dishfilled with ice.Atomic radius increasesIonic radius increasesIonization energydecreasesElectronegativitydecreases9FFluorine18.998 4032[He]2s 22p517ClChlorine35.453[Ne]3s 23p535BrBromine79.904[Ar]3d 104s 24p553IIodine126.904 47[Kr]4d 105s 25p585AtAstatine(210)[Xe]4f 145d 106s 26p5CHARACTERISTICSHalogens are the only family that contains elements representing all three states of matter at room temperature. Chlorine is a yellowish green gas; bromine is areddish brown liquid; and iodine is a purple-black solid.ELEMENTS HANDBOOKWith Metals to Form HalidesExample: Mg(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2(s)Example: Sn(s) + 2F2(g) SnF4(s)The halide formula depends on the oxidation state of the metal.With Hydrogen to Form Hydrogen HalidesExample: H2(g) + F2(g) 2HF(g)Cl2, Br2, and I2 also follow this pattern.With Nonmetals and Metalloids to Form HalidesExample: Si(s) + 2Cl2(g) SiCl4(s)Example: N2(g) + 3F2(g) 2NF3(g)Example: P4(s) + 6Br2(l) 4PBr3(s)The formula of the halide depends on the oxidation state of the metalloid or nonmetal.With Other Halogens to Form Interhalogen CompoundsExample: Br2(l) + 3F2(g) 2BrF3(l)* Chemists assume that astatine undergoes similar reactions, but few chemical tests have been made.COMMON REACTIONS*Hydrofluoric acid is used to etch patterns into glass.ANALYTICAL TESTAs with most elements, the presence of each of thehalogens can be determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Fluorides react with concentrated sulfuric acid, H2SO4, to release hydrogen fluoridegas. Three of the halide ions can be identified insolution by their reactions with silver nitrate.Cl(aq) + Ag+(aq) AgCl(s) Br(aq) + Ag+(aq) AgBr(s) I(aq) + Ag+(aq) AgI(s) Shown here from left to right are precipitates of AgCl, AgBr, and AgI. Chlorine com-bines readily withiron wool, whichignites in chlorinegas to form FeCl3.H A L O G E N F A M I L Y 839E L E M E N T S H A N D B O O K840PROPERTIES OF THE GROUP 17 ELEMENTSF Cl Br I AtMelting point (C) 219.62 100.98 7.2 113.5 302Boiling point (C) 188.14 34.6 58.78 184.35 337Density (g/cm3) 1.69 103 3.214 103 3.119 4.93 not knownIonization energy (kJ/mol) 1681 1251 1140 1008 Atomic radius (pm) 72 100 114 133 140Ionic radius (pm) 133 181 196 220 Common oxidation 1 1, +1, +3, +5, +7 1, +1, +3, +5, +7 1, +1, +3, +5, +7 1, +5number in compoundsCrystal structure cubic orthorhombic orthorhombic orthorhombic not knownWhen chlorine is added to water, the following reac-tion produces HCl and hypochlorous acid, HOCl.Cl2(g) + H2O(l) HCl(aq) + HOCl(aq)Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid that ionizes to givehydrogen ions and hypochlorite ions, OCl.HOCl(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + OCl(aq)ELEMENTS HANDBOOKThe chlorine used in swimming pools is really the compounds shown above and not chlorine at all.Chlorine in Water TreatmentFor more than a century, communities have treatedtheir water to prevent disease. A treatment processwidely used in the United States is chlorination. Allhalogens kill bacteria and other microorganisms.Chlorine, however, is the only halogen acceptablefor large-scale treatment of public water supplies.APPLICATION The EnvironmentSwimming pools areroutinely tested to besure the chlorine levelis safe.ONOClONClClNONOHONaNClClNNaClOCa(ClO)2ELEMENTS HANDBOOKThe OCl ions are strong oxidizing agents that candestroy microorganisms.In some water-treatment plants, calcium hypo-chlorite, Ca(ClO)2, a salt of hypochlorous acid, isadded to water to provide OCl ions. Similar treat-ments are used in swimming pools.Nearly a hundred cities in the United States andthousands of communities in Europe use chlorine inthe form of chlorine dioxide, ClO2, as their primarymeans of disinfecting water. The main drawback tothe use of ClO2 is that it is unstable and cannot bestored. Instead, ClO2 must be prepared on locationby one of the following reactions involving sodiumchlorite, NaClO2.10NaClO2(aq) + 5H2SO4(aq) 8ClO2(g) + 5Na2SO4(aq) + 2HCl(aq) + 4H2O(l)2NaClO2(aq) + Cl2(g) 2ClO2(g) + 2NaCl(aq)The expense of using ClO2 makes it less desirablethan Cl2 in water-treatment systems unless there are other considerations. For example, the use ofClO2 is likely to result in purified water with less of the aftertaste and odor associated with waterpurified by Cl2.Fluoride and Tooth DecayIn the 1940s, scientists noticed that people living incommunities that have natural water supplies withhigh concentrations of fluoride ions, F, have signifi-cantly lower rates of dental caries (tooth decay) thanmost of the population.In June 1944, a study on the effects of water fluori-dation began in two Michigan cities, Muskegon andGrand Rapids, where the natural level of fluoride indrinking water was low (about 0.05 ppm). In GrandRapids, sodium fluoride, NaF, was added to the drink-ing water to raise levels to 1.0 ppm. In Muskegon, nofluoride was added. Also included in the study wasAurora, Illinois, a city that was similar to GrandRapids and Muskegon, except that it had a natural Fconcentration of 1.2 ppm in the water supply. After10 years, the rate of tooth decay in Grand Rapids haddropped far below that in Muskegon and was aboutthe same as it was in Aurora.Tooth enamel is made of a strong, rocklike materi-al consisting mostly of calcium hydroxyphosphate,Ca5(PO4)3(OH), also known as apatite. Apatite is an insoluble and very hard compoundideal fortooth enamel. Sometimes, however, saliva becomesmore acidic, particularly after a person eats a high-sugar meal. Acids ionize to produce hydronium ions,which react with the hydroxide ion, OH, in theapatite to form water. The loss of OH causes the apatite to dissolve.Ca5(PO4)3(OH)(s) + H3O+(aq) 5Ca2+(aq) + 3PO43(aq) + 2H2O(l)Saliva supplies more OH ions, and new apatite isformed, but slowly.If fluoride ions are present in saliva, some fluor-apatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, also forms.5Ca2+(aq) + 3PO43(aq) + F(aq) Ca5(PO4)3F(s)Fluorapatite resists attack by acids, so the toothenamel resists decay better than enamel containingno fluoride.When the beneficial effect of fluoride had beenestablished, public health authorities proposed thatfluoride compounds be added to water supplies inlow-fluoride communities. Fluoridation started in the 1950s, and by 1965, nearly every medical anddental association in the United States had endorsedfluoridation of water supplies. In the past decade,however, that trend slowed as opposition to fluoridation grew.H A L O G E N F A M I L Y 841Preparing for Chemistry LabPerforming experiments in the chemistry laboratory provides you with the opportu-nity to learn important lab techniques and observe interesting chemical reactions.Taking the time to prepare for your lab activity will help ensure that you understandthe procedures you are to follow and that your experiment runs smoothly and safely.You can prepare for each lab activity by reviewing the lab preparation tips below. Read the experiment thoroughly, and familiarize yourself with what you will do ateach step in the procedure. If there is any part of the experiment that you do notunderstand, ask your teacher before you start the experiment. Do any assigned pre-lab exercises. These will generally cover any calculations orimportant observations that you will make. Prepare data tables ahead of time. If you have the data table ready before youbegin, you will be able to record your observations as they happen, in the appropri-ate spaces. Review the materials list for the experiment. Make sure that you have all the itemsyou need to perform the experiment. If you are missing any items or if any itemsare broken or unusable, let your teacher know before you begin the lab. Review all safety guidelines and safety icons at the beginning of each experiment.Read Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory in the front of your book for a com-plete explanation of the safety rules that you should follow in the lab. Know where the emergency eyewash station, safety shower, and fire extinguisherare located, and be sure you know how to use them. If you cannot locate the labsafety equipment or you do not know how to use any equipment, ask your teacherfor help. Know the proper disposal procedures for the experiment. Your teacher will tell youwhat to do with any substances that need to be disposed of.L A B O R A T O R Y P R O G R A M842Pre-Laboratory ProceduresThe Pre-Laboratory Procedures help you develop solid laboratory skills before you do an actual experiment. Extraction and Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844Gravimetric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846Paper Chromatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848Volumetric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850Calorimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852L A B O R A T O R Y P R O G R A M 843Extraction and FiltrationExtraction, the separation of substances in a mixture by using a solvent, depends on solu-bility. For example, sand can be separated from salt by adding water to the mixture. The saltdissolves in the water, and the sand settles to the bottom of the container. The sand can berecovered by decanting the water. The salt can then be recovered by evaporating the water.Filtration separates substances based on differences in their physical states or in the sizeof their particles. For example, a liquid can be separated from a solid by pouring the mix-ture through a paper-lined funnel, or if the solid is denser than the liquid, the solid will set-tle to the bottom of the container, which will leave the liquid on top. The liquid can then bedecanted, which will leave the solid.SETTLING AND DECANTING1. Fill an appropriate-sized beaker with the solid-liquid mixture provided by your teacher. Allowthe beaker to sit until the bottom is coveredwith solid particles and the liquid is clear.2. Grasp the beaker with one hand. With the other hand, pick up a stirring rod and hold it along the lip of the beaker. Tilt the beakerslightly so thatliquid beginsto pour out ina slow, steadystream, asshown inFigure A.PRE-LABORATORY PROCEDURE(a)(c)(b)(d)FIGURE B Folding the filter paperGRAVITY FILTRATION1. Prepare a piece of filter paper as shown inFigure B. Fold it in half and then in half again.Tear the corner of the filter paper, and open thefilter paper into a cone. Place it in the funnel. FIGURE ASettling and decantingP R E - L A B O R A T O R Y P R O C E D U R E8442. Put the funnel, stem first, into a filtration flask,or suspend it over a beaker by using an ironring, as shown in Figure C.3. Wet the filter paper with distilled water from a wash bottle. The paper should adhere to thesides of the funnel, and the torn corner shouldprevent air pockets from forming between thepaper and the funnel. 4. Pour the mixture to be filtered down a stirringrod into the filter. The stirring rod directs themixture into the funnel and reduces splashing.5. Do not let the level of the mixture in the funnelrise above the edge of the filter paper.6. Use a wash bottle to rinse all of the mixturefrom the beaker into the funnel.VACUUM FILTRATION1. Check the T attachment to the faucet. Turn onthe water. Water should run without overflowingthe sink or spitting while creating a vacuum. Totest for a vacuum, cover the opening of the hori-zontal arm of the T with your thumb or indexfinger. If you feel your thumb being pulledinward, there is a vacuum. Note the number of turns of the knob that are needed to producethe flow of water that creates a vacuum. 2. Turn the water off. Attach the pressurized rub-ber tubing to the horizontal arm of the T. (Youdo not want water to run through the tubing.) 3. Attach the free end of the rubber tubing to theside arm of a filter flask. Check for a vacuum.Turn on the water so that it rushes out of thefaucet (refer to step 1). Place the palm of yourhand over the opening of the Erlenmeyer flask.You should feel the vacuum pull your handinward. If you do not feel any pull or if the pullis weak, increase the flow of water. If increasingthe flow of water fails to work, shut off thewater and make sure your tubing connectionsare tight. 4. Insert the neck of a Bchner funnel into a one-hole rubber stopper until the stopper isabout two-thirds to three-fourths up the neck of the funnel. Place the funnel stem into theErlenmeyer flask so that the stopper rests in the mouth of the flask, as shown in Figure D.5. Obtain a piece of round filter paper. Place itinside the Bchner funnel over the holes. Turnon the water as in step 1. Hold the filter flaskwith one hand, place the palm of your hand over the mouth of the funnel, and check for a vacuum.6. Pour the mixture to be filtered into the funnel.Use a wash bottle to rinse all of the mixturefrom the beaker into the funnel.FIGURE C Gravity filtrationFIGURE D Vacuum filtrationE X T R A C T I O N A N D F I L T R A T I O N 845Gravimetric AnalysisGravimetric analytical methods are based on accurate and precise mass measurements.They are used to determine the amount or percentage of a compound or element in a sam-ple material. For example, if we want to determine the percentage of iron in an ore or the percentage of chloride ion in drinking water, gravimetric analysis would be used.A gravimetric procedure generally involves reacting the sample to produce a reaction productthat can be used to calculate the mass of the element or compound in the original sample.For example, to calculate the percentage of iron in a sample of iron ore, determine the massof the ore. The ore is then dissolved in hydrochloric acid to produce FeCl3. The FeCl3 pre-cipitate is converted to a hydrated form of Fe2O3 by adding water and ammonia to the sys-tem. The mixture is then filtered to separate the hydrated Fe2O3 from the mixture. Thehydrated Fe2O3 is heated in a crucible to drive the water from the hydrate, producing anhy-drous Fe2O3. The mass of the crucible and its contents is determined after successive heat-ing steps to ensure that the product has reached constant mass and that all of the waterhas been driven off. The mass of Fe2O3 produced can be used to calculate the mass and per-centage of iron in the original ore sample.Gravimetric procedures require accurate and precise techniques and measurements toobtain suitable results. Possible sources of error are the following:1. The product (precipitate) that is formed is contaminated.2. Some product is lost when transferring the product from a filter to a crucible.3. The empty crucible is not clean or is not at constant mass for the initial massmeasurement.4. The system is not heated sufficiently to obtain an anhydrous product.shower and eyewash station and the procedure for using them.When using a Bunsen burner, confine longhair and loose clothing. Do not heat glass-ware that is broken, chipped, or cracked.Use tongs or a hot mitt to handle heatedglassware and other equipment; heatedGENERAL SAFETYAlways wear safety goggles and a labapron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immedi-ately flush the chemical out at the eyewashstation while calling to your teacher. Know the location of the emergency labPRE-LABORATORY PROCEDUREP R E - L A B O R A T O R Y P R O C E D U R E846Gravimetric methods are used in Experiment 7 to synthesize magnesium oxide and in Experiment 9to separate SrCO3 from a solution.glassware does not always look hot. If your clothing catches fire, WALK to the emergency lab shower and use it to put out the fire.Never put broken glass or ceramics in aregular waste container. Broken glass andceramics should be disposed of in a sepa-rate container designated by your teacher.SETTING UP THE EQUIPMENT1. The general setup for heating a sample in a crucible is shown in Figure A. Attach a metalring clamp to a ring stand, and lay a clay triangle on the ring.CLEANING THE CRUCIBLE2. Wash and dry a metal or ceramic crucible and lid. Cover the crucible with its lid, and use a balance to obtain its mass. If the balance islocated far from your working station, use cru-cible tongs to place the crucible and lid on apiece of wire gauze. Carry the crucible to thebalance, using the wire gauze as a tray.HEATING THE CRUCIBLE TO OBTAIN A CONSTANT MASS3. After recording the mass of the crucible and lid, suspend the crucible over a Bunsen burnerby placing it on the clay triangle, as shown inFigure B. Then, place the lid on the crucible sothat the entire contents are covered.4. Light the Bunsen burner. Heat the crucible for 5 min with a gentle flame, and then adjust theburner to produce a strong flame. Heat for 5 min more. Shut off the gas to the burner.Allow the crucible and lid to cool. Using cru-cible tongs, carry the crucible and lid to the bal-ance, as shown in Figure C. Measure and recordthe mass. If the mass differs from the massbefore heating, repeat the process until massdata from heating trials are within 1% of eachother. This measurement assumes that the cru-cible has a constant mass. The crucible is nowready to be used in a gravimetric analysis proce-dure. Details will be found in the followingexperiments.FIGURE AFIGURE BFIGURE CG R A V I M E T R I C A N A L Y S I S 847Paper ChromatographyChromatography is a technique used to separate substances dissolved in a mixture. TheLatin roots of the word are chromato, which means color, and graphy, which means towrite. Paper is one medium used to separate the components of a solution.Paper is made of cellulose fibers that are pressed together. As a solution passes over thefibers and through the pores, the paper acts as a filter and separates the mixtures compo-nents. Particles of the same component group together, producing a colored band.Properties such as particle size, molecular mass, and charge of the different solute particlesin the mixture affect the distance the components will travel on the paper. The componentsof the mixture that are the most soluble in the solvent and the least attracted to the paperwill travel the farthest. Their band of color will be closest to the edge of the will get a broad, tailing trace with little or no detectable separation.4. Use the pencil to poke a small hole in the centerof the spotted filter paper. Insert a wick throughthe hole. A wick can be made by rolling a tri-angular piece of filter paper into a cylinder: start GENERAL SAFETYAlways wear safety goggles and a labapron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immedi-ately flush the chemical out at the eyewashstation while calling to your teacher. Knowthe location of the emergency lab showerand eyewash station and the procedure forusing them.PROCEDURE1. Use a lead pencil to sketch a circle about the sizeof a quarter in the center of a piece of circularfilter paper that is 12 cm in diameter.2. Write one numeral for each substance, includingany unknowns, around the inside of this circle.In this experiment, six mixtures are to be sepa-rated, so the circle is labeled 1 through 6, asshown in Figure A.3. Use a micropipet to place a spot of each sub-stance to be separated next to a number. Makeone spot per number. If the spot is too large, PRE-LABORATORY PROCEDURE615432Hole for wickFIGURE A Filter paper used in paper chromatography is spotted with the mixtures to be separated. Each spot is labeled with a numeral or a name that identifies the mixture to be separated.A hole punched in the center of the paper will attach to a wick thatdelivers the solvent to the paper.P R E - L A B O R A T O R Y P R O C E D U R E8487. When the solvent is 1 cm from the outside edgeof the paper, remove the paper from the Petridish and allow the chromatogram to dry. Samplechromatograms are shown in Figures D and E. Most writing or drawing inks are mixtures of variouscomponents that give them specific properties.Therefore, paper chromatography can be used tostudy the composition of an ink. Experiment 12investigates the composition of ball-point-pen the point of the triangle, and roll toward itsbase. See Figure B. 5. Fill a Petri dish or lid two-thirds full of solvent(usually water or alcohol).6. Set the bottom of the wick in the solvent so that the filter paper rests on the top of the Petri dish. See Figure C.FIGURE B Cut the triangle from filter paper. Roll the paper into a cylinder, starting at the narrow end.FIGURE E This chromatogram is unacceptable due to bleeding,or spread of the pigment front. Too much ink was used in the spot,or the ink was too soluble in the solvent.FIGURE D Each of the original spots has migrated along with thesolvent toward the outer edge of the filter paper. For each substancethat was a mixture, you should see more than one distinct spot ofcolor in its trace.123WickHole punchedwith pencilFilter paperPetri dish or lid with solvent6 15 4 3 2FIGURE C The wick is inserted through the hole of the spotted filter paper. The filter paper with the wick is then placed on top of a Petri dish or lid filled two-thirds full of water or another solvent.P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y 849Volumetric AnalysisVolumetric analysis, the quantitative determination of the concentration of a solution, isachieved by adding a substance of known concentration to a substance of unknown con-centration until the reaction between them is complete. The most common application ofvolumetric analysis is titration.A buret is used in titrations. The solution with the known concentration is usually in theburet. The solution with the unknown concentration is usually in the Erlenmeyer flask. A fewdrops of a visual indicator are also added to the flask. The solution in the buret is then addedto the flask until the indicator changes color, which signals that the reaction between the twosolutions is complete. Then, the volumetric data obtained and the balanced chemical equa-tion for the reaction are used to calculate the unknown concentration.GENERAL SAFETYAlways wear safety goggles and a labapron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immedi-ately flush the chemical out at the eyewashstation while calling to your teacher. Knowthe location of the emergency lab showerand eyewash station and the procedure forusing them.The general setup for a titration is shown in Figure A.The steps for setting up this technique follow.ASSEMBLING THE APPARATUS1. Attach a buret clamp to a ring stand.2. Thoroughly wash and rinse a buret. If waterdroplets cling to the walls of the buret, wash it again and gently scrub the inside walls with a buret brush.3. Attach the buret to one side of the buret clamp.4. Place an Erlenmeyer flask for waste solutionsunder the buret tip, as shown in Figure A.PRE-LABORATORY PROCEDUREFIGURE AP R E - L A B O R A T O R Y P R O C E D U R E850READING THE BURET1. Drain the buret until the bottom of the meniscusis on the zero mark or within the calibrated portion of the buret. If the solution level is notat zero, record the exact reading. If you startfrom the zero mark, your final buret reading will equal the amount of solution added.Remember, burets can be read to the seconddecimal place. Burets are designed to read thevolume of liquid delivered to the flask, so num-bers increase as you read downward from thetop. For example, the meniscus in Figure C is at 30.84 mL, not 31.16 mL.2. Replace the waste beaker with an Erlenmeyerflask containing a measured amount of the solution of unknown concentration.Experiment 15 is an example of a back-titrationapplied to an acid-base reaction; it can be performedon a larger scale if micropipets are replaced withburets.OPERATING THE STOPCOCK1. The stopcock should be operated with the lefthand. This method gives better control but mayprove awkward at first for right-handed students.The handle should be moved with the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand, as shown in Figure B.2. Rotate the stopcock back and forth. It shouldmove freely and easily. If it sticks or will notmove, ask your teacher for assistance. Turn thestopcock to the closed position. Use a wash bot-tle to add 10 mL of distilled water to the buret.Rotate the stopcock to the open position. Thewater should come out in a steady stream. If no water comes out or if the stream of water is blocked, ask your teacher to check the stopcock for clogs.FILLING THE BURET1. To fill the buret, place a funnel in the top of the buret. Slowly and carefully pour the solutionof known concentration from a beaker into thefunnel. Open the stopcock, and allow some of the solution to drain into the waste beaker.Then, add enough solution to the buret to raisethe level above the zero mark, but do not allowthe solution to overflow.FIGURE B FIGURE CMeniscus, 30.84 mLV O L U M E T R I C A N A L Y S I S 851CalorimetryCalorimetry, the measurement of the transfer of energy as heat, allows chemists to deter-mine thermal constants, such as the specific heat of metals and the enthalpy of solution.When two substances at different temperatures touch one another, energy as heat flowsfrom the warmer substance to the cooler substance until the two substances are at the same temperature. The amount of energy transferred is measured in joules. (One joule equals 4.184 calories.) A device used to measure the transfer of energy as heat is a calorimeter. Calorimeters vary inconstruction depending on the purpose and the accuracy of the energy measurement required.No calorimeter is a perfect insulator; some energy is always lost to the surroundings as heat.Therefore, every calorimeter must be calibrated to obtain its calorimeter constant.GENERAL SAFETYAlways wear safety goggles and a labapron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immedi-ately flush the chemical out at the eyewashstation while calling to your teacher. Knowthe location of the emergency lab showerand eyewash station and the procedure forusing them.Turn off hot plates and other heat sourceswhen not in use. Do not touch a hot plateafter it has just been turned off; it is probably hotter than you think. Use tongs when handling heated containers.Never hold or touch containers with your hands while heating them.The general setup for a calorimeter made from plastic-foam cups is shown in Figure A. The steps for constructing this setup follow.PRE-LABORATORY PROCEDUREFIGURE A Position the hole for the stirrer so that the thermometer is in the center of the wire ring.ThermometerHole for thermometerStirrerHole for stirrerCalorimetertopCalorimeterbaseBeakerP R E - L A B O R A T O R Y P R O C E D U R E852the stirrer gently up and down to mix the con-tents thoroughly. Take care not to break thethermometer.4. Watch the thermometer, and record the highesttemperature attained (usually after about 30 s).5. Empty the calorimeter.6. The derivation of the equation to find thecalorimeter constant starts with the followingrelationship.Energy lost by the warm water = Energy gained bythe cool water + Energy gained by the calorimeterqwarm H2O = qcool H2O + qcalorimeterThe energy lost as heat by the warm water iscalculated by the following equation. qwarm H2O = masswarm H2O 4.184 J/gC tThe energy gained as heat by the calorimetersystem equals the energy lost as heat by thewarm water. You can use the following equationto calculate the calorimeter constant C for yourcalorimeter.qcalorimeter = q warm H2O =(masscool H2O) (4.184 J/gC) (tcool H2O) +C(tcool H2O) Substitute the data from your calibration, andsolve for C.CONSTRUCTING THE CALORIMETER1. Trim the lip of one plastic-foam cup, and use that cup as the top of your calorimeter. Theother cup will be used as the base.2. Use the pointed end of a pencil to gently make a hole in the center of the calorimeter top. The hole should be large enough to insert a thermometer. Make a hole for the wire stirrer.As you can see in Figure A, this hole should be positioned so that the wire stirrer can beraised and lowered without interfering with the thermometer.3. Place the calorimeter in a beaker to prevent itfrom tipping over.CALIBRATING A PLASTIC-FOAM CUP CALORIMETER1. Measure 50 mL of distilled water in a graduatedcylinder. Pour it into the calorimeter. Measureand record the temperature of the water in theplastic-foam cup.2. Pour another 50 mL of distilled water into abeaker. Set the beaker on a hot plate, and warmthe water to about 60C, as shown in Figure B.Measure and record the temperature of the water.3. Immediately pour the warm water into the cup,as shown in Figure C. Cover the cup, and moveFIGURE B Heat the distilled water to approximately 60C.FIGURE C When transferring warm water from the beaker to the calorimeter, hold the bottom of the calorimeter steady so it does not tip over.60CTongsHeated distilledwaterCalorimeter top with thermometerand stirrerC A L O R I M E T R Y 853A P P E N D I X A8541 kilometer (km) = 1 000 m1 meter (m) = SI base unit of length1 centimeter (cm) = 0.01 m1 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 m1 micrometer (m) = 0.000 001 m1 nanometer (nm) = 0.000 000 001 m1 picometer (pm) = 0.000 000 000 001 mLengthTABLE A-1 SI MEASUREMENTA P P E N D I X Aamu = atomic mass unit (mass)atm = atmosphere (pressure, non-SI)Bq = becquerel (nuclear activity)C = degree Celsius (temperature)J = joule (energy)K = kelvin (temperature, thermodynamic)mol = mole (quantity)M = molarity (concentration)N = newton (force)Pa = pascal (pressure)s = second (time)V = volt (electric potential difference)TABLE A-2 UNIT SYMBOLSPrefix Symbol Factor of Base Unitgiga G 1 000 000 000mega M 1 000 000kilo k 1 000hecto h 100deka da 10deci d 0.1centi c 0.01milli m 0.001micro 0.000 001nano n 0.000 000 001pico p 0.000 000 000 001Metric Prefixes1 kilogram (kg) = SI base unit of mass1 gram (g) = 0.001 kg1 milligram (mg) = 0.000 001 kg1 microgram (g) = 0.000 000 001 kgMass1 square kilometer (km2) = 100 hectares (ha)1 hectare (ha) = 10 000 square meters (m2)1 square meter (m2) = 10 000 square centimeters (cm2)1 square centimeter (cm2) = 100 square millimeters (mm2)Area1 liter (L) = common unit for liquid volume (not SI)1 cubic meter (m3) = 1000 L1 kiloliter (kL) = 1000 L1 milliliter (mL) = 0.001 L1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cubic centimeter (cm3)VolumeA P P E N D I X A 855TABLE A-4 PHYSICAL CONSTANTSQuantity Symbol ValueAtomic mass unit amu 1.660 5389 1027 kgAvogadros number NA 6.022 142 1023/molElectron rest mass me 9.109 3826 1031 kg5.4858 104 amuIdeal gas law constant R 8.314 L kPa/(mol K) 0.0821 L atm/(mol K)Molar volume of ideal gas at STP VM 22.414 10 L/molNeutron rest mass mn 1.674 9273 1027 kg1.008 665 amuNormal boiling point of water Tb 373.15 K = 100.0CNormal freezing point of water Tf 273.15 K = 0.00CPlancks constant h 6.626 069 1034 J sProton rest mass mp 1.672 6217 1027 kg1.007 276 amuSpeed of light in a vacuum c 2.997 924 58 108 m/sTemperature of triple point of water 273.16 K = 0.01CTABLE A-3 SYMBOLS = helium nucleus (also 42He) emission from radioactive materials = electron (also 01e) emission from radioactive materials = high-energy photon emission from radioactive materials = change in a given quantity (e.g., Hfor change in enthalpy)c = speed of light in vacuumcp = specific heat capacity (at constant pressure)D = densityEa = activation energyE0 = standard electrode potentialE0 cell = standard potential of an electro-chemical cellG = Gibbs free energyG0 = standard free energy of reactionG0f = standard molar free energy of formationH = enthalpyH0 = standard enthalpy of reactionH0f = standard molar enthalpy of formationKa = ionization constant (acid)Kb = dissociation constant (base)Keq = equilibrium constantKsp = solubility-product constantKE = kinetic energym = massNA = Avogadros numbern = number of molesP = pressurepH = measure of acidity (log[H3O+]) R = ideal gas law constantS = entropyS0 = standard molar entropyT = temperature (thermodynamic, in kelvins)t = temperature ( degrees Celsius)V = volumev = velocitySymbol Meaning Symbol MeaningA P P E N D I X A856hydrogen H2 g 285.8graphite C s 393.5carbon monoxide CO g 283.0methane CH4 g 890.8ethane C2H6 g 1560.7propane C3H8 g 2219.2butane C4H10 g 2877.6pentane C5H12 g 3535.6hexane C6H14 l 4163.2heptane C7H16 l 4817.0octane C8H18 l 5470.5ethene (ethylene) C2H4 g 1411.2propene (propylene) C3H6 g 2058.0ethyne (acetylene) C2H2 g 1301.1benzene C6H6 l 3267.6toluene C7H8 l 3910.3naphthalene C10H8 s 5156.3anthracene C14H10 s 7163.0methanol CH3OH l 726.1ethanol C2H5OH l 1366.8ether (C2H5)2O l 2751.1formaldehyde CH2O g 570.7glucose C6H12O6 s 2803.0sucrose C12H22O11 s 5640.9Hc = enthalpy of combustion of the given substance. All values of Hc are expressed askJ/mol of substance oxidized to H2O(l) and/orCO2(g) at constant pressure and 25C. s = solid, l = liquid, g = gasSubstance Formula State Hc Substance Formula State HcTABLE A-5 ENTHALPY OF COMBUSTIONTABLE A-6 THE ELEMENTSSYMBOLS, ATOMIC NUMBERS, AND ATOMIC MASSESName of Atomic Atomicelement Symbol number massName of Atomic Atomicelement Symbol number massactinium Ac 89 [227]aluminum Al 13 26.9815386americium Am 95 [243]antimony Sb 51 121.760argon Ar 18 39.948arsenic As 33 74.92160astatine At 85 [210]barium Ba 56 137.327berkelium Bk 97 [247]beryllium Be 4 9.012182bismuth Bi 83 208.98040bohrium Bh 107 [264]boron B 5 10.811bromine Br 35 79.904cadmium Cd 48 112.411calcium Ca 20 40.078californium Cf 98 [251]carbon C 6 12.0107cerium Ce 58 140.116cesium Cs 55 132.9054519chlorine Cl 17 35.453chromium Cr 24 51.9961cobalt Co 27 58.933195copper Cu 29 63.546curium Cm 96 [247]darmstadtium Ds 110 [271]dubnium Db 105 [262]dysprosium Dy 66 162.500einsteinium Es 99 [252]erbium Er 68 167.259europium Eu 63 151.964fermium Fm 100 [257]fluorine F 9 18.9984032francium Fr 87 [223]gadolinium Gd 64 157.25gallium Ga 31 69.723germanium Ge 32 72.64gold Au 79 196.966569hafnium Hf 72 178.49hassium Hs 108 [277]helium He 2 4.00260holmium Ho 67 164.93032hydrogen H 1 1.00794indium In 49 114.818iodine I 53 126.90447iridium Ir 77 192.217A P P E N D I X A 857iron Fe 26 55.845krypton Kr 36 83.798lanthanum La 57 138.90547lawrencium Lr 103 [262]lead Pb 82 207.2lithium Li 3 6.941lutetium Lu 71 174.967magnesium Mg 12 24.3050manganese Mn 25 54.938045meitnerium Mt 109 [268]mendelevium Md 101 [258]mercury Hg 80 200.59molybdenum Mo 42 95.94neodymium Nd 60 144.242neon Ne 10 20.1797neptunium Np 93 [237]nickel Ni 28 58.6934niobium Nb 41 92.90638nitrogen N 7 14.0067nobelium No 102 [259]osmium Os 76 190.23oxygen O 8 15.9994palladium Pd 46 106.42phosphorus P 15 30.973762platinum Pt 78 195.084plutonium Pu 94 [244]polonium Po 84 [209]potassium K 19 39.0983praseodymium Pr 59 140.90765promethium Pm 61 [145]protactinium Pa 91 231.03588radium Ra 88 [226]radon Rn 86 [222]rhenium Re 75 186.207rhodium Rh 45 102.90550roentgenium Rg 111 [272]rubidium Rb 37 85.4678ruthenium Ru 44 101.07rutherfordium Rf 104 [261]samarium Sm 62 150.36scandium Sc 21 44.955912seaborgium Sg 106 [266]selenium Se 34 78.96silicon Si 14 28.0855silver Ag 47 107.8682sodium Na 11 22.98976928strontium Sr 38 87.62sulfur S 16 32.065tantalum Ta 73 180.94788technetium Tc 43 [98]tellurium Te 52 127.60terbium Tb 65 158.92535thallium Tl 81 204.3833thorium Th 90 232.03806thulium Tm 69 168.93421tin Sn 50 118.710titanium Ti 22 47.867tungsten W 74 183.84uranium U 92 238.02891vanadium V 23 50.9415xenon Xe 54 131.293ytterbium Yb 70 173.04yttrium Y 39 88.90585zinc Zn 30 65.409zirconium Zr 40 91.224A value given in brackets denotes the mass number ofthe most stable or most common isotope. The atomicmasses of most of these elements are believed to havean error no greater than 1 in the last digit given.TABLE A-6 CONTINUEDName of Atomic Atomicelement Symbol number massName of Atomic Atomicelement Symbol number massA P P E N D I X A858TABLE A-7 COMMON IONSCation Symbol Anion Symbolaluminum Al3 acetate CH3COOammonium NH4 bromide Brarsenic(III) As3 carbonate CO32barium Ba2 chlorate ClO3calcium Ca2 chloride Clchromium(II) Cr2 chlorite ClO2chromium(III) Cr3 chromate CrO42cobalt(II) Co2 cyanide CNcobalt(III) Co3 dichromate Cr2O72copper(I) Cu fluoride Fcopper(II) Cu2 hexacyanoferrate(II) Fe(CN)64hydronium H3O hexacyanoferrate(III) Fe(CN)63iron(II) Fe2 hydride Hiron(III) Fe3 hydrogen carbonate HCO3lead(II) Pb2+ hydrogen sulfate HSO4magnesium Mg2+ hydroxide OHmercury(I) Hg22+ hypochlorite ClOmercury(II) Hg2+ iodide Inickel(II) Ni2+ nitrate NO3potassium K+ nitrite NO2silver Ag+ oxide O2sodium Na+ perchlorate ClO4strontium Sr2+ permanganate MnO4tin(II) Sn2+ peroxide O22tin(IV) Sn4+ phosphate PO43titanium(III) Ti3+ sulfate SO42titanium(IV) Ti4+ sulfide S2zinc Zn2+ sulfite SO32A P P E N D I X A 8590.0 4.6 0.615.0 6.5 0.8710.0 9.2 1.2315.0 12.8 1.7115.5 13.2 1.7616.0 13.6 1.8216.5 14.1 1.8817.0 14.5 1.9417.5 15.0 2.0018.0 15.5 2.0618.5 16.0 2.1319.0 16.5 2.1919.5 17.0 2.2720.0 17.5 2.3420.5 18.1 2.4121.0 18.6 2.4921.5 19.2 2.5722.0 19.8 2.6422.5 20.4 2.7223.0 21.1 2.8123.5 21.7 2.9024.0 22.4 2.9824.5 23.1 3.1025.0 23.8 3.1726.0 25.2 3.3627.0 26.7 3.5728.0 28.3 3.7829.0 30.0 4.0130.0 31.8 4.2535.0 42.2 5.6340.0 55.3 7.3850.0 92.5 12.3460.0 149.4 19.9370.0 233.7 31.1880.0 355.1 47.3790.0 525.8 70.1295.0 633.9 84.53100.0 760.0 101.32TABLE A-8 WATER-VAPOR PRESSURETemperature Pressure Pressure (C) (mm Hg) (kPa)Temperature Pressure Pressure (C) (mm Hg) (kPa)TABLE A-10 DENSITY OF WATERTemperature (C) Density (g/cm3)0 0.999 842 0.999 943.98 (maximum) 0.999 9734 0.999 976 0.999 948 0.999 8510 0.999 7014 0.999 2416 0.998 9420 0.998 2025 0.997 0530 0.995 6540 0.992 2250 0.988 0460 0.983 2070 0.977 7780 0.971 7990 0.965 31100 0.958 36TABLE A-9 DENSITIES OF GASES AT STPGas Density (g/L)air, dry 1.293ammonia 0.771carbon dioxide 1.997carbon monoxide 1.250chlorine 3.214dinitrogen monoxide 1.977ethyne (acetylene) 1.165helium 0.1785hydrogen 0.0899hydrogen chloride 1.639hydrogen sulfide 1.539methane 0.7168nitrogen 1.2506nitrogen monoxide (at 10C) 1.340oxygen 1.429sulfur dioxide 2.927A P P E N D I X A860TABLE A-11 SOLUBILITIES OF GASES IN WATERVolume of gas (in liters) at STP that can be dissolved in 1 L of water at the temperature (C) indicated.Gas 0C 10C 20C 60Cair 0.029 18 0.022 84 0.018 68 0.012 16ammonia 1130 870 680 200carbon dioxide 1.713 1.194 0.878 0.359carbon monoxide 0.035 37 0.028 16 0.023 19 0.014 88chlorine 3.148 2.299 1.023hydrogen 0.021 48 0.019 55 0.018 19 0.016 00hydrogen chloride 512 475 442 339hydrogen sulfide 4.670 3.399 2.582 1.190methane 0.055 63 0.041 77 0.033 08 0.019 54nitrogen* 0.023 54 0.018 61 0.015 45 0.010 23nitrogen monoxide 0.073 81 0.057 09 0.047 06 0.029 54oxygen 0.048 89 0.038 02 0.031 02 0.019 46sulfur dioxide 79.789 56.647 39.374 *Atmospheric nitrogen98.815% N2, 1.185% inert gasesacetatebromidecarbonatechloratechloridechromatehydroxideiodinenitrateoxidephosphatesilicatesulfatesulfideTABLE A-12 SOLUBILITY CHARTaluminum S S S S A S S a A I S dammonium S S S S S S S S S S S Sbarium S S P S S A S S S S A S a dcalcium S S P S S S S S S P P P S Scopper(II) S S S S A S A A A S Ahydrogen S S S S S S S S I S Siron(II) S P S S A S S A A S Airon(III) S S S A A S S A P P dlead(II) S S A S S A P P S P A A P Amagnesium S S P S S S A S S A P A S dmanganese(II) S S P S S A S S A P I S Amercury(I) P A A S a P A S A A P Imercury(II) S S S S P A P S P A d Ipotassium S S S S S S S S S S S S S Ssilver P a A S a P I S P A P Asodium S S S S S S S S S d S S S Sstrontium S S P S S P S S S S A A P Stin(II) d S S S A A S d A A S Atin(IV) S S S S P d A S Azinc S S P S S P A S S P A A S AS = soluble in water. A = soluble in acids, insoluble in water. P = partially soluble in water, soluble in dilute acids.I = insoluble in dilute acids and in water. a = slightly soluble in acids, insoluble in water. d = decomposes in water.TABLE A-13 SOLUBILITY OF COMPOUNDSSolubilities are given in grams of solute that can be dissolved in 100 g of water at the temperature (C)indicated.Compound Formula 0C 20C 60C 100Caluminum sulfate Al2(SO4)3 31.2 36.4 59.2 89.0ammonium chloride NH4Cl 29.4 37.2 55.3 77.3ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 118 192 421 871ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 70.6 75.4 88 103barium carbonate BaCO3 * 0.002218 * 0.0065barium chloride dihydrate BaCl2 2H2O 31.2 35.8 46.2 59.4barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 1.67 3.89 20.94 101.4080barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2 4.95 9.02 20.4 34.4barium sulfate BaSO4 * 0.000 24625 * 0.000 413calcium carbonate CaCO3 * 0.001425 * 0.001875calcium fluoride CaF2 0.001618 0.001726 * *calcium hydrogen carbonate Ca(HCO3)2 16.15 16.60 17.50 18.40calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 0.189 0.173 0.121 0.076calcium sulfate CaSO4 * 0.20930 * 0.1619copper(II) chloride CuCl2 68.6 73.0 96.5 120copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4 5H2O 23.1 32.0 61.8 114lead(II) chloride PbCl2 0.67 1.00 1.94 3.20lead(II) nitrate Pb(NO3)2 37.5 54.3 91.6 133lithium chloride LiCl 69.2 83.5 98.4 128lithium sulfate Li2SO4 36.1 34.8 32.6 30.990magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 * 0.000918 * 0.004magnesium sulfate MgSO4 22.0 33.7 54.6 68.3mercury(I) chloride Hg2Cl2 * 0.000 2025 0.00143 *mercury(II) chloride HgCl2 3.63 6.57 16.3 61.3potassium bromide KBr 53.6 65.3 85.5 104potassium chlorate KClO3 3.3 7.3 23.8 56.3potassium chloride KCl 28.0 34.2 45.8 56.3potassium chromate K2CrO4 56.3 63.7 70.1 74.590potassium iodide KI 128 144 176 206potassium nitrate KNO3 13.9 31.6 106 245potassium permanganate KMnO4 2.83 6.34 22.1 *potassium sulfate K2SO4 7.4 11.1 18.2 24.1silver acetate AgC2H3O2 0.73 1.05 1.93 2.5980silver chloride AgCl 0.000 08910 * * 0.0021silver nitrate AgNO3 122 216 440 733sodium acetate NaC2H3O2 36.2 46.4 139 170sodium chlorate NaClO3 79.6 95.9 137 204sodium chloride NaCl 35.7 35.9 37.1 39.2sodium nitrate NaNO3 73.0 87.6 122 180sucrose C12H22O11 179.2 203.9 287.3 487.2*Dashes indicate that values are not available.A P P E N D I X A 861A P P E N D I X A862ammonia g 45.9ammonium chloride s 314.4ammonium sulfate s 1180.9barium chloride s 858.6barium nitrate s 768.2barium sulfate s 1473.2benzene g 82.88benzene l 49.080calcium carbonate s 1207.6calcium chloride s 795.4calcium hydroxide s 983.2calcium nitrate s 938.2calcium oxide s 634.9calcium sulfate s 1434.5carbon (diamond) s 1.9carbon (graphite) s 0.00carbon dioxide g 393.5carbon monoxide g 110.5copper(II) nitrate s 302.9copper(II) oxide s 157.3copper(II) sulfate s 771.4ethane g 83.8ethyne (acetylene) g 228.2hydrogen (H2) g 0.00hydrogen bromide g 36.29hydrogen chloride g 92.3hydrogen fluoride g 273.3hydrogen iodide g 26.5hydrogen oxide (water) g 241.8hydrogen oxide (water) l 285.8hydrogen peroxide g 136.3hydrogen peroxide l 187.8hydrogen sulfide g 20.6iodine (I2) s 0.00iodine (I2) g 62.4iron(II) chloride s 399.4iron(II) oxide s 272.0iron(III) oxide s 824.2iron(II) sulfate s 928.4iron(II) sulfide s 100.0lead(II) oxide s 217.3lead(IV) oxide s 274.5lead(II) nitrate s 451.9lead(II) sulfate s 919.94lithium chloride s 408.6lithium nitrate s 483.1magnesium chloride s 641.5magnesium oxide s 601.6magnesium sulfate s 1261.79manganese(IV) oxide s 520.0manganese(II) sulfate s 1065.3mercury(I) chloride s 264.2mercury(II) chloride s 230.0mercury(II) oxide (red) s 90.8methane g 74.9nitrogen dioxide g 33.2nitrogen monoxide g 90.29dinitrogen monoxide g 82.1dinitrogen tetroxide g 9.2oxygen (O2) g 0.00ozone (O3) g 142.7tetraphosphorus decoxide s 3009.9potassium bromide s 393.8potassium chloride s 436.49potassium hydroxide s 424.58potassium nitrate s 494.6potassium sulfate s 1437.8silicon dioxide (quartz) s 910.7silver chloride s 127.01 0.5silver nitrate s 120.5silver sulfide s 32.59sodium bromide s 361.8sodium chloride s 385.9sodium hydroxide s 425.9sodium nitrate s 467.9sodium sulfate l 1387.1sulfur dioxide g 296.8sulfur trioxide g 395.7tin(IV) chloride l 511.3zinc nitrate s 483.7zinc oxide s 350.5zinc sulfate s 980.14TABLE A-14 ENTHALPY OF FORMATIONHf is enthalpy of formation of the given substance from its elements. All values of Hf are expressed as kJ/mol at25C. Negative values of Hf indicate exothermic reactions. s = solid, l = liquid, g = gasSubstance State Hf Substance State HfA P P E N D I X A 863TABLE A-15 PROPERTIES OF COMMON ELEMENTSForm/color Density Melting point Boiling point CommonName at room temperature (g/cm3) (C) (C) oxidation statesaluminum silver metal 2.702 660.37 2467 3arsenic gray metalloid 5.72714 817 (28 atm) 613 (sublimes) 3, 3, 5barium bluish white metal 3.51 725 1640 2bromine red-brown liquid 3.119 7.2 58.78 1, 1, 3, 5, 7calcium silver metal 1.54 839 2 1484 2carbon diamond 3.51 3500 (63.5 atm) 3930 2, 4graphite 2.25 3652 (sublimes) chlorine green-yellow gas 3.214* 100.98 34.6 1, 1, 3, 5, 7chromium gray metal 7.2028 1857 20 2672 2, 3, 6cobalt gray metal 8.9 1495 2870 2, 3copper red metal 8.92 1083.4 0.2 2567 1, 2fluorine yellow gas 1.69 219.62 188.14 1germanium gray metalloid 5.32325 937.4 2830 4gold yellow metal 19.31 1064.43 2808 2 1, 3helium colorless gas 0.1785* 272.2 (26 atm) 268.9 0hydrogen colorless gas 0.0899* 259.14 252.8 1, 1iodine blue-black solid 4.93 113.5 184.35 1, 1, 3, 5, 7iron silver metal 7.86 1535 2750 2, 3lead bluish white metal 11.343716 327.502 1740 2, 4lithium silver metal 0.534 180.54 1342 1magnesium silver metal 1.745 648.8 1107 2manganese gray-white metal 7.20 1244 3 1962 2, 3, 4, 6, 7mercury silver liquid metal 13.5462 38.87 356.58 1, 2neon colorless gas 0.9002* 248.67 245.9 0nickel silver metal 8.90 1455 2732 2, 3nitrogen colorless gas 1.2506* 209.86 195.8 3, 3, 5oxygen colorless gas 1.429* 218.4 182.962 2phosphorus yellow solid 1.82 44.1 280 3, 3, 5platinum silver metal 21.45 1772 3827 100 2, 4potassium silver metal 0.86 63.25 760 1silicon gray metalloid 2.33 0.01 1410 2355 2, 4silver white metal 10.5 961.93 2212 1sodium silver metal 0.97 97.8 882.9 1strontium silver metal 2.6 769 1384 2sulfur yellow solid 1.96 119.0 444.674 2, 4, 6tin white metal 7.28 231.88 2260 2, 4titanium white metal 4.5 1660 10 3287 2, 3, 4uranium silver metal 19.05 0.0225 1132.3 0.8 3818 3, 4, 6zinc blue-white metal 7.14 419.58 907 2 Densities obtained at 20C unless otherwise noted (superscript) Density of fluorine given in g/L at 1 atm and 15C* Densities of gases given in g/L at STPA P P E N D I X B864Succeeding in Your Chemistry Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865Making Concept Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868Making Power Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871Making Two-Column Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873Using the K/W/L Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874Using Sequencing/Pattern Puzzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875Other Reading Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876Other Studying Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877Cooperative Learning Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878Study Skills for ChemistryTable of ContentsA P P E N D I X BA P P E N D I X B 865Your success in this course will depend on yourability to apply some basic study skills to learn-ing the material. Studying chemistry can be diffi-cult, but you can make it easier using simplestrategies for dealing with the concepts andproblems. Becoming skilled in using these strate-gies will be your keys to success in this and manyother courses.Reading the Text Read the assigned material before class so thatthe class lecture makes sense. Use a dictionaryto help you build and interpret vocabulary.Remember that, while reading, one of yourtasks is to figure out what information isimportant.Working together with others using PairedReading and Discussion strategies can help youdecide what is important and clarify the material. (For more discussion, see OtherReading Strategies on page 876.) Select a quiet setting away from distractions so that you can concentrate on what you arereading. Have a pencil and paper nearby to jot downnotes and questions you may have. Be sure toget these questions answered in class. PowerNotes (see page 871) can help you organize thenotes you take and prepare you for class. Use the Objectives in the beginning of eachsection as a list of what you need to know fromthe section. Teachers generally make their testsbased on the text objectives or their own objec-tives. Using the objectives to focus your read-ing can make your learning more efficient.Using the K/W/L strategy (see page 874) canhelp you relate new material to what youalready know and what you need to learn.Taking Notes in Class Be prepared to take notes during class. Haveyour materials organized in a notebook.Separate sheets of paper can be easily lost. Dont write down everything your teacher says.Try to tell which parts of the lecture are impor-tant and which are not. Reading the text beforeclass will help in this. You will not be able towrite down everything, so you must try to writedown only the important things. Recopying notes later is a waste of time anddoes not help you learn material for a test. DoStudy Skills for ChemistryA P P E N D I X BSucceeding in YourChemistry ClassA P P E N D I X B866it right the first time. Organize your notes asyou are writing them down so that you canmake sense of your notes when you reviewthem without needing to recopy them.Reviewing Class Notes Review your notes as soon as possible afterclass. Write down any questions you may haveabout the material covered that day. Be sure to get these questions answered during thenext class. You can work with friends to usestrategies such as Paired Summarizing andL.I.N.K. (See page 878.) Do not wait until the test to review. By thenyou will have forgotten a good portion of thematerial. Be selective about what you memorize. Youcannot memorize everything in a chapter. Firstof all, it is too time consuming. Second, memo-rizing and understanding are not the samething. Memorizing topics as they appear inyour notes or text does not guarantee that youwill be able to correctly answer questions thatrequire understanding of those topics. Youshould only memorize material that you under-stand. Concept Maps and other ReadingOrganizers, Sequencing/Pattern Puzzles, andPrediction Guides can help you understand keyideas and major concepts. (See pages 868, 875,and 877.)Working ProblemsIn addition to understanding the concepts, theability to solve problems will be a key to yoursuccess in chemistry. You will probably spend alot of time working problems in class and athome. The ability to solve chemistry problems isa skill, and like any skill, it requires practice. Always review the Sample Problems in thechapter. The Sample Problems in the text pro-vide road maps for solving certain types ofproblems. Cover the solution while trying towork the problem yourself. The problems in the Chapter Review are simi-lar to the Sample Problems. If you can relatean assigned problem to one of the SampleProblems in the chapter, it shows that youunderstand the material. The four steps: Analyze, Plan, Compute, andEvaluate should be the steps you go throughwhen working assigned problems. These stepswill allow you to organize your thoughts andhelp you develop your problem-solving skills. Never spend more than 15 minutes trying tosolve a problem. If you have not been able tocome up with a plan for the solution after 15minutes, additional time spent will only causeyou to become frustrated. What do you do?Get help! See your teacher or a classmate. Findout what it is that you do not understand. Do not try to memorize the Sample Problems;spend your time trying to understand how thesolution develops. Memorizing a particularsample problem will not ensure that youunderstand it well enough to solve a similarproblem. Always look at your answer and ask yourself ifit is reasonable and makes sense. Check to besure you have the correct units and numbers ofsignificant figures.Completing HomeworkYour teacher will probably assign questions andproblems from the Section Reviews and ChapterReviews or assign Modern Chemistry DailyHomework. The purpose of these assignments isto review what you have covered in class and tosee if you can use the information to answer ques-tions or solve problems. As in reviewing classnotes, do your homework as soon after class aspossible while the topics are still fresh in yourmind. Do not wait until late at night, when you aremore likely to be tired and to become frustrated.Preparing for and Taking ExamsReviewing for an exam Dont panic and dont cram! It takes longer tolearn if you are under pressure. If you have fol-lowed the strategies listed here and reviewedalong the way, studying for the exam should beless stressful. When looking over your notes and conceptmaps, recite ideas out loud. There are two rea-sons for reciting:1. You are hearing the information, which iseffective in helping you learn.2. If you cannot recite the ideas, it should be aclue that you do not understand the material,and you should begin rereading or reviewingthe material again. Studying with a friend provides a good oppor-tunity for recitation. If you can explain ideas toyour study partner, you know the material.Taking an exam Get plenty of rest before the exam so that youcan think clearly. If you have been awake allnight studying, you are less likely to succeedthan if you had gotten a full night of rest. Start with the questions you know. If you getstuck on a question, save it for later. As timepasses and you work through the exam, youmay recall the information you need to answera difficult question or solve a difficult problem.Good luck!A P P E N D I X B 867A P P E N D I X B868is classified aswhich consist ofwhich can bewhich describeis changed bywhich causesis described bypuresubstanceselementshomogeneous heterogeneouschemicalchangeschemicalreactionsphysicalchangescompounds energy mixturesphysicalpropertieschemicalpropertieswhich can benonmetals metalloidsmetalswhich aredescribed bywherereactantssolid gasliquidformproductssuch asto/fromchange ofstateMap AmatterMaking concept maps can help you decide whatmaterial in a chapter is important and how toefficiently learn that material. A concept mappresents key ideas, meanings, and relationshipsfor the concepts being studied. It can be thoughtof as a visual road map of the chapter. Learninghappens efficiently when you use concept mapsbecause you work with only the key ideas andhow they fit together.The concept map shown as Map A was madefrom vocabulary terms in Chapter 1. Vocabularyterms are generally labels for concepts, and con-cepts are generally nouns. In a concept map,linking words are used to form propositions thatconnect concepts and give them meaning in con-text. For example, on the map below, matter isdescribed by physical properties is a proposition.Making Concept MapsA P P E N D I X B 869Studies show that people are better able toremember materials presented visually. A con-cept map is better than an outline because youcan see the relationships among many ideas.Because outlines are linear, there is no way oflinking the ideas from various sections of theoutline. Read through the map to become famil-iar with the information presented. Then look atthe map in relation to all of the text pages inChapter 1; which gives a better picture of theimportant conceptsthe map or the full chapter?To Make a Concept Map1. List all the important concepts.Well use some of the boldfaced and italicizedterms from Chapter 1, Section 2.matter mixturecompound pure substanceelementhomogenous mixtureheterogeneous mixture From this list, group similar concepts together.For example, one way to group these conceptswould be into two groupsone that is relatedto mixtures and one that is related to puresubstances.mixture pure substanceheterogeneous mixture compoundhomogeneous mixture element2. Select a main concept for the map.We will use matter as the main concept for thismap.3. Build the map by placing the concepts accord-ing to their importance under the main con-cept, matter.One way of arranging the concepts is shown inMap B.mixturespuresubstanceselements compoundshomogeneousmixturesheterogeneousmixturesMap BmatterA P P E N D I X B8704. Add linking words to give meaning to thearrangement of concepts.When adding the links, be sure that eachproposition makes sense. To distinguish con-cepts from links, place your concepts in circles,ovals, or rectangles, as shown in the maps.Then make cross-links. Cross-links are madeof propositions and lines connecting conceptsacross the map. Links that apply in only onedirection are indicated with an arrowhead.Map C is a finished map covering the mainideas listed in Step 1.Making maps might seem difficult at first,but the process forces you to think about themeanings and relationships among the con-cepts. If you do not understand those relation-ships, you can get help early on.Practice mapping by making concept mapsabout topics you know. For example, if youknow a lot about a particular sport, such asbasketball, or if you have a particular hobby,such as playing a musical instrument, you canuse that topic to make a practice map. By per-fecting your skills with information that youknow very well, you will begin to feel moreconfident about making maps from the infor-mation in a chapter.Remember, the time you devote to map-ping will pay off when it is time to review foran exam.mixturespuresubstanceselements compoundsform homogeneousmixturesheterogeneousmixturesis composed ofare made fromwhich can be which can bematterMap CPractice1. Classify each of the following as either aconcept or linking word(s).a. classificationb. is classified asc. formsd. is described bye. reactionf. reacts withg. metalh. defines2. Write three propositions from the informa-tion in Map A.3. List two cross-links shown on Map C.A P P E N D I X B 8712. Using the text, select some Power 2 words tosupport your Power 1 word.Well use the terms nucleus and electrons,which are two parts of an atom.Power 1: AtomPower 2: NucleusPower 2: Electrons3. Select some Power 3 words to support yourPower 2 words.Well use the terms positively charged and neg-atively charged, two terms that describe thePower 2 words.Power 1: AtomPower 2: NucleusPower 3: Positively chargedPower 2: ElectronsPower 3: Negatively chargedMaking Power NotesPower notes help you organize the chemical con-cepts you are studying by distinguishing mainideas from details. Similar to outlines, powernotes are linear in form and provide you with aframework of important concepts. Power notesare easier to use than outlines because theirstructure is simpler. Using the power notes num-bering system you assign a 1 to each main ideaand a 2, 3, or 4 to each detail.Power notes are an invaluable asset to thelearning process, and they can be used frequentlythroughout your chemistry course. You can usepower notes to organize ideas while reading yourtext or to restructure your class notes for study-ing purposes.To learn to make power notes, practice first byusing single-word concepts and a subject you areespecially interested in, such as animals, sports,or movies. As you become comfortable withstructuring power notes, integrate their use intoyour study of chemistry. For an easier transition,start with a few boldfaced or italicized terms.Later you can strengthen your notes by expandingthese single-word concepts into more-detailedphrases and sentences. Use the following generalformat to help you structure your power notes.Power 1: Main ideaPower 2: Detail or support for power 1Power 3: Detail or support for power 2Power 4: Detail or support for power 31. Pick a Power 1 word from the text.The text you choose does not have to comestraight from your chemistry textbook. You maybe making power notes from your lecture notesor from an outside source. Well use the termatom found in Chapter 3, Section 2 of your textbook.Power 1: AtomA P P E N D I X B8724. Continue to add powers to support and detailthe main idea as necessary.There are no restrictions on how many powernumbers you can use in your notes. If youhave a main idea that requires a lot of support,add more powers to help you extend and orga-nize your ideas. Be sure that words having thesame power number have a similar relation-ship to the power above. Power 1 terms do nothave to be related to each other. You can usepower notes to organize the material in anentire section or chapter of your text. Doingso will provide you with an invaluable studyguide for your classroom quizzes and tests.Power 1: AtomPower 2: NucleusPower 3: Positively chargedPower 3: ProtonsPower 4: Positively chargedPower 3: NeutronsPower 4: No chargePower 2: ElectronsPower 3: Negatively chargedPractice1. Use a periodic table and the power notesstructure below to organize the followingterms: alkaline-earth metals, nonmetals, cal-cium, sodium, halogens, metals, alkali met-als, chlorine, barium, and iodine.1 ____________________________________2 ___________________________________3 _________________________________2 ___________________________________3 _________________________________3 _________________________________1 ____________________________________2 ___________________________________3 _________________________________3 _________________________________A P P E N D I X B 873alkaline-earth metals, the halogens, and thenoble gases.2. Divide a blank sheet of paper into twocolumns and write the main ideas in the left-hand column. Summarize your ideas usingquick phrases that are easy for you to under-stand and remember. Decide how many detailsyou need for each main idea, and write thatnumber in parentheses under the main idea.3. Write the detail notes in the right-hand col-umn. Be sure you list as many details as youdesignated in the main-idea column. The tablebelow shows some details that correspond tothe main ideas in Chapter 5, Section 2.The two-column method of review is perfectwhether you use it to study for a short quiz orfor a test on the material in an entire chapter.Just cover the information in the right-hand col-umn with a sheet of paper, and after recitingwhat you know, uncover the notes to check youranswers. Then ask yourself what else you knowabout that topic. Linking ideas in this way willhelp you to gain a more complete picture ofchemistry.Two-column notes can be used to learn andreview definitions of vocabulary terms, examplesof multiple-step processes, or details of specificconcepts. The two-column-note strategy is sim-ple: write the term, main idea, step-by-stepprocess, or concept in the left-hand column, andthe definition, example, or detail on the right.One strategy for using two-column notes is toorganize main ideas and their details. The mainideas from your reading are written in the left-hand column of your paper and can be written asquestions, key words, or a combination of both.Details describing these main ideas are thenwritten in the right-hand column of your paper.1. Identify the main ideas. The main ideas for achapter are listed in the section objectives.However, you decide which ideas to include inyour notes. For example, the table belowshows some main ideas from the objectives inChapter 5, Section 2. Describe the locations in the periodic table and the general properties of the alkali metals,Making Two-Column NotesMain Idea Detail Notes Alkali metals Group 1(4 details) highly reactive ns1 electron configuration soft, silvery Alkaline-earth metals Group 2(4 details) reactive ns2 electron configuration harder than alkali metals Halogens (3 details) Group 17 reactive nonmetallic Noble gases (3 details) Group 18 low reactivity stable ns2np6 configurationA P P E N D I X B874The K/W/L strategy stands for what I Knowwhat I Want to knowwhat I Learned. Youstart by brainstorming about the subject matterbefore reading the assigned material. Relatingnew ideas and concepts to those you havelearned previously will help you better under-stand and apply the new knowledge you obtain.The section objectives throughout your textbookare ideal for using the K/W/L strategy.1. Read the section objectives. You may alsowant to scan headings, boldfaced terms, andillustrations before reading. Here are two ofthe objectives from Chapter 1, Section 2 to useas an example. Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states interms of particles. Distinguish between a mixture and a puresubstance.2. Divide a sheet of paper into three columns,and label the columns What I Know, WhatI Want to Know, and What I Learned.3. Brainstorm about what you know about theinformation in the objectives, and write theseideas in the first column. Because this chartis designed primarily to help you integrateyour own knowledge with new information, itis not necessary to write complete sentences.4. Think about what you want to know about theinformation in the objectives, and write theseideas in the second column. Include informa-tion from both the section objectives and anyother objectives your teacher has given you.5. While reading the section or afterwards, usethe third column to write down the informa-tion you learned. While reading, pay closeattention to any information about the topicsyou wrote in the What I Want to Know col-umn. If you do not find all of the answers youare looking for, you may need to reread thesection or reference a second source. Be sureto ask your teacher if you still cannot find theinformation after reading the section a secondtime.It is also important to review your brain-stormed ideas when you have completed read-ing the section. Compare your ideas in the firstcolumn with the information you wrote downin the third column. If you find that some ofyour brainstormed ideas are incorrect, crossthem out. It is extremely important to identifyand correct any misconceptions you had priorto reading before you begin studying for yourtest. gas has no definite shape or volume liquid has no definite shape, buthas definite volume solid has definite shape and volume mixture is combination of sub-stances pure substance has only onecomponent how gas, liquid, and solid statesare related to particles how mixtures and pure sub-stances are different molecules in solid and liquidstates are close together, but arefar apart in gas state molecules in solid state havefixed positions, but molecules inliquid and gas states can flow mixtures are combinations ofpure substances pure substances have fixed compositions and definite propertiesUsing the K/W/L StrategyWhat I Know What I Want to Know What I LearnedA P P E N D I X B 875You can use pattern puzzles to help you remember sequential information. Pattern puzzles are not just a tool for memorization.They also promote a greater understanding of a variety of chemical processes, from the steps in solving a mass-mass stoichiometry problem tothe procedure for making a solution of specifiedmolarity.1. Write down the steps of a process in your ownwords. For an example, we will use theprocess for converting the amount of a sub-stance in moles to mass in grams. (See SampleProblem B on page 84.) On a sheet of note-book paper, write down one step per line, anddo not number the steps. Also, do not copythe process straight from your textbook.Writing the steps in your own words pro-motes a more thorough understanding of theprocess. You may want to divide longer stepsinto two or three shorter steps. List the given and unknown information. Look at the periodic table to determine the molar mass of the substance. Write the correct conversion factor to convert moles to grams. Multiply the amount of substance by the conversion factor. Solve the equation and check your answer. List the given and unknown information. Look at the periodic table to determine the molar mass of the substance. Write the correct conversion factor to convert moles to grams. Multiply the amount of substance by the conversion factor. Solve the equation and check your answer.3. Place the strips in their propersequence. Confirm the order of the processby checking your text or your class notes.Pattern puzzles are especially helpful whenyou are studying for your chemistry tests. Beforetests, use your puzzles to practice sequencing andto review the steps of chemistry processes. Youand a classmate can also take turns creating yourown pattern puzzles of different chemicalprocesses and putting each others puzzles in thecorrect sequence. Studying with a classmate inthis manner will help make studying fun and willenable you to help each other.2. Cut the sheet of paper into strips with onlyone step per strip of paper. Shuffle the stripsof paper so that they are out of sequence.Using Sequencing/PatternPuzzles List the given and unknown information. Look at the periodic table to determine the molar mass of the substance. Write the correct conversion factor to convert moles to grams. Multiply the amount of substance by the conversion factor. Solve the equation and check your answer.A P P E N D I X B876ic table on pages 140141 or on the inside backcover of your book so you can easily locate itand use it for reference as you study differentaspects of chemistry and solve problems involv-ing elements and compounds.Interpreting Graphic Sources ofInformationCharts, tables, photographs, diagrams, and otherillustrations are graphic, or visual, sources ofinformation. The labels and captions, togetherwith the illustrations help you make connectionsbetween the words and the ideas presented inthe text.Reading Response LogsKeeping a reading response log helps you inter-pret what you read and gives you a chance toexpress your reactions and opinions about whatyou have read. Draw a vertical line down thecenter of a piece of paper. In the left-hand col-umn, write down or make notes about passagesyou read to which you have reactions, thoughts,feelings, questions, or associations. In the right-hand column, write what those reactions,thoughts, feelings, questions, or associations are.For example, you might keep a reading responselog when studying about Nuclear Energy inChapter 21.BrainstormingBrainstorming is a strategy that helps you recog-nize and evaluate the knowledge you alreadyhave before you start reading. It works well indi-vidually or in groups. When you brainstorm, youstart with a central term or idea, then quickly listall the words, phrases, and other ideas that youthink are related to it.Because there are no right or wronganswers, you can use the list as a basis for classi-fying terms, developing a general explanation, orspeculating about new relationships. For exam-ple, you might brainstorm a list of terms relatedto the word element before you read Chapter 1,Section 2. The list might include gold, metals,chemicals, silver, carbon, oxygen, and water. Asyou read the textbook, you might decide thatsome of the terms you listed are not elements.Later, you might use that information to help youdistinguish between elements and compounds.Building/Interpreting VocabularyUsing a dictionary to look up the meanings ofprefixes and suffixes as well as word origins andmeanings helps you build your vocabulary andinterpret what you read. If you know the mean-ing of prefixes like kilo- (one thousand) andmilli- (one thousandth), you have a good ideawhat kilograms, kilometers, milligrams, and mil-limeters are and how they are different. (Seepage 35 for a list of SI Prefixes.)Knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and word ori-gins can help you understand the meaning ofnew words. For example, if you know the suffix -protic comes from the same word as proton, itwill help you understand what monoprotic andpolyprotic acids are (see page 479).Reading HintsReading hints help you identify and bookmarkimportant charts, tables, and illustrations foreasy reference. For example, you may want touse a self-adhesive note to bookmark the period-Other Reading StrategiesA P P E N D I X B 877Comparing and ContrastingComparing and contrasting is a strategy thathelps you note similarities and differencesbetween two or more objects or events. Whenyou determine similarities, you are comparing.When you determine differences, you are con-trasting.You can use comparing and contrasting tohelp you classify objects or properties, differenti-ate between similar concepts, and speculateabout new relationships. For example, as youread Chapter 1 you might begin to make a tablein which you compare and contrast metals, non-metals, and metalloids. As you continue to learnabout these substances in Chapters 4 and 5, youcan add to your table, giving you a better under-standing of the similarities and differencesamong elements.Identifying Cause and EffectIdentifying causes and effects as you read helpsyou understand the material and builds logicalreasoning skills. An effect is an event or the resultof some action. A cause is the reason the event oraction occurred. Signal words, such as because, so,since, therefore, as a result, and depends on, indi-cate a cause-and-effect relationship.You can use arrows to show cause and effect.For example, you might write this cause-and-effectrelationship as you read Chapter 11, Section 2: At constant pressure, increase in temperature(cause) increase in gas volume (effect).Making a Prediction GuideA prediction guide is a list of statements aboutwhich you express and try to justify your opin-ions based on your current knowledge. Afterreading the material, you re-evaluate your opin-ion in light of what you learned. Using predictionguides helps you evaluate your knowledge, iden-tify assumptions you may have that could lead tomistaken conclusions, and form an idea ofexpected results.1. Read the statements your teacher writes onthe board. For example, look at the fivestatements from Daltons theory listed on page68 of your textbook.2. Decide whether you think each statement istrue or false and discuss reasons why you thinkso.3. After reading the section, re-evaluate youropinion of each statement. Discuss why youropinion changed or remained the same.Find passages in the text that account for the change of reinforcement of youropinions. For example, you might haveagreed with all five statements from Daltonstheory before reading the text. Then, afterreading about atoms and subatomic particles,you might have changed your opinion aboutthe first statement.Other Studying StrategiesA P P E N D I X B878Summarizing/Paired SummarizingA summary is a brief statement of main ideas orimportant concepts. Making a summary of whatyou have read provides you with a way to reviewwhat you have learned, see what informationneeds further clarification, and helps you makeconnections to previously studied material.Paired summarizing helps strengthen yourability to read, listen, and understand. It is espe-cially useful when a section of text has severalsubdivisions, each dealing with different concepts,such as Chapter 2, Section 3 in your textbook.1. First read the material silently by yourself.2. Then you and your partner take turns beingthe listener and the reteller. The retellersummarizes the material for the listener, whodoes not interrupt until the reteller has fin-ished. If necessary, the reteller may consult thetext, and the listener may ask for clarification.The listener then states any inaccuracies oromissions made by the reteller.3. Work together to refine the summary. Makesure the summary states the important ideas ina clear and concise manner.Discussing IdeasDiscussing ideas with a partner or in a groupbefore you read is a strategy that can help you broaden your knowledge base and decidewhat concepts to focus on as you are reading.Discussing ideas after you have read a section orchapter can help you check your understanding,clarify difficult concepts, and lead you to specu-late about new ideas.Reading with a PartnerReading with a partner is a strategy that can helpyou understand what you read and point outwhere more explanation is needed.1. First read the text silently by yourself. Useself-adhesive notes to mark those parts of thetext that you do not understand. For exam-ple, you might have difficulty with some of thematerial about quantum numbers in Section 2of Chapter 4, while another student under-stands quantum numbers but has trouble withelectron configurations in Section 3.2. Work with a partner to discuss the passageseach of you marked. Take turns listening andtrying to clarify the difficult passages for eachother. Together, study the related tables andillustrations and explain to each other howthey relate to the text.3. For concepts that need further explanation,work together to formulate questions for classdiscussion or for your teacher to answer.Using L.I.N.K.The L.I.N.K. strategy stands for List, Inquire,Notes, Know. It is similar to the K/W/L strategy,but you work as a class or in groups.1. Brainstorm all the words, phrases, and ideasassociated with the term your teacher pro-vides. Volunteers can keep track of contribu-tions on the board or on a separate sheet ofpaper.2. Your teacher will direct you in a class or groupdiscussion about the words and ideaslisted. Now is the time to inquire, or ask yourteacher and other students for clarification ofthe listed ideas.3. At the end of the discussion, make notes abouteverything you can remember. Look overyour notes to see if you have left anything out.4. See what you now know about the given con-cept based on your own experience and thediscussion.Cooperative LearningTechniquesA P P E N D I X C 879A P P E N D I X CGraphing Calculator Technologyappropriate TI Connectivity computer-to-calculator cable and TI Connect softwarea computer that has Internet accessThe detailed instructions on how to download thecalculator programs can be found at HC6 CALC).Calculator-BasedLaboratoriesAnalyzing your data properly is as important asusing good experimental technique in the chemistrylab. Your results will be meaningless if you do notknow how to interpret them. The Calculator-BasedLaboratory 2 (CBL 2) data-collection interfaceby Texas Instruments and the Vernier LabProdata-collection interface by Vernier Software &Technology can simplify the process of obtainingand analyzing experimental data.The data-collection interfacemimics expensive electronic labo-ratory equipment and allows youto collect real experimental datathat are stored directly onto yourcalculator. As a result, you will nothave to record and graph yourdata manually. Instead, your dataare automatically tabulated, andyou can view real-time graphs.Consequently, you have moretime to interpret your experi-mental results. The interfaceand probes allow you to col-lect experimental data, andwith the DataMate Appthe information coming fromthe probes is automaticallyrecognized.Charts, graphs, and data analysis are essential ele-ments of chemistry. To be successful in your studyof chemistry, you must know how to make andinterpret graphs and must understand the relation-ships between different variables.Your graphing calculator can be a powerful toolfor analyzing chemical data. In addition to using yourcalculator to organize and graph data, you can pro-gram your calculator to perform specialized functions.In the text, you can use your graphing calcula-tor to help solve the Chapter Review exercises. Inaddition, specific Graphing Calculator exercisesreferred to in the Chapter Reviews will help youexplore the capabilities of your calculator whileenhancing your understanding of mathematicalrelationships that are important in chemistry. TheCBL 2 and LabPro probeware experiments willenable you to become adept at analyzing experi-mental data.Graphing Calculator ExercisesThe site provides downloadable pro-grams for the TI-83 Plus and the TI-84 Plus graph-ing calculator families. These programs include datasets to analyze. Using these programs will improveyour ability to handle scientific data.You will learn to use your calculator to graphdata. Then, you will interpret the graphs and willextract the information required to answer thequestions in the exercises. You will gain experiencewith simple linear relationships, such as the rela-tionship between energy and temperature, and com-plex relationships, such as the relationship betweenpH and titrant volume, which is represented by atitration curve.To solve the Graphing Calculator exercises in theChapter Reviews and to download the programs,you will needa graphing calculator (TI-83 Plus or TI-84 Plus)A P P E N D I X C880The CBL 2 set-up is shown above. In somelabs, you will use a temperature sensor, a pressuresensor, a voltage sensor, and a colorimeter to collectdata. You will then analyze the data on your calcu-lator to obtain the results of your experiment. Toperform the calculator-based probeware experi-ments, you will needa graphing calculator (TI-83 Plus or TI-84 Plus)the CBL 2 or LabPro data collection interfacethe appropriate Texas Instruments or Vernierprobe for the experimentthe probeware experimentThe probeware experiments are available (keyword HC6 CBL). For additionalinformation about the CBL 2 and LabPro hardwareor software, visit orwww.vernier.comMaking the Most of yourCalculatorIn addition to organizing and graphing scientificdata, Texas Instruments calculators have otherapplications that are available for use in chemistry. The Periodic Table App provides an electronicversion of the periodic table as well as informationabout the elements. The Science Tool App provides various physicalconstants and allows you to convert between differ-ent units and to determine the number of significantfigures for calculations. Additional information about these and otherapplications for your calculator is available at These applications are standardfor some models of TI calculators and can beobtained from Texas Instruments and downloadedonto other models.TroubleshootingCalculator instructions in the Modern Chemistryprogram are written for the TI-84 Plus. You mayuse other graphing calculators, but some of theprograms and instructions may require minoradjustments.Calculator-based probeware experiments arewritten for the CBL 2 and LabPro interfaces.Older versions of the experiments for the origi-nal CBL are available at DataMate App is not compatible with theoriginal CBL system. For more informationand user manuals for the CBL 2 and theCBL systems, visit you have problems loading programs or appli-cations onto your calculator, you may need toclear programs or other data from your calcula-tors memory.Always make sure that you are downloading theversion of the software that is correct for yourcalculator and that you have the latest operatingsystem for your calculator and your CBL 2.If you need additional help, Texas Instrumentsand Vernier Software & Technology can providetechnical support. Contact TI at education.ti.comor 1-800-TI-CARES and Vernier or 1-888-837-6437.go.hrw.comKeyword: HC6 CALCThis Web site containslinks for downloadingprograms and applica-tions that you will needfor the GraphingCalculator exercises.Conversions: Chap. 2, Sec. 2Converting Simple SI Units1. State the following measured quantities in the unitsindicated.a. 5.2 cm of magnesium ribbon in millimetersb. 0.049 kg of sulfur in gramsc. 1.60 mL of ethanol in microlitersd. 0.0025 g of vitamin A in microgramse. 0.020 kg of tin in milligramsf. 3 kL of saline solution in liters2. State the following measured quantities in the unitsindicated.a. 150 mg of aspirin in gramsb. 2500 mL of hydrochloric acid in litersc. 0.5 g of sodium in kilogramsd. 55 L of carbon dioxide gas in kiloliterse. 35 mm in centimetersf. 8740 m in kilometersg. 209 nm in millimetersh. 500 000 g in kilograms3. The greatest distance between Earth and the sun during Earths revolution is 152 million kilometers. What is this distance in megameters?4. How many milliliters of water will it take to fill a 2.00 L bottle that already contains 1.87 L of water?5. A piece of copper wire is 150 cm long. How long is the wire in millimeters? How many 50 mm segments of wire can be cut from the length?6. The ladle at an iron foundry can hold 8500 kg of molten iron; 646 metric tons of iron are needed to make rails. How many ladlefuls of iron will it take to make 646 metric tons of iron? (1 metric ton 1000 kg) Converting Derived SI Units7. State the following measured quantities in the unitsindicated.a. 310 000 cm3 of concrete in cubic metersb. 6.5 m2 of steel sheet in square centimetersc. 0.035 m3 of chlorine gas in cubic centimetersd. 0.49 cm2 of copper in square millimeterse. 1200 dm3 of acetic acid solution in cubic metersf. 87.5 mm3 of actinium in cubic centimetersg. 250 000 cm2 of polyethylene sheet in square meters8. How many palisade cells from plant leaves would fit ina volume of 1.0 cm3 of cells if the average volume of apalisade cell is 0.0147 mm3?Mixed Review9. Convert each of the following quantities to the requiredunit.a. 12.75 Mm to kilometersb. 277 cm to metersc. 30 560 m2 to hectares (1 ha 10 000 m2)d. 81.9 cm2 to square meterse. 300 000 km to megameters10. Convert each of the following quantities to therequired unit.a. 0.62 km to metersb. 3857 g to milligramsc. 0.0036 mL to microlitersd. 0.342 metric tons to kg (1 metric ton 1000 kg)e. 68.71 kL to liters11. Convert each of the following quantities to therequired unit.a. 856 mg to kilogramsb. 1 210 000 g to kilogramsc. 6598 L to cubic centimeters (1 mL 1 cm3)d. 80 600 nm to millimeterse. 10.74 cm3 to liters12. Convert each of the following quantities to therequired unit.a. 7.93 L to cubic centimetersb. 0.0059 km to centimetersc. 4.19 L to cubic decimetersd. 7.48 m2 to square centimeterse. 0.197 m3 to liters13. An automobile uses 0.05 mL of oil for each kilometerit is driven. How much oil in liters is consumed if theautomobile is driven 20 000 km?14. How many microliters are there in a volume of 370 mm3 of cobra venom?15. A baker uses 1.5 tsp of vanilla extract in each cake.How much vanilla extract in liters should the bakerorder to make 800 cakes? (1 tsp 5 mL)16. A person drinks eight glasses of water each day, andeach glass contains 300 mL. How many liters of waterwill that person consume in a year? What is the massof this volume of water in kilograms? (Assume oneyear has 365 days and the density of water is 1.00 kg/L.)17. At the equator Earth rotates with a velocity of about465 m/s.A P P E N D I X D 881A P P E N D I X DProblem BankA P P E N D I X D882a. What is this velocity in kilometers per hour?b. What is this velocity in kilometers per day?18. A chemistry teacher needs to determine what quantityof sodium hydroxide to order. If each student will use130 g and there are 60 students, how many kilogramsof sodium hydroxide should the teacher order?19. The teacher in item 18 also needs to order plastic tub-ing. If each of the 60 students needs 750 mm of tubing,what length of tubing in meters should the teacherorder?20. Convert the following to the required units.a. 550 L/h to milliliters per dayb. 9.00 metric tons/h to kilograms per minutec. 3.72 L/h to cubic centimeters per minuted. 6.12 km/h to meters per second21. Express the following in the units indicated.a. 2.97 kg/L as grams per cubic centimeterb. 4128 g/dm2 as kilograms per square centimeterc. 5.27 g/cm3 as kilograms per cubic decimeterd. 6.91 kg/m3 as milligrams per cubic millimeter22. A gas has a density of 5.56 g/L.a. What volume in milliliters would 4.17 g of this gasoccupy?b. What would be the mass in kilograms of 1 m3 ofthis gas?23. The average density of living matter on Earths landareas is 0.10 g/cm2. What mass of living matter in kilo-grams would occupy an area of 0.125 ha?24. A textbook measures 250. mm long, 224 mm wide, and50.0 mm thick. It has a mass of 2.94 kg.a. What is the volume of the book in cubic meters?b. What is the density of the book in grams per cubiccentimeter? c. What is the area of one cover in square meters?25. A glass dropper delivers liquid so that 25 drops equal1.00 mL.a. What is the volume of one drop in milliliters?b. How many milliliters are in 37 drops?c. How many drops would be required to get 0.68 L?26. Express each of the following in kilograms and grams.a. 504 700 mg c. 122 mgb. 9 200 000 g d. 7195 cg27. Express each of the following in liters and milliliters.a. 582 cm3 c. 1.18 dm3b. 0.0025 m3 d. 32 900 L28. Express each of the following in grams per liter andkilograms per cubic meter.a. 1.37 g/cm3 d. 38 000 g/m3b. 0.692 kg/dm3 e. 5.79 mg/mm3c. 5.2 kg/L f. 1.1 g/mL29. An industrial chemical reaction is run for 30.0 h andproduces 648.0 kg of product. What is the average rateof product production in the stated units?a. grams per minuteb. kilograms per dayc. milligrams per millisecond30. What is the speed of a car in meters per second whenit is moving at 100. km/h?31. A heater gives off energy as heat at a rate of 330kJ/min. What is the rate of energy output in kilocalo-ries per hour? (1 cal 4.184 J) 32. The instructions on a package of fertilizer tell you toapply it at the rate of 62 g/m2. How much fertilizer inkilograms would you need to apply to 1.0 ha? (1 ha 10 000 m2)33. A water tank leaks water at the rate of 3.9 mL/h. Ifthe tank is not repaired, what volume of water in literswill it leak in a year? Show your setup for solving this.Hint: Use one conversion factor to convert hours todays and another to convert days to years, and assumethat one year has 365 days.34. A nurse plans to give flu injections of 50 L each froma bottle containing 2.0 mL of vaccine. How manydoses are in the bottle?Significant Figures: Chap. 2, Sec. 235. Determine the number of significant figures in the fol-lowing measurements.a. 640 cm3 f. 20.900 cmb. 200.0 mL g. 0.000 000 56 g/Lc. 0.5200 g h. 0.040 02 kg/m3d. 1.005 kg i. 790 001 cm2e. 10 000 L j. 665.000 kgm/s236. Perform the following calculations, and express theresult in the correct units and number of significantfigures.a. 47.0 m 2.2 sb. 140 cm 35 cmc. 5.88 kg 200 m3d. 0.00 50 m2 0.042 me. 300.3 L 180. sf. 33.00 cm2 2.70 cmg. 35 000 kJ 0.250 min37. Perform the following calculations and express theresults in the correct units and number of significant figures.a. 22.0 m 5.28 m 15.5 mb. 0.042 kg 1.229 kg 0.502 kgc. 170 cm2 3.5 cm2 28 cm2d. 0.003 L 0.0048 L 0.100 Le. 24.50 dL 4.30 dL 10.2 dLf. 3200 mg 325 mg 688 mgg. 14 000 kg 8000 kg 590 kgMixed Review38. Determine the number of significant figures in the fol-lowing measurements.a. 0.0120 m f. 1000 kgb. 100.5 mL g. 180. mmc. 101 g h. 0.4936 Ld. 350 cm2 i. 0.020 700 se. 0.97 km39. Round the following quantities to the specified num-ber of significant figures.a. 5 487 129 m to three significant figuresb. 0.013 479 265 mL to six significant figuresc. 31 947.972 cm2 to four significant figuresd. 192.6739 m2 to five significant figurese. 786.9164 cm to two significant figuresf. 389 277 600 J to six significant figuresg. 225 834.762 cm3 to seven significant figures40. Perform the following calculations, and express theanswer in the correct units and number of significantfigures.a. 651 cm 75 cmb. 7.835 kg 2.5 Lc. 14.75 L 1.20 sd. 360 cm 51 cm 9.07 cme. 5.18 m 0.77 m 10.22 mf. 34.95 g 11.169 cm341. Perform the following calculations, and express theanswer in the correct units and number of significantfigures.a. 7.945 J 82.3 J 0.02 J b. 0.0012 m 0.000 45 m 0.000 11 m c. 500 g 432 g 2 gd. 31.2 kPa 0.0035 kPa 0.147 kPae. 312 dL 31.2 dL 3.12 dL f. 1701 kg 50 kg 43 kg42. A rectangle measures 87.59 cm by 35.1 mm. Expressits area with the proper number of significant figuresin the specified unit.a. in cm2 c. in m2b. in mm243. A box measures 900. mm by 31.5 mm by 6.3 cm. Stateits volume with the proper number of significant fig-ures in the specified unit.a. in cm3 c. in mm3b. in m344. A 125 mL sample of liquid has a mass of 0.16 kg.What is the density of the liquid in the following mea-surements?a. kg/m3 c. kg/dm3b. g/mL45. Perform the following calculations, and express theresults in the correct units and with the proper num-ber of significant figures.a. 13.75 mm 10.1 mm 0.91 mmb. 89.4 cm2 4.8 cmc. 14.9 m3 3.0 m2d. 6.975 m 30 m 21.5 m46. What is the volume of a region of space that measures752 m 319 m 110 m? Give your answer in the cor-rect unit and with the proper number of significant figures.47. Perform the following calculations, and express theresults in the correct units and with the proper num-ber of significant figures.a. 7.382 g 1.21 g 4.7923 gb. 51.3 mg 83 mg 34.2 mgc. 0.007 L 0.0037 L 0.012 Ld. 253.05 cm2 33.9 cm2 28 cm2e. 14.77 kg 0.086 kg 0.391 kgf. 319 mL 13.75 mL 20. mL48. A container measures 30.5 mm 202 mm 153 mm.When it is full of a liquid, it has a mass of 1.33 kg.When it is empty, it has a mass of 0.30 kg. What is thedensity of the liquid in kilograms per liter?49. If 7.76 km of wire has a mass of 3.3 kg, what is themass of the wire in g/m? What length in meters wouldhave a mass of 1.0 g? 50. A container of plant food recommends an applicationrate of 52 kg/ha. If the container holds 10 kg of plantfood, how many square meters will it cover? (1 ha 10 000 m2)51. A chemical process produces 974 550 kJ of energy asheat in 37.0 min. What is the rate in kilojoules perminute? What is the rate in kilojoules per second?52. A water pipe fills a container that measures 189 cm 307 cm 272 cm in 97 s.a. What is the volume of the container in cubic meters?b. What is the rate of flow in the pipe in liters perminute?c. What is the rate of flow in cubic meters per hour?53. Perform the following calculations, and express theresults in the correct units and with the proper num-ber of significant figures. Note, in problems with mul-tiple steps, it is better to perform the entire calculationand then round to significant figures.a. (0.054 kg 1.33 kg) 5.4 m2b. 67.35 cm2 (1.401 cm 0.399 cm)c. 4.198 kg (1019 m2 40 m2) (54.2 s 31.3 s)d. 3.14159 m (4.17 m 2.150 m)e. 690 000 m (5.022 h 4.31 h)f. (6.23 cm 3.111 cm 0.05 cm) 14.99 cmScientific Notation: Chap. 2, Sec. 3Converting Quantities to Scientific Notation54. Express the following quantities in scientific notation.a. 8 800 000 000 mb. 0.0015 kgc. 0.000 000 000 06 kg/m3d. 8 002 000 Hz e. 0.009 003 Af. 70 000 000 000 000 000 kmg. 6028 Lh. 0.2105 gi. 600 005 000 kJ/hj. 33.8 m2Calculating with Quantitiesin Scientific Notation55. Carry out the following calculations. Express the resultsin scientific notation and with the correct number ofsignificant figures.a. 4.74 104 km 7.71 103 km 1.05 103 kmb. 2.75 104 m 8.03 105 m 2.122 103 mc. 4.0 105 m3 6.85 106 m3 1.05 105 m3d. 3.15 102 mg 3.15 103 mg 3.15 104 mge. 3.01 1022 atoms 1.19 1023 atoms 9.80 1021 atomsf. 6.85 107 nm 4.0229 108 nm 8.38 106 nmA P P E N D I X D 88356. Carry out the following computations, and express theresult in scientific notation.a. 7.20 103 cm 8.08 103 cmb. 3.7 104 mm 6.6 104 mm 9.89 103 mmc. 8.27 102 m 2.5 103 m 3.00 104 md. 4.44 1035 m 5.55 1019 m 7.69 1012 kge. 6.55 104 dm 7.89 109 dm 4.01893 105 dm57. Carry out the following computations, and express theresult in scientific notation.a. 2.290 107 cm 4.33 103 sb. 1.788 105 L 7.111 103 m2c. 5.515 104 L 6.04 103 kmd. 3.29 104 km 1.48 102 mine. 4.73 104 g (2.08 103 km 5.60 104 km)Mixed Review58. Express the following quantities in scientific notation.a. 158 000 kmb. 0.000 009 782 Lc. 837 100 000 cm3d. 6 500 000 000 mm2e. 0.005 93 gf. 0.000 000 006 13 mg. 12 552 000 Jh. 0.000 008 004 g/Li. 0.010 995 kgj. 1 050 000 000 Hz59. Perform the following calculations, and express theresult in scientific notation with the correct number ofsignificant figures.a. 2.48 102 kg 9.17 103 kg 7.2 101 kgb. 4.07 105 mg 3.966 104 mg 7.1 102 mgc. 1.39 104 m3 6.52 102 m3 4.8 103 m3d. 7.70 109 m 3.95 108 m 1.88 107 me. 1.111 105 J 5.82 104 J 3.01 106 Jf. 9.81 1027 molecules 3.18 1025 molecules 2.09 1026 moleculesg. 1.36 107 cm 3.456 106 cm 1.01 107 cm 5.122 105 cm60. Perform the following computations, and express theresult in scientific notation with the correct number ofsignificant figures.a. 1.54 101 L 2.36 104 sb. 3.890 104 mm 4.71 102 mm2c. 9.571 103 kg 3.82 101 m2d. 8.33 103 km 1.97 102 se. 9.36 102 m 3.82 103 m 9.01 101 mf. 6.377 104 J 7.35 103 s61. Your electric company charges you for the electricenergy you use, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh).One kWh is equivalent to 3 600 000 J. Express thisquantity in scientific notation.62. The pressure in the deepest part of the ocean is 11 200 000 Pa. Express this pressure in scientific notation.63. Convert 1.5 km to millimeters, and express the resultin scientific notation.64. Light travels at a speed of about 300 000 km/s.a. Express this value in scientific notation.b. Convert this value to meters per hour.c. What distance in centimeters does light travel in 1 s?65. There are 7.11 1024 molecules in 100.0 cm3 of a cer-tain substance.a. What is the number of molecules in 1.09 cm3 of thesubstance?b. What would be the number of molecules in 2.24 104 cm3 of the substance?c. What number of molecules are in 9.01 106 cm3of the substance?66. The number of transistors on a particular integratedcircuit is 3 578 000, and the integrated circuit measures 9.5 mm 8.2 mm.a. What is the area occupied by each transistor?b. Using your answer from (a), how many transistorscould be formed on a silicon sheet that measures 353 mm 265 mm?67. A solution has 0.0501 g of a substance in 1.00 L.Express this concentration in grams per microliter.68. Cesium atoms are the largest of the naturally occur-ring elements. They have a diameter of 5.30 1010 m.Calculate the number of cesium atoms that wouldhave to be lined up to give a row of cesium atoms 2.54 cm (1 in.) long.69. The neutron has a volume of approximately 1.4 1044 m3 and a mass of 1.675 1024 g. Calculate thedensity of the neutron in g/m3. What is the mass of 1.0 cm3 of neutrons in kilograms?70. The pits in a compact disc are some of the smallestthings ever mass-produced mechanically by humans.These pits represent the 1s and 0s of digital informa-tion on a compact disc. These pits are only 1.6 108 m deep (1/4 the wavelength of red laser light).How many of these pits would have to be stacked ontop of each other to make a hole 0.305 m deep?71. 22 400 mL of oxygen gas contains 6.022 1023 oxygenmolecules at 0C and standard atmospheric pressure.a. How many oxygen molecules are in 0.100 mL ofgas?b. How many oxygen molecules are in 1.00 L of gas?c. What is the average space in milliliters occupied byone oxygen molecule? 72. The mass of the atmosphere is calculated to be 5.136 1018 kg, and there are 6 500 000 000 peopleliving on Earth. Calculate the following values.a. The mass of atmosphere in kilograms per person.b. The mass of atmosphere in metric tons per person.c. If the number of people increases to 9 500 000 000,what is the mass in kilograms per person?73. The mass of the sun is 1.989 1030 kg, and the massof Earth is 5.974 1024 kilograms. How many Earthswould be needed to equal the mass of the sun?74. A new landfill has dimensions of 2.3 km 1.4 km 0.15 km.A P P E N D I X D884a. What is the volume in cubic kilometer?b. What is the volume in cubic meters?c. If 250 000 000 objects averaging 0.060 m3 each areplaced into the landfill each year, how many yearswill it take to fill the landfill?75. A dietary calorie (C) is exactly equal to 1000 cal. Ifyour daily intake of food gives you 2400 C, what isyour intake in joules per day? (1 cal 4.184 J)Four Steps for Solving Quantitative Problems: Chap. 2,Sec. 376. Gasoline has a density of 0.73 g/cm3. How many litersof gasoline would be required to increase the mass ofan automobile from 1271 kg to 1305 kg? 77. A swimming pool measures 9.0 m long by 3.5 m wideby 1.75 m deep. What mass of water in metric tons (1 metric ton 1000 kg) does the pool contain whenfilled? The density of the water in the pool is 0.997 g/cm3.78. A tightly packed box of crackers contains 250 g ofcrackers and measures 7.0 cm 17.0 cm 19.0 cm.What is the average density in kilograms per liter ofthe crackers in the package? Assume that the unusedvolume is negligible.Mixed ReviewSolve these problems by using the Four Steps forSolving Quantitative Problems.79. The aluminum foil on a certain roll has a total area of18.5 m2 and a mass of 1275 g. Using a density of 2.7 gper cubic centimeter for aluminum, determine thethickness in millimeters of the aluminum foil.80. If a liquid has a density of 1.17 g/cm3, how many litersof the liquid have a mass of 3.75 kg?81. A stack of 500 sheets of paper measuring 28 cm 21 cmis 44.5 mm high and has a mass of 2090 g. What is thedensity of the paper in grams per cubic centimeter?82. A triangular-shaped piece of a metal has a mass of 6.58 g. The triangle is 0.560 mm thick and measures36.4 mm on the base and 30.1 mm in height. What is the density of the metal in grams per cubic centi-meter?83. A packing crate measures 0.40 m 0.40 m 0.25 m.You must fill the crate with boxes of cookies that eachmeasure 22.0 cm 12.0 cm 5.0 cm. How manyboxes of cookies can fit into the crate?84. Calculate the unknown quantities in the followingtable. Use the following relationships for volumes ofthe various shapes.Volume of a cube l l lVolume of a rectangle l w hVolume of a sphere 4/3r3Volume of a cylinder r2 h85. When a sample of a metal alloy that has a mass of 9.65 g is placed into a graduated cylinder containingwater, the volume reading in the cylinder increasesfrom 16.0 mL to 19.5 mL. What is the density of thealloy sample in grams per cubic centimeter?86. Pure gold can be made into extremely thin sheetscalled gold leaf. Suppose that 50. kg of gold is madeinto gold leaf having an area of 3620 m2. The densityof gold is 19.3 g/cm3.a. How thick in micrometers is the gold leaf?b. A gold atom has a radius of 1.44 1010 m. Howmany atoms thick is the gold leaf?87. A chemical plant process requires that a cylindricalreaction tank be filled with a certain liquid in 238 s.The tank is 1.2 m in diameter and 4.6 m high. Whatflow rate in liters per minute is required to fill thereaction tank in the specified time?88. The radioactive decay of 2.8 g of plutonium-238generates 1.0 joule of energy as heat every second.Plutonium has a density of 19.86 g/cm3. How many calo-ries (1 cal 4.184 J) of energy as heat will a rectangularpiece of plutonium that is 4.5 cm 3.05 cm 15 cmgenerate per hour?89. The mass of Earth is 5.974 1024 kg. Assume thatEarth is a sphere of diameter 1.28 104 km and calcu-late the average density of Earth in g/cm3.90. What volume of magnesium in cubic centimeterswould have the same mass as 1.82 dm3 of platinum?The density of magnesium is 1.74 g/cm3, and the den-sity of platinum is 21.45 g/cm3.91. A roll of transparent tape has 66 m of tape on it. If anaverage of 5.0 cm of tape is needed each time the tapeis used, how many uses can you get from a case oftape containing 24 rolls?92. An automobile can travel 38 km on 4.0 L of gasoline.If the automobile is driven 75% of the days in a yearand the average distance traveled each day is 86 km,how many liters of gasoline will be consumed in oneyear (assume the year has 365 days)?93. A hose delivers water to a swimming pool that mea-sures 9.0 m long by 3.5 m wide by 1.75 m deep. Itrequires 97 h to fill the pool. At what rate in liters perminute will the hose fill the pool?94. Automobile batteries are filled with a solution of sul-furic acid, which has a density of 1.285 g/cm3. Thesolution used to fill the battery is 38% (by mass) A P P E N D I X D 885D m V Shape Dimensionsa. 2.27 g/cm3 3.93 kg ? L cube ? m ? m ? mb. 1.85 g/cm3 ? g ? cm3 rectangle 33 mm 21 mm 7.2 mmc. 3.21 g/L ? kg ? dm3 sphere 3.30 m diameterd. ? g/cm3 497 g ? m3 cylinder 7.5 cm diameter 12 cme. 0.92 g/cm3 ? kg ? cm3 rectangle 3.5 m 1.2 m 0.65 msulfuric acid. How many grams of sulfuric acid are pre-sent in 500 mL of battery acid?Mole Concept: Chap. 3, Sec. 3;Chap. 7, Sec. 3Problems Involving Atoms and Elements95. Calculate the number of moles in each of the followingmasses.a. 64.1 g of aluminum b. 28.1 g of siliconc. 0.255 g of sulfurd. 850.5 g of zinc96. Calculate the mass of each of the following amounts.a. 1.22 mol sodium b. 14.5 mol copperc. 0.275 mol mercuryd. 9.37 103 mol magnesium97. Calculate the amount in moles in each of the followingquantities.a. 3.01 1023 atoms of rubidiumb. 8.08 1022 atoms of kryptonc. 5 700 000 000 atoms of leadd. 2.997 1025 atoms of vanadium98. Calculate the number of atoms in each of the follow-ing amounts.a. 1.004 mol bismuthb. 2.5 mol manganesec. 0.000 0002 mol heliumd. 32.6 mol strontium99. Calculate the number of atoms in each of the follow-ing masses.a. 54.0 g of aluminumb. 69.45 g of lanthanumc. 0.697 g of galliumd. 0.000 000 020 g beryllium100. Calculate the mass of the following numbers of atoms.a. 6.022 1024 atoms of tantalumb. 3.01 1021 atoms of cobaltc. 1.506 1024 atoms of argond. 1.20 1025 atoms of heliumProblems Involving Molecules, FormulaUnits, and Ions101. Calculate the number of moles in each of the followingmasses.a. 3.00 g of boron tribromide, BBr3b. 0.472 g of sodium fluoride, NaFc. 7.50 102 g of methanol, CH3OHd. 50.0 g of calcium chlorate, Ca(ClO3)2102. Determine the mass of each of the following amounts.a. 1.366 mol of NH3b. 0.120 mol of glucose, C6H12O6c. 6.94 mol barium chloride, BaCl2d. 0.005 mol of propane, C3H8103. Calculate the number of molecules in each of the fol-lowing amounts.a. 4.99 mol of methane, CH4 b. 0.005 20 mol of nitrogen gas, N2c. 1.05 mol of phosphorus trichloride, PCl3 d. 3.5 105 mol of vitamin C, ascorbic acid, C6H8O6104. Calculate the number of formula units in the followingamounts.a. 1.25 mol of potassium bromide, KBrb. 5.00 mol of magnesium chloride, MgCl2c. 0.025 mol of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3d. 6.82 106 mol of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2105. Calculate the amount in moles of the following num-bers of molecules or formula units.a. 3.34 1034 formula units of Cu(OH)2b. 1.17 1016 molecules of H2Sc. 5.47 1021 formula units of nickel(II) sulfate,NiSO4d. 7.66 1019 molecules of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2106. Calculate the mass of each of the following quantities.a. 2.41 1024 molecules of hydrogen, H2b. 5.00 1021 formula units of aluminum hydroxide,Al(OH)3c. 8.25 1022 molecules of bromine pentafluoride,BrF5d. 1.20 1023 formula units of sodium oxalate,Na2C2O4107. Calculate the number of molecules or formula units ineach of the following masses.a. 22.9 g of sodium sulfide, Na2Sb. 0.272 g of nickel(II) nitrate, Ni(NO3)2c. 260 mg of acrylonitrile, CH2CHCN Mixed Review108. Calculate the number of moles in each of the followingmasses.a. 0.039 g of palladiumb. 8200 g of ironc. 0.0073 kg of tantalumd. 0.006 55 g of antimonye. 5.64 kg of barium109. Calculate the mass in grams of each of the followingamounts.a. 1.002 mol of chromiumb. 550 mol of aluminumc. 4.08 108 mol of neond. 7 mol of titaniume. 0.0086 mol of xenonf. 3.29 104 mol of lithium110. Calculate the number of atoms in each of the follow-ing amounts.a. 17.0 mol of germaniumb. 0.6144 mol of copperc. 3.02 mol of tind. 2.0 106 mol of carbone. 0.0019 mol of zirconiumf. 3.227 1010 mol of potassium111. Calculate the number of moles in each of the follow-ing quantities.a. 6.022 1024 atoms of cobaltb. 1.06 1023 atoms of tungstenc. 3.008 1019 atoms of silverA P P E N D I X D886d. 950 000 000 atoms of plutoniume. 4.61 1017 atoms of radonf. 8 trillion atoms of cerium112. Calculate the number of atoms in each of the follow-ing masses.a. 0.0082 g of goldb. 812 g of molybdenumc. 2.00 102 mg of americiumd. 10.09 kg of neone. 0.705 mg of bismuthf. 37 g of uranium113. Calculate the mass of each of the following.a. 8.22 1023 atoms of rubidiumb. 4.05 Avogadros constants of manganese atomsc. 9.96 1026 atoms of telluriumd. 0.000 025 Avogadros constants of rhodium atomse. 88 300 000 000 000 atoms of radiumf. 2.94 1017 atoms of hafnium114. Calculate the number of moles in each of the follow-ing masses.a. 45.0 g of acetic acid, CH3COOHb. 7.04 g of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2c. 5000 kg of iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3d. 12.0 mg of ethylamine, C2H5NH2e. 0.003 22 g of stearic acid, C17H35COOHf. 50.0 kg of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4115. Calculate the mass of each of the following amounts.a. 3.00 mol of selenium oxybromide, SeOBr2b. 488 mol of calcium carbonate, CaCO3c. 0.0091 mol of retinoic acid, C20H28O2d. 6.00 108 mol of nicotine, C10H14N2e. 2.50 mol of strontium nitrate, Sr(NO3)2f. 3.50 106 mol of uranium hexafluoride, UF6116. Calculate the number of molecules or formula units ineach of the following amounts.a. 4.27 mol of tungsten(VI) oxide, WO3b. 0.003 00 mol of strontium nitrate, Sr(NO3)2c. 72.5 mol of toluene, C6H5CH3d. 5.11 107 mol of -tocopherol (vitamin E),C29H50O2e. 1500 mol of hydrazine, N2H4f. 0.989 mol of nitrobenzene C6H5NO2117. Calculate the number of molecules or formula units ineach of the following masses.a. 285 g of iron(III) phosphate, FePO4b. 0.0084 g of C5H5Nc. 85 mg of 2-methyl-1-propanol, (CH3)2CHCH2OHd. 4.6 104 g of mercury(II) acetate, Hg(C2H3O2)2e. 0.0067 g of lithium carbonate, Li2CO3118. Calculate the mass of each of the following quantities.a. 8.39 1023 molecules of fluorine, F2b. 6.82 1024 formula units of beryllium sulfate,BeSO4c. 7.004 1026 molecules of chloroform, CHCl3d. 31 billion formula units of chromium(III) formate,Cr(CHO2)3e. 6.3 1018 molecules of nitric acid, HNO3f. 8.37 1025 molecules of freon 114, C2Cl2F4119. Precious metals are commonly measured in troyounces. A troy ounce is equivalent to 31.1 g. Howmany moles are in a troy ounce of gold? How manymoles are in a troy ounce of platinum? of silver?120. A chemist needs 22.0 g of phenol, C6H5OH, for anexperiment. How many moles of phenol is this?121. A student needs 0.015 mol of iodine crystals, I2, for anexperiment. What mass of iodine crystals should thestudent obtain?122. The weight of a diamond is given in carats. One caratis equivalent to 200. mg. A pure diamond is made upentirely of carbon atoms. How many carbon atomsmake up a 1.00 carat diamond?123. 8.00 g of calcium chloride, CaCl2, is dissolved in 1.000 kg of water. a. How many moles of CaCl2 are in solution? Howmany moles of water are present?b. Assume that the ionic compound, CaCl2 , separatescompletely into Ca2 and Cl ions when it dissolvesin water. How many moles of each ion are presentin the solution?124. How many moles are in each of the following masses?a. 453.6 g (1.000 pound) of sucrose (table sugar),C12H22O11b. 1.000 pound of table salt, NaCl125. When the ionic compound NH4Cl dissolves in water, itbreaks into one ammonium ion, NH4, and one chlo-ride ion, Cl. If you dissolved 10.7 g of NH4Cl inwater, how many moles of ions would be in solution?126. What is the total amount in moles of atoms in a jarthat contains 2.41 1024 atoms of chromium, 1.51 1023 atoms of nickel, and 3.01 1023 atoms of copper?127. The density of liquid water is 0.997 g/mL at 25C. a. Calculate the mass of 250.0 mL (about a cupful) ofwater.b. How many moles of water are in 250.0 mL ofwater? Hint: Use the result of (a).c. Calculate the volume that would be occupied by2.000 mol of water at 25C.d. What mass of water is 2.000 mol of water?128. An Avogadros constant (1 mol) of sugar moleculeshas a mass of 342 g, but an Avogadros constant (1 mol) of water molecules has a mass of only 18 g.Explain why there is such a difference between themass of 1 mol of sugar and the mass of 1 mol of water.129. Calculate the mass of aluminum that would have thesame number of atoms as 6.35 g of cadmium.130. A chemist weighs a steel cylinder of compressed oxy-gen, O2 , and finds that it has a mass of 1027.8 g. Aftersome of the oxygen is used in an experiment, thecylinder has a mass of 1023.2 g. How many moles ofoxygen gas are used in the experiment?131. Suppose that you could decompose 0.250 mol of Ag2Sinto its elements.a. How many moles of silver would you have? Howmany moles of sulfur would you have?b. How many moles of Ag2S are there in 38.8 g ofAg2S? How many moles of silver and sulfur wouldbe produced from this amount of Ag2S?c. Calculate the masses of silver and sulfur producedin (b).A P P E N D I X D 887Percentage Composition: Chap. 7,Sec. 3132. Determine the percentage composition of each of thefollowing compounds.a. sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4b. ethanol, C2H5OHc. aluminum oxide, Al2O3d. potassium sulfate, K2SO4133. Suppose that a laboratory analysis of white powdershowed 42.59% Na, 12.02% C, and 44.99% oxygen.Would you report that the compound is sodium oxalateor sodium carbonate? (Use 43.38% Na, 11.33% C, and45.29% O for sodium carbonate, and 34.31% Na,17.93% C, and 47.76% O for sodium oxalate.)134. Calculate the mass of the given element in each of thefollowing compounds.a. bromine in 50.0 g potassium bromide, KBrb. chromium in 1.00 kg sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7c. nitrogen in 85.0 mg of the amino acid lysine,C6H14N2O2d. cobalt in 2.84 g cobalt(II) acetate, Co(C2H3O2)2Hydrates135. Calculate the percentage of water in each of the follow-ing hydrates.a. sodium carbonate decahydrate, Na2CO310H2O b. nickel(II) iodide hexahydrate, NiI26H2O c. ammonium hexacyanoferrate(III) trihydrate (commonly called ammonium ferricyanide),(NH4)2Fe(CN)63H2O d. aluminum bromide hexahydrateMixed Review136. Write formulas for the following compounds and deter-mine the percentage composition of each.a. nitric acidb. ammoniac. mercury(II) sulfated. antimony(V) fluoride137. Calculate the percentage composition of the followingcompounds.a. lithium bromide, LiBrb. anthracene, C14H10c. ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3d. nitrous acid, HNO2e. silver sulfide, Ag2Sf. iron(II) thiocyanate, Fe(SCN)2g. lithium acetateh. nickel(II) formate138. Calculate the percentage of the given element in eachof the following compounds.a. nitrogen in urea, NH2CONH2b. sulfur in sulfuryl chloride, SO2Cl2c. thallium in thallium(III) oxide, Tl2O3d. oxygen in potassium chlorate, KClO3e. bromine in calcium bromide, CaBr2f. tin in tin(IV) oxide, SnO2139. Calculate the mass of the given element in each of thefollowing quantities.a. oxygen in 4.00 g of manganese dioxide, MnO2b. aluminum in 50.0 metric tons of aluminum oxide,Al2O3c. silver in 325 g silver cyanide, AgCNd. gold in 0.780 g of gold(III) selenide, Au2Se3e. selenium in 683 g sodium selenite, Na2SeO3f. chlorine in 5.0 104 g of 1,1-dichloropropane,CHCl2CH2CH3140. Calculate the percentage of water in each of the fol-lowing hydrates.a. strontium chloride hexahydrate, SrCl26H2O b. zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO47H2Oc. calcium fluorophosphate dihydrate, CaFPO32H2O d. beryllium nitrate trihydrate, Be(NO3)23H2O141. Calculate the percentage of the given element in eachof the following hydrates. You must first determinethe formulas of the hydrates.a. nickel in nickel(II) acetate tetrahydrateb. chromium in sodium chromate tetrahydratec. cerium in cerium(IV) sulfate tetrahydrate142. Cinnabar is a mineral that is mined in order to pro-duce mercury. Cinnabar is mercury(II) sulfide, HgS.What mass of mercury can be obtained from 50.0 kgof cinnabar?143. The minerals malachite, Cu2(OH)2CO3 , and chalcopy-rite, CuFeS2 , can be mined to obtain copper metal.How much copper could be obtained from 1.00 103 kg of each? Which of the two has the greater cop-per content?144. Calculate the percentage of the given element in eachof the following hydrates.a. vanadium in vanadium oxysulfate dihydrate,VOSO42H2O b. tin in potassium stannate trihydrate, K2SnO33H2Oc. chlorine in calcium chlorate dihydrate,CaClO32H2O145. Heating copper sulfate pentahydrate will evaporatethe water from the crystals, leaving anhydrous coppersulfate, a white powder. Anhydrous means withoutwater. What mass of anhydrous CuSO4 would be pro-duced by heating 500.0 g of CuSO45H2O?146. Silver metal may be precipitated from a solution of sil-ver nitrate by placing a copper strip into the solution.What mass of AgNO3 would you dissolve in water inorder to get 1.00 g of silver?147. A sample of Ag2S has a mass of 62.4 g. What mass ofeach element could be obtained by decomposing thissample?148. A quantity of epsom salts, magnesium sulfate heptahy-drate, MgSO47H2O, is heated until all the water is driven off. The sample loses 11.8 g in the process.What was the mass of the original sample?149. The process of manufacturing sulfuric acid begins withthe burning of sulfur. What mass of sulfur would haveto be burned in order to produce 1.00 kg of H2SO4 ?Assume that all of the sulfur ends up in the sulfuricacid.A P P E N D I X D888Empirical Formulas: Chap. 7, Sec. 4150. Determine the empirical formula for compounds thathave the following analyses.a. 28.4% copper, 71.6% bromine b. 39.0% potassium, 12.0% carbon, 1.01% hydrogen,and 47.9% oxygenc. 77.3% silver, 7.4% phosphorus, 15.3% oxygend. 0.57% hydrogen, 72.1% iodine, 27.3% oxygen 151. Determine the simplest formula for compounds thathave the following analyses. The data may not be exact.a. 36.2% aluminum and 63.8% sulfur b. 93.5% niobium and 6.50% oxygen c. 57.6% strontium, 13.8% phosphorus, and 28.6%oxygend. 28.5% iron, 48.6% oxygen, and 22.9% sulfur152. Determine the molecular formula of each of the fol-lowing unknown substances.a. empirical formula CH2experimental molar mass 28 g/molb. empirical formula B2H5experimental molar mass 54 g/molc. empirical formula C2HCl experimental molar mass 179 g/mold. empirical formula C6H8O experimental molar mass 290 g/mole. empirical formula C3H2Oexperimental molar mass 216 g/molMixed Review153. Determine the empirical formula for compounds thathave the following analyses.a. 66.0% barium and 34.0% chlorineb. 80.38% bismuth, 18.46% oxygen, and 1.16% hydrogenc. 12.67% aluminum, 19.73% nitrogen, and 67.60%oxygend. 35.64% zinc, 26.18% carbon, 34.88% oxygen, and3.30% hydrogene. 2.8% hydrogen, 9.8% nitrogen, 20.5% nickel, 44.5% oxygen, and 22.4% sulfurf. 8.09% carbon, 0.34% hydrogen, 10.78% oxygen,and 80.78% bromine154. Sometimes, instead of percentage composition, youwill have the composition of a sample by mass. Usingthe actual mass of the sample, determine the empiri-cal formula for compounds that have the followinganalyses.a. a 0.858 g sample of an unknown substance is com-posed of 0.537 g of copper and 0.321 g of fluorineb. a 13.07 g sample of an unknown substance is com-posed of 9.48 g of barium, 1.66 g of carbon, and 1.93 g of nitrogenc. a 0.025 g sample of an unknown substance is com-posed of 0.0091 g manganese, 0.0106 g oxygen, and0.0053 g sulfur155. Determine the empirical formula for compounds thathave the following analyses.a. a 0.0082 g sample contains 0.0015 g of nickel and0.0067 g of iodineb. a 0.470 g sample contains 0.144 g of manganese, 0.074 g of nitrogen, and 0.252 g of oxygenc. a 3.880 g sample contains 0.691 g of magnesium,1.824 g of sulfur, and 1.365 g of oxygend. a 46.25 g sample contains 14.77 g of potassium, 9.06 g of oxygen, and 22.42 g of tin156. Determine the empirical formula for compounds thathave the following analyses:a. 60.9% As and 39.1% Sb. 76.89% Re and 23.12% Oc. 5.04% H, 35.00% N, and 59.96% Od. 24.3% Fe, 33.9% Cr, and 41.8% Oe. 54.03% C, 37.81% N, and 8.16% Hf. 55.81% C, 3.90% H, 29.43% F, and 10.85% N157. Determine the molecular formulas for compoundshaving the following empirical formulas and molarmasses.a. C2H4S; experimental molar mass 179b. C2H4O; experimental molar mass 176c. C2H3O2 ; experimental molar mass 119d. C2H2O, experimental molar mass 254158. Use the experimental molar mass to determine themolecular formula for compounds having the follow-ing analyses.a. 41.39% carbon, 3.47% hydrogen, and 55.14% oxy-gen; experimental molar mass 116.07b. 54.53% carbon, 9.15% hydrogen, and 36.32% oxy-gen; experimental molar mass 88c. 64.27% carbon, 7.19% hydrogen, and 28.54% oxy-gen; experimental molar mass 168.19159. A 0.400 g sample of a white powder contains 0.141 gof potassium, 0.115 g of sulfur, and 0.144 g of oxygen.What is the empirical formula for the compound? 160. A 10.64 g sample of a lead compound is analyzed andfound to be made up of 9.65 g of lead and 0.99 g ofoxygen. Determine the empirical formula for this com-pound.161. A 2.65 g sample of a salmon-colored powder contains0.70 g of chromium, 0.65 g of sulfur, and 1.30 g of oxy-gen. The molar mass is 392.2. What is the formula ofthe compound?162. Ninhydrin is a compound that reacts with amino acidsand proteins to produce a dark-colored complex. It isused by forensic chemists and detectives to see finger-prints that might otherwise be invisible. Ninhydrinscomposition is 60.68% carbon, 3.40% hydrogen, and35.92% oxygen. What is the empirical formula for nin-hydrin?163. Histamine is a substance that is released by cells inresponse to injury, infection, stings, and materials thatcause allergic responses, such as pollen. Histamine causes dilation of blood vessels and swelling due toaccumulation of fluid in the tissues. People sometimestake antihistamine drugs to counteract the effects ofhistamine. A sample of histamine having a mass of 385 mg is composed of 208 mg of carbon, 31 mg ofhydrogen, and 146 mg of nitrogen. The molar mass ofhistamine is 111 g/mol. What is the molecular formulafor histamine?A P P E N D I X D 889164. You analyze two substances in the laboratory and dis-cover that each has the empirical formula CH2O. Youcan easily see that they are different substancesbecause one is a liquid with a sharp, biting odor andthe other is an odorless, crystalline solid. How can youaccount for the fact that both have the same empiricalformula? Stoichiometry: Chap. 9, Sec. 12165. How many moles of sodium will react with water toproduce 4.0 mol of hydrogen in the following reac-tion?2Na(s) 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) H2(g)166. How many moles of lithium chloride will be formedby the reaction of chlorine with 0.046 mol of lithiumbromide in the following reaction? 2LiBr(aq) Cl2(g) 2LiCl(aq) Br2(l)167. Aluminum will react with sulfuric acid in the followingreaction. 2Al(s) 3H2SO4(l) Al2(SO4)3(aq) 3H2(g)a. How many moles of H2SO4 will react with 18 molAl?b. How many moles of each product will be produced? 168. Propane burns in excess oxygen according to the fol-lowing reaction.C3H8 5O2 3CO2 4H2Oa. How many moles each of CO2 and H2O are formedfrom 3.85 mol of propane? b. If 0.647 mol of oxygen are used in the burning ofpropane, how many moles each of CO2 and H2Oare produced? How many moles of C3H8 are con-sumed?169. Phosphorus burns in air to produce a phosphorusoxide in the following reaction:4P(s) 5O2(g) P4O10(s)a. What mass of phosphorus will be needed to pro-duce 3.25 mol of P4O10? b. If 0.489 mol of phosphorus burns, what mass of oxygen is used? What mass of P4O10 is produced?170. Hydrogen peroxide breaks down, releasing oxygen, inthe following reaction.2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) O2(g) a. What mass of oxygen is produced when 1.840 molof H2O2 decompose? b. What mass of water is produced when 5.0 mol O2 isproduced by this reaction?171. Sodium carbonate reacts with nitric acid according tothe following equation:Na2CO3(s) 2HNO3 2NaNO3 CO2 H2O a. How many moles of Na2CO3 are required to pro-duce 100.0 g of NaNO3? b. If 7.50 g of Na2CO3 reacts, how many moles of CO2are produced?172. Hydrogen is generated by passing hot steam over iron,which oxidizes to form Fe3O4 , in the following equa-tion:3Fe(s) 4H2O(g) 4H2(g) Fe3O4(s) a. If 625 g of Fe3O4 is produced in the reaction, howmany moles of hydrogen are produced at the same time?b. How many moles of iron would be needed to gener-ate 27 g of hydrogen?173. Calculate the mass of silver bromide produced from22.5 g of silver nitrate in the following reaction:2AgNO3(aq) MgBr2(aq) 2AgBr(s) Mg(NO3)2(aq) 174. What mass of acetylene, C2H2, will be produced fromthe reaction of 90. g of calcium carbide, CaC2, withwater in the following reaction? CaC2(s) 2H2O(l) C2H2(g) Ca(OH)2(s)175. Chlorine gas can be produced in the laboratory byadding concentrated hydrochloric acid tomanganese(IV) oxide in the following reaction: MnO2(s) 4HCl(aq) MnCl2(aq) 2H2O(l) Cl2(g)a. Calculate the mass of MnO2 needed to produce25.0 g of Cl2. b. What mass of MnCl2 is produced when 0.091 g ofCl2 is generated? Mixed Review176. How many moles of ammonium sulfate can be madefrom the reaction of 30.0 mol of NH3 with H2SO4 accord-ing to the following equation:2NH3 H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4177. In a very violent reaction called a thermite reaction,aluminum metal reacts with iron(III) oxide to formiron metal and aluminum oxide according to the fol-lowing equation:Fe2O3 2Al 2Fe Al2O3a. What mass of Al will react with 150 g of Fe2O3?b. If 0.905 mol Al2O3 is produced in the reaction, whatmass of Fe is produced?c. How many moles of Fe2O3 will react with 99.0 g ofAl? 178. The reaction N2(g) 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) is used toproduce ammonia commercially. If 1.40 g of N2 areused in the reaction, how many grams of H2 will beneeded?179. What mass of sulfuric acid, H2SO4 , is required to reactwith 1.27 g of potassium hydroxide, KOH? The prod-ucts of this reaction are potassium sulfate and water. 180. Ammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4 , acommon fertilizer; is made from reacting phosphoricacid, H3PO4 , with ammonia.a. Write the equation for this reaction.b. If 10.00 g of ammonia react, how many moles offertilizer will be produced?A P P E N D I X D890c. What mass of ammonia will react with 2800 kg ofH3PO4 ?181. The following reaction shows the synthesis of zinc cit-rate, a ingredient in toothpaste, from zinc carbonateand citric acid:3ZnCO3(s) 2C6H8O7(aq) Zn3(C6H5O7)2(aq) 3H2O(l) 3CO2(g)a. How many moles of ZnCO3 and C6H8O7 arerequired to produce 30.0 mol of Zn3(C6H5O7)2?b. What quantities, in kilograms, of H2O and CO2 areproduced by the reaction of 500. mol of citric acid?182. Methyl butanoate, an oily substance with a strongfruity fragrance can be made by reacting butanoic acidwith methanol according to the following equation:C3H7COOH CH3OH C3H7COOCH3 H2Oa. What mass of methyl butanoate is produced fromthe reaction of 52.5 g of butanoic acid?b. In order to purify methyl butanoate, water must beremoved. What mass of water is produced from thereaction of 5800. g of methanol?183. Ammonium nitrate decomposes to yield nitrogen gas,water, and oxygen gas in the following reaction:2NH4NO3 2N2 O2 4H2Oa. How many moles of nitrogen gas are producedwhen 36.0 g of NH4NO3 reacts?b. If 7.35 mol of H2O are produced in this reaction,what mass of NH4NO3 reacted?184. Lead(II) nitrate reacts with potassium iodide to pro-duce lead(II) iodide and potassium nitrate. If 1.23 mgof lead nitrate are consumed, what is the mass of thepotassium nitrate produced?185. A car battery produces electrical energy with the fol-lowing chemical reaction:Pb(s) PbO2(s) 2H2SO4(aq) 2PbSO4(s) 2H2O(l)If the battery loses 0.34 kg of lead in this reaction,how many moles of lead(II) sulfate are produced?186. In a space shuttle, the CO2 that the crew exhales isremoved from the air by a reaction within canisters oflithium hydroxide. On average, each astronaut exhalesabout 20.0 mol of CO2 daily. What mass of water willbe produced when this amount reacts with LiOH? Theother product of the reaction is Li2CO3. 187. Water is sometimes removed from the products of areaction by placing them in a closed container withexcess P4O10 . Water is absorbed by the following reac-tion:P4O10 6H2O 4H3PO4a. What mass of water can be absorbed by 1.00 102 g of P4O10 ?b. If the P4O10 in the container absorbs 0.614 mol ofwater, what mass of H3PO4 is produced?c. If the mass of the container of P4O10 increases from56.64 g to 63.70 g, how many moles of water areabsorbed?188. Ethanol, C2H5OH, is considered a clean fuel becauseit burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide andwater with few trace pollutants. If 95.0 g of H2O areproduced during the combustion of ethanol, howmany grams of ethanol were present at the beginningof the reaction?189. Sulfur dioxide is one of the major contributors to acidrain. Sulfur dioxide can react with oxygen and water inthe atmosphere to form sulfuric acid, as shown in thefollowing equation: 2H2O(l) O2(g) 2SO2(g) 2H2SO4(aq)If 50.0 g of sulfur dioxide from pollutants reacts withwater and oxygen found in the air, how many grams ofsulfuric acid can be produced? How many grams ofoxygen are used in the process?190. When heated, sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3 , decom-poses into sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 , water, and car-bon dioxide. If 5.00 g of NaHCO3 decomposes, what isthe mass of the carbon dioxide produced?191. A reaction between hydrazine, N2H4 , and dinitrogentetroxide, N2O4 , has been used to launch rockets intospace. The reaction produces nitrogen gas and watervapor.a. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.b. What is the mole ratio of N2O4 to N2?c. How many moles of N2 will be produced if 20 000 mol of N2H4 are used by a rocket?d. How many grams of H2O are made when 450. kg ofN2O4 are consumed?192. Joseph Priestley is credited with the discovery of oxy-gen. He produced O2 by heating mercury(II) oxide,HgO, to decompose it into its elements. How manymoles of oxygen could Priestley have produced if hehad decomposed 517.84 g of mercury oxide?193. Iron(III) chloride, FeCl3 , can be made by the reactionof iron with chlorine gas. How much iron, in grams,will be needed to completely react with 58.0 g of Cl2?194. Sodium sulfide and cadmium nitrate undergo a double-displacement reaction as shown by the follow-ing equation:Na2S Cd(NO3)2 2NaNO3 CdSWhat is the mass, in milligrams, of cadmium sulfidethat can be made from 5.00 mg of sodium sulfide?195. Potassium permanganate and glycerin react explo-sively according to the following equation: 14KMnO4 4C3H5(OH)3 7K2CO3 7Mn2O3 5CO2 16H2Oa. How many moles of carbon dioxide can be pro-duced from 4.44 mol of KMnO4?b. If 5.21 g of H2O are produced, how many moles ofglycerin, C3H5(OH)3 , were used?c. If 3.39 mol of potassium carbonate are made, howmany grams of manganese(III) oxide are alsomade?d. How many grams of glycerin will be needed to reactwith 50.0 g of KMnO4? How many grams of CO2will be produced in the same reaction?196. Calcium carbonate found in limestone and marblereacts with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride,A P P E N D I X D 891carbon dioxide, and water according to the followingequation:CaCO3(s) 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) CO2(g) H2O(l) a. What mass of HCl will be needed to produce 5.00 103 kg of CaCl2?b. What mass of CO2 could be produced from thereaction of 750 g of CaCO3?197. The fuel used to power the booster rockets on thespace shuttle is a mixture of aluminum metal andammonium perchlorate. The following balanced equa-tion represents the reaction of these two ingredients:3Al(s) 3NH4ClO4(s) Al2O3(s) +AlCl3(g) 3NO(g) 6H2O(g) a. If 1.50 105 g of Al react, what mass of NH4ClO4,in grams, is required?b. If aluminum reacts with 620 kg of NH4ClO4 , whatmass of nitrogen monoxide is produced?198. Phosphoric acid is typically produced by the action ofsulfuric acid on rock that has a high content of calciumphosphate according to the following equation:3H2SO4 Ca3(PO4)2 6H2O 3[CaSO42H2O] 2H3PO4a. If 2.50 105 kg of H2SO4 react, how many moles ofH3PO4 can be made?b. What mass of calcium sulfate dihydrate is producedby the reaction of 400. kg of calcium phosphate?c. If the rock being used contains 78.8% Ca3(PO4)2 ,how many metric tons of H3PO4 can be producedfrom 68 metric tons of rock?199. Rusting of iron occurs in the presence of moistureaccording to the following equation:4Fe(s) 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s) Suppose that 3.19% of a heap of steel scrap with amass of 1650 kg rusts in a year. What mass will theheap have after one year of rusting?Limiting Reactants: Chap. 9, Sec. 3200. Aluminum oxidizes according to the following equation: 4Al 3O2 2Al2O3Powdered Al (0.048 mol) is placed into a container containing 0.030 mol O2 . What is the limiting reactant?201. A process by which zirconium metal can be producedfrom the mineral zirconium(IV) orthosilicate, ZrSiO4 ,starts by reacting it with chlorine gas to form zirconi-um(IV) chloride:ZrSiO4 2Cl2 ZrCl4 SiO2 O2What mass of ZrCl4 can be produced if 862 g ofZrSiO4 and 950. g of Cl2 are available? You must firstdetermine the limiting reactant.Mixed Review202. Heating zinc sulfide in the presence of oxygen yieldsthe following:ZnS O2 ZnO SO2If 1.72 mol of ZnS is heated in the presence of 3.04 mol of O2 , which reactant will be used up?Balance the equation first.203. Use the following equation for the oxidation of alu-minum in the following problems:4Al 3O2 2Al2O3a. Which reactant is limiting if 0.32 mol Al and 0.26 mol O2 are available?b. How many moles of Al2O3 are formed from thereaction of 6.38 103 mol of O2 and 9.15 103 mol of Al?c. If 3.17 g of Al and 2.55 g of O2 are available, whichreactant is limiting?204. In the production of copper from ore containing cop-per(II) sulfide, the ore is first roasted to change it tothe oxide according to the following equation:2CuS 3O2 2CuO 2SO2a. If 100 g of CuS and 56 g of O2 are available, whichreactant is limiting?b. What mass of CuO can be formed from the reactionof 18.7 g of CuS and 12.0 g of O2?205. A reaction such as the one shown here is often used todemonstrate a single-displacement reaction:3CuSO4(aq) 2Fe(s) 3Cu(s) Fe2(SO4)3(aq)If you place 0.092 mol of iron filings in a solution con-taining 0.158 mol of CuSO4, what is the limiting re-actant? How many moles of Cu will be formed?206. In the reaction BaCO3 2HNO3 Ba(NO3)2 CO2 H2O, what mass of Ba(NO3)2 can be formedby combining 55 g BaCO3 and 26 g HNO3?207. Bromine replaces iodine in magnesium iodide by thefollowing process:MgI2 Br2 MgBr2 I2a. Which is the excess reactant when 560 g of MgI2and 360 g of Br2 react, and what mass remains?b. What mass of I2 is formed in the same process?208. Nickel replaces silver from silver nitrate in solutionaccording to the following equation:2AgNO3 Ni 2Ag Ni(NO3)2a. If you have 22.9 g of Ni and 112 g of AgNO3 , whichreactant is in excess?b. What mass of nickel(II) nitrate would be producedgiven the quantities above?209. Carbon disulfide, CS2 , is an important industrial sub-stance. Its fumes can burn explosively in air to formsulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide:CS2(g) O2(g) SO2(g) CO2(g)If 1.60 mol of CS2 burns with 5.60 mol of O2 , howmany moles of the excess reactant will still be presentwhen the reaction is over?210. Although poisonous, mercury compounds were onceused to kill bacteria in wounds and on the skin. One wascalled ammoniated mercury and is made from mer-cury(II) chloride according to the following equation:HgCl2(aq) 2NH3(aq) Hg(NH2)Cl(s) NH4Cl(aq)A P P E N D I X D892a. What mass of Hg(NH2)Cl could be produced from0.91 g of HgCl2 assuming plenty of ammonia isavailable?b. What mass of Hg(NH2)Cl could be produced from0.91 g of HgCl2 and 0.15 g of NH3 in solution?211. Aluminum chips are sometimes added to sodiumhydroxide-based drain cleaners because they react togenerate hydrogen gas which bubbles and helps loosenmaterial in the drain. The equation follows:Al(s) NaOH(aq) H2O(l) NaAlO2(aq) H2(g)a. Balance the equation.b. How many moles of H2 can be generated from 0.57 mol Al and 0.37 mol NaOH in excess water?c. Which reactant should be limiting in order for themixture to be most effective as a drain cleaner?Explain your choice.212. Copper is changed to copper(II) ions by nitric acidaccording to the following equation:4HNO3 Cu Cu(NO3)2 2NO2 2H2Oa. How many moles each of HNO3 and Cu must reactin order to produce 0.0845 mol of NO2?b. If 5.94 g of Cu and 23.23 g of HNO3 are combined,which reactant is in excess?213. One industrial process for producing nitric acid beginswith the following reaction:4NH3 5O2 4NO 6H2Oa. If 2.90 mol NH3 and 3.75 mol O2 are available, howmany moles of each product are formed?b. Which reactant is limiting if 4.20 104 g of NH3and 1.31 105 g of O2 are available?c. What mass of NO is formed in the reaction of 869 kg of NH3 and 2480 kg O2?214. Acetaldehyde, CH3CHO, is manufactured by the reac-tion of ethanol with copper(II) oxide according to thefollowing equation:CH3CH2OH CuO CH3CHO H2O CuWhat mass of acetaldehyde can be produced by thereaction between 620 g of ethanol and 1020 g of CuO?What mass of which reactant will be left over?215. Hydrogen bromide can be produced by a reactionamong bromine, sulfur dioxide, and water as follows:SO2 Br2 H2O 2HBr H2SO4If 250 g of SO2 and 650 g of Br2 react in the presenceof excess water, what mass of HBr will be formed?216. Sulfur dioxide can be produced in the laboratory bythe reaction of hydrochloric acid and a sulfite salt suchas sodium sulfite:Na2SO3 2HCl 2NaCl SO2 H2OWhat mass of SO2 can be made from 25.0 g of Na2SO3and 22.0 g of HCl?217. The rare-earth metal terbium is produced from ter-bium(III) fluoride and calcium metal by the followingsingle-displacement reaction:2TbF3 3Ca 3CaF2 2Tba. Given 27.5 g of TbF3 and 6.96 g of Ca, how manygrams of terbium could be produced?b. How many grams of the excess reactant is left over?Percentage Yield: Chap. 9, Sec. 3218. Calculate the percentage yield in each of the followingcases.a. theoretical yield is 50.0 g of product; actual yield is41.9 gb. theoretical yield is 290 kg of product; actual yield is270 kgc. theoretical yield is 6.05 104 kg of product; actualyield is 4.18 104 kgd. theoretical yield is 0.00192 g of product; actual yieldis 0.00089 g219. In the commercial production of the element arsenic,arsenic(III) oxide is heated with carbon, whichreduces the oxide to the metal according to the follow-ing equation:2As2O3 3C 3CO2 4Asa. If 8.87 g of As2O3 is used in the reaction and 5.33 gof As is produced, what is the percentage yield?b. If 67 g of carbon is used up in a different reactionand 425 g of As is produced, calculate the percent-age yield of this reaction.Mixed Review220. Ethyl acetate is a sweet-smelling solvent used in var-nishes and fingernail-polish remover. It is producedindustrially by heating acetic acid and ethanol togetherin the presence of sulfuric acid, which is added to speedup the reaction. The ethyl acetate is distilled off as it isformed. The equation for the process is as follows:acetic acid ethanolH2SO4CH3COOH CH3CH2OH ethyl acetateCH3COOCH2CH3 H2ODetermine the percentage yield in the following cases.a. 68.3 g of ethyl acetate should be produced but only43.9 g is recovered.b. 0.0419 mol of ethyl acetate is produced but 0.0722 mol is expected. (Hint: Percentage yield canalso be calculated by dividing the actual yield inmoles by the theoretical yield in moles.)c. 4.29 mol of ethanol is reacted with excess aceticacid, but only 2.98 mol of ethyl acetate is produced.d. A mixture of 0.58 mol ethanol and 0.82 mol aceticacid is reacted and 0.46 mol ethyl acetate is pro-duced. (Hint: What is the limiting reactant?)221. Assume the following hypothetical reaction takesplace:2A 7B 4C 3DCalculate the percentage yield in each of the followingcases.a. The reaction of 0.0251 mol of A produces 0.0349 mol of C.A P P E N D I X D 893b. The reaction of 1.19 mol of A produces 1.41 mol of D.c. The reaction of 189 mol of B produces 39 mol of D.d. The reaction of 3500 mol of B produces 1700 mol of C.222. Elemental phosphorus can be produced by heatingcalcium phosphate from rocks with silica sand (SiO2)and carbon in the form of coke. The following reac-tion takes place:Ca3(PO4)2 3SiO2 5C 3CaSiO3 2P 5COa. If 57 mol of Ca3(PO4)2 is used and 101 mol ofCaSiO3 is obtained, what is the percentage yield?b. Determine the percentage yield obtained if 1280 mol of carbon is consumed and 622 mol ofCaSiO3 is produced.c. The engineer in charge of this process expects ayield of 81.5%. If 1.4 105 mol of Ca3(PO4)2 isused, how many moles of phosphorus will be pro-duced?223. Tungsten (W) can be produced from its oxide byreacting the oxide with hydrogen at a high tempera-ture according to the following equation:WO3 3H2 W 3H2Oa. What is the percentage yield if 56.9 g of WO3 yields 41.4 g of tungsten?b. How many moles of tungsten will be produced from3.72 g of WO3 if the yield is 92.0%?c. A chemist carries out this reaction and obtains 11.4 g of tungsten. If the percentage yield is 89.4%, what mass of WO3 was used?224. Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4 , is a solvent that was onceused in large quantities in dry cleaning. Because it is adense liquid that does not burn, it was also used in fireextinguishers. Unfortunately, its use was discontinuedbecause it was found to be a carcinogen. It was manu-factured by the following reaction:CS2 3Cl2 CCl4 S2Cl2The reaction was economical because the byproductdisulfur dichloride, S2Cl2 , could be used by industry in the manufacture of rubber products and other materials.a. What is the percentage yield of CCl4 if 719 kg isproduced from the reaction of 410. kg of CS2?b. If 67.5 g of Cl2 are used in the reaction and 39.5 g ofS2Cl2 is produced, what is the percentage yield?c. If the percentage yield of the industrial process is83.3%, how many kilograms of CS2 should be react-ed to obtain 5.00 104 kg of CCl4? How many kilo-grams of S2Cl2 will be produced, assuming the sameyield for that product?225. Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 , can be converted to dinitro-gen pentoxide, N2O5 , by reacting it with ozone, O3 .The reaction of NO2 takes place according to the fol-lowing equation:2NO2(g) O3(g) N2O5(s or g) O2(g)a. Calculate the percentage yield for a reaction in which0.38 g of NO2 reacts and 0.36 g of N2O5 is recovered.b. What mass of N2O5 will result from the reaction of 6.0 mol of NO2 if there is a 61.1% yield in the reaction?226. In the past, hydrogen chloride, HCl, was made usingthe salt-cake method as shown in the following equa-tion:2NaCl(s) H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(s) 2HCl(g)If 30.0 g of NaCl and 0.250 mol of H2SO4 are avail-able, and 14.6 g of HCl is made, what is the percent-age yield?227. Cyanide compounds such as sodium cyanide, NaCN,are especially useful in gold refining because they willreact with gold to form a stable compound that canthen be separated and broken down to retrieve thegold. Ore containing only small quantities of gold canbe used in this form of chemical mining. The equa-tion for the reaction follows:4Au 8NaCN 2H2O O2 4NaAu(CN)2 4NaOHa. What percentage yield is obtained if 410 g of goldproduces 540 g of NaAu(CN)2?b. Assuming a 79.6% yield in the conversion of goldto NaAu(CN)2 , what mass of gold would produce 1.00 kg of NaAu(CN)2?c. Given the conditions in (b), what mass of gold orethat is 0.001% gold would be needed to produce 1.00 kg of NaAu(CN)2?228. Diiodine pentoxide is useful in devices such as respira-tors because it reacts with the dangerous gas carbonmonoxide, CO, to produce relatively harmless CO2according to the following equation:I2O5 5CO I2 5CO2a. In testing a respirator, 2.00 g of carbon monoxide gasis passed through diiodine pentoxide. Upon analyz-ing the results, it is found that 3.17 g of I2 was pro-duced. Calculate the percentage yield of the reaction.b. Assuming that the yield in (a) resulted becausesome of the CO did not react, calculate the mass ofCO that passed through.229. Sodium hypochlorite, NaClO, the main ingredient inhousehold bleach, is produced by bubbling chlorinegas through a strong lye (sodium hydroxide, NaOH)solution. The following equation shows the reactionthat occurs:2NaOH(aq) Cl2(g) NaCl(aq) NaClO(aq) H2O(l)a. What is the percentage yield of the reaction if 1.2 kg of Cl2 reacts to form 0.90 kg of NaClO?b. If a plant operator wants to make 25 metric tons ofNaClO per day at a yield of 91.8%, how many met-ric tons of chlorine gas must be on hand each day?c. What mass of NaCl is formed per mole of chlorinegas at a yield of 81.8%?d. At what rate in kg per hour must NaOH be replen-ished if the reaction produces 370 kg/h of NaClO ata yield of 79.5%? Assume that all of the NaOHreacts to produce this yield.230. Magnesium burns in oxygen to form magnesiumoxide. However, when magnesium burns in air, whichis only about one-fifth oxygen, side reactions formother products, such as magnesium nitride, Mg3N2. A P P E N D I X D894a. Write a balanced equation for the burning of mag-nesium in oxygen.b. If enough magnesium burns in air to produce 2.04 gof magnesium oxide but only 1.79 g is obtained,what is the percentage yield?c. Magnesium will react with pure nitrogen to formthe nitride, Mg3N2 . Write a balanced equation forthis reaction.d. If 0.097 mol of Mg react with nitrogen and 0.027 mol of Mg3N2 is produced, what is the percentage yield of the reaction?231. Some alcohols can be converted to organic acids byusing sodium dichromate and sulfuric acid. The fol-lowing equation shows the reaction of 1-propanol topropanoic acid:3CH3CH2CH2OH 2Na2Cr2O7 8H2SO4 3CH3CH2COOH 2Cr2(SO4)3 2Na2SO4 11H2Oa. If 0.89 g of 1-propanol reacts and 0.88 g of propanoicacid is produced, what is the percentage yield?b. A chemist uses this reaction to obtain 1.50 mol ofpropanoic acid. The reaction consumes 136 g ofpropanol. Calculate the percentage yield.c. Some 1-propanol of uncertain purity is used in thereaction. If 116 g of Na2Cr2O7 are consumed in thereaction and 28.1 g of propanoic acid are produced,what is the percentage yield?232. Acrylonitrile, C3H3N(g), is an important ingredient inthe production of various fibers and plastics.Acrylonitrile is produced from the following reaction:C3H6(g) NH3(g) O2(g) C3H3N(g) H2O(g)If 850. g of C3H6 is mixed with 300. g of NH3 andunlimited O2, to produce 850. g of acrylonitrile, whatis the percentage yield? You must first balance theequation.233. Methanol, CH3OH, is frequently used in race cars asfuel. It is produced as the sole product of the combina-tion of carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas. a. If 430. kg of hydrogen react, what mass of methanolcould be produced?b. If 3.12 103 kg of methanol are actually produced,what is the percentage yield?234. The compound, C6H16N2 , is one of the starting materi-als in the production of nylon. It can be prepared fromthe following reaction involving adipic acid, C6H10O4 :C6H10O4(l) 2NH3(g) 4H2(g) C6H16N2(l) 4H2OWhat is the percentage yield if 750. g of adipic acidresults in the production of 578 g of C6H16N2?235. Plants convert carbon dioxide to oxygen during photo-synthesis according to the following equation:CO2 H2O C6H12O6 O2Balance this equation, and calculate how much oxygenwould be produced if 1.37 104 g of carbon dioxidereacts with a percentage yield of 63.4%.236. Lime, CaO, is frequently added to streams and lakeswhich have been polluted by acid rain. The calciumoxide reacts with the water to form a base that canneutralize the acid as shown in the following reaction:CaO(s) H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(s)If 2.67 102 mol of base are needed to neutralize theacid in a lake, and the above reaction has a percentageyield of 54.3%, what is the mass, in kilograms, of limethat must be added to the lake?Gas Laws: Chap. 11, Sec. 2Boyles LawIn each of the following problems, assume that thetemperature and molar quantity of gas do notchange.237. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.A P P E N D I X D 895P1 V1 P2 V2a. 3.0 atm 25 mL 6.0 atm ? mLb. 99.97 kPa 550. mL ? kPa 275 mLc. 0.89 atm ? L 3.56 atm 20.0 Ld. ? kPa 800. mL 500. kPa 160. mLe. 0.040 atm ? L 250 atm 1.0 102 LV1 T1 V2 T2a. 40.0 mL 280. K ? mL 350. Kb. 0.606 L 300. K 0.404 L ? Kc. ? mL 292 K 250. mL 365 Kd. 100. mL ? K 125 mL 305 Ke. 0.0024 L 22C ? L 14C238. A sample of neon gas occupies a volume of 2.8 L at1.8 atm. What will its volume be at 1.2 atm?239. To what pressure would you have to compress 48.0 Lof oxygen gas at 99.3 kPa in order to reduce its vol-ume to 16.0 L?240. A chemist collects 59.0 mL of sulfur dioxide gas on aday when the atmospheric pressure is 0.989 atm. Onthe next day, the pressure has changed to 0.967 atm.What will the volume of the SO2 gas be on the secondday?241. 2.2 L of hydrogen at 6.5 atm pressure is used to fill aballoon at a final pressure of 1.15 atm. What is its finalvolume?Charless LawIn each of the following problems, assume that thepressure and molar quantity of gas do not change.242. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases:A P P E N D I X D896has displaced a volume of 15 mL of water is 207.33 kPa.What is the pressure of the H2S gas collected?In each of the following problems, assume that themolar quantity of gas does not change.251. Some hydrogen is collected over water at 10C and105.5 kPa pressure. The total volume of the samplewas 1.93 L. Calculate the volume of the hydrogen cor-rected to STP.252. One student carries out a reaction that gives offmethane gas and obtains a total volume by water dis-placement of 338 mL at a temperature of 19C and apressure of 0.9566 atm. Another student does theidentical experiment on another day at a temperatureof 26C and a pressure of 0.989 atm. Which studentcollected more CH4?Mixed ReviewIn each of the following problems, assume that themolar quantity of gas does not change.253. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.V1 T1 V2 T2a. 26.5 mL ? K 32.9 mL 290. Kb. ? dm3 100.C 0.83 dm3 29Cc. 7.44 104 mm3 870.C 2.59 102 mm3 ? Cd. 5.63 102 L 132 K ? L 190. Ke. ? cm3 243 K 819 cm3 409 Kf. 679 m3 3C ? m3 246C243. A balloon full of air has a volume of 2.75 L at a tem-perature of 18C. What is the balloons volume at45C? 244. A sample of argon has a volume of 0.43 mL at 24C.At what temperature in degrees Celsius will it have avolume of 0.57 mL?Gay-Lussacs LawIn each of the following problems, assume that thevolume and molar quantity of gas do not change.245. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.246. A cylinder of compressed gas has a pressure of 4.882atm on one day. The next day, the same cylinder of gashas a pressure of 4.690 atm, and its temperature is8C. What was the temperature on the previous day inC?247. A mylar balloon is filled with helium gas to a pressureof 107 kPa when the temperature is 22C. If the tem-perature changes to 45C, what will be the pressure ofthe helium in the balloon? The Combined Gas LawIn each of the following problems, it is assumedthat the molar quantity of gas does not change.248. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.P1 T1 P2 T2a. 1.50 atm 273 K ? atm 410 Kb. 0.208 atm 300. K 0.156 atm ? Kc. ? kPa 52C 99.7 kPa 77Cd. 5.20 atm ?C 4.16 atm 13Ce. 8.33 104 84C 3.92 103 ? Catm atmP1 V1 P2 V2a. 127.3 kPa 796 cm3 ? kPa 965 cm3b. 7.1 102 atm ? mL 9.6 101 atm 3.7 103 mLc. ? kPa 1.77 L 30.79 kPa 2.44 Ld. 114 kPa 2.93 dm3 4.93 104 kPa ? dm3e. 1.00 atm 120. mL ? atm 97.0 mLf. 0.77 atm 3.6 m3 1.90 atm ? m3P1 V1 T1 P2 V2 T2a. 99.3 225 mL 15C 102.8 ? mL 24CkPa kPab. 0.959 3.50 L 45C ? atm 3.70 L 37Catmc. 0.0036 62 mL 373 K 0.0029 64 mL ? Katm atmd. 100. 43.2 mL 19C 101.3 ? mL 0CkPa kPa249. A student collects 450. mL of HCl(g) hydrogen chloridegas at a pressure of 100. kPa and a temperature of 17C.What is the volume of the HCl at 0C and 101.3 kPa?Daltons Law of Partial Pressures250. A chemist collects a sample of H2S(g) over water at atemperature of 27C. The total pressure of the gas that254. A gas cylinder contains 0.722 m3 of hydrogen gas at apressure of 10.6 atm. If the gas is used to fill a balloonat a pressure of 0.96 atm, what is the volume in m3 ofthe filled balloon?255. A weather balloon has a maximum volume of 7.50 103 L. The balloon contains 195 L of helium gas at apressure of 0.993 atm. What will be the pressure whenthe balloon is at maximum volume?256. A rubber ball contains 5.70 101 dm3 of gas at apressure of 1.05 atm. What volume will the gas occupyat 7.47 atm?257. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.258. A bubble of carbon dioxide gas in some unbakedbread dough has a volume of 1.15 cm3 at a tempera-ture of 22C. What volume will the bubble have whenthe bread is baked and the bubble reaches a tempera-ture of 99C?259. A perfectly elastic balloon contains 6.75 dm3 of air ata temperature of 40.C. What is the temperature if theballoon has a volume of 5.03 dm3?260. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.266. Hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement.Total volume collected is 0.461 L at a temperature of17C and a pressure of 0.989 atm. What is the pressureof dry hydrogen gas collected?267. One container with a volume of 1.00 L contains argonat a pressure of 1.77 atm, and a second container of 1.50 L volume contains argon at a pressure of 0.487 atm. They are then connected to each other sothat the pressure can become equal in both containers.What is the equalized pressure? Hint: Each sample ofgas now occupies the total space. Daltons law of par-tial pressures applies here.268. Oxygen gas is collected over water at a temperature of10.C and a pressure of 1.02 atm. The volume of gasplus water vapor collected is 293 mL. What volume ofoxygen at STP was collected?269. A 500 mL bottle is partially filled with water so that thetotal volume of gases (water vapor and air) remainingin the bottle is 325 cm3, measured at 20.C and 101.3kPa. The bottle is sealed and taken to a mountaintopwhere the pressure is 76.24 kPa and the temperature is10C. If the bottle is upside down and the seal leaks,how much water will leak out? The key to this problemis to determine the pressure in the 325 cm3 space whenthe bottle is at the top of the mountain.270. An air thermometer can be constructed by using aglass bubble attached to a piece of small-diameterglass tubing. The tubing contains a small amount ofcolored water that rises when the temperature in-creases and the trapped air expands. You want a 0.20 cm3 change in volume to equal a 1C change intemperature. What total volume of air at 20.C should be trapped in the apparatus below the liquid?271. A sample of nitrogen gas is collected over water, yield-ing a total volume of 62.25 mL at a temperature of22C and a total pressure of 97.7 kPa. At what pres-sure will the nitrogen alone occupy a volume of 50.00 mL at the same temperature?272. The theoretical yield of a reaction that gives off nitro-gen trifluoride gas is 844 mL at STP. What total vol-ume of NF3 plus water vapor will be collected overwater at 25C and a total pressure of 1.017 atm?273. A weather balloon is inflated with 2.94 kL of heliumat a location where the pressure is 1.06 atm and thetemperature is 32C. What will be the volume of theballoon at an altitude where the pressure is 0.092 atmand the temperature is 35C?274. The safety limit for a certain can of aerosol spray is95C. If the pressure of the gas in the can is 2.96 atmwhen it is 17C, what will the pressure be at the safetylimit?275. A chemistry student collects a sample of ammonia gasat a temperature of 39C. Later, the student measuresthe volume of the ammonia as 108 mL, but its temper-ature is now 21C. What was the volume of the ammo-nia when it was collected?276. A quantity of CO2 gas occupies a volume of 624 L at apressure of 1.40 atm. If this CO2 is pumped into a gasA P P E N D I X D 897P1 T1 P2 T2a. 0.777 atm ?C 5.6 atm 192Cb. 152 kPa 302 K ? kPa 11 Kc. ? atm 76C 3.97 atm 27Cd. 395 atm 46C 706 atm ?Ce. ? atm 37C 350. atm 2050Cf. 0.39 atm 263 K 0.058 atm ? KP1 V1 T1 P2 V2 T2a. 1.03 1.65 L 19C 0.920 atm ? L 46Catmb. 107.0 3.79 dm3 73C ? kPa 7.58 dm3 217CkPac. 0.029 249 mL ? K 0.098 atm 197 mL 293 Katmd. 113 ? mm3 12C 149 kPa 3.18 18CkPa 103 mm3e. 1.15 0.93 m3 22C 1.01 atm 0.85 m3 ?Catmf. ? atm 156 cm3 195 K 2.25 atm 468 cm3 585 K261. A 2 L bottle containing only air is sealed at a tempera-ture of 22C and a pressure of 0.982 atm. The bottle isplaced in a freezer and allowed to cool to 3C. Whatis the pressure in the bottle?262. The pressure in a car tire is 2.50 atm at a temperatureof 33C . What would the pressure be if the tire wereallowed to cool to 0C? Assume that the tire does notchange volume.263. A container filled with helium gas has a pressure of127.5 kPa at a temperature of 290. K. What is the tem-perature when the pressure is 3.51 kPa?264. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing measurements of gases.265. A scientist has a sample of gas that was collected several days earlier. The sample has a volume of 392 cm3 at a pressure of 0.987 atm and a temperatureof 21C. On the day the gas was collected, the temper-ature was 13C and the pressure was 0.992 atm. Whatvolume did the gas have on the day it was collected?cylinder that has a volume of 80.0 L, what pressurewill the CO2 exert on the cylinder?The Ideal Gas Law: Chap. 11, Sec. 3277. Use the ideal-gas-law equation to calculate theunknown quantity in each of the following sets ofmeasurements. You will need to convert Celsius tem-peratures to Kelvin temperatures and volume units toliters.284. Use the ideal-gas-law equation to calculate theunknown quantity in each of the following sets ofmeasurements.A P P E N D I X D898285. Determine the volume of one mole of an ideal gas at25C and 0.915 kPa.286. Calculate the unknown quantity in each of the follow-ing sets of measurements.P Molar Mass Density ta. 1.12 atm ? g/mol 2.40 g/L 2Cb. 7.50 atm 30.07 g/mol ? g/L 20.Cc. 97.4 kPa 104.09 g/mol 4.37 g/L ? Cd. ? atm 77.95 g/mol 6.27 g/L 66CP V n Ta. 1.09 atm ? L 0.0881 302 Kmolb. 94.9 kPa 0.0350 L ? mol 55Cc. ? kPa 15.7 L 0.815 20.Cmold. 0.500 atm 629 mL 0.0337 ? Kmole. 0.950 atm ? L 0.0818 19Cmolf. 107 kPa 39.0 mL ? mol 27CP V m M ta. 0.955 atm 3.77 L 8.23 g ? g/mol 25Cb. 105.0 kPa 50.0 mL ? g 48.02 g/mol 0Cc. 0.782 atm ? L 3.20 103 g 2.02 g/mol 5Cd. ? atm 2.00 L 7.19 g 159.8 g/mol 185Ce. 107.2 kPa 26.1 mL 0.414 g ? g/mol 45CP V n ta. 0.0477 atm 15 200 L ? mol 15Cb. ? kPa 0.119 mL 0.000 350 mol 0Cc. 500.0 kPa 250. mL 0.120 mol ?Cd. 19.5 atm ? 4.7 104 mol 300.C278. A student collects 425 mL of oxygen at a temperatureof 24C and a pressure of 0.899 atm. How many molesof oxygen did the student collect?Applications of the Ideal Gas Law279. A sample of an unknown gas has a mass of 0.116 g. Itoccupies a volume of 25.0 mL at a temperature of127C and has a pressure of 155.3 kPa. Calculate themolar mass of the gas.280. Determine the mass of CO2 gas that has a volume of7.10 L at a pressure of 1.11 atm and a temperature of31C. Hint: Solve the equation for m, and calculate themolar mass using the chemical formula and the periodictable.281. What is the density of silicon tetrafluoride gas at 72Cand a pressure of 144.5 kPa?282. At what temperature will nitrogen gas have a densityof 1.13 g/L at a pressure of 1.09 atm?Mixed Review283. Use the ideal-gas-law equation to calculate theunknown quantity in each of the following sets of mea-surements.287. What pressure in atmospheres will 1.36 kg of N2O gasexert when it is compressed in a 25.0 L cylinder and isstored in an outdoor shed where the temperature canreach 59C during the summer?288. Aluminum chloride sublimes at high temperatures.What density will the vapor have at 225C and 0.939 atm pressure?289. An unknown gas has a density of 0.0262 g/mL at apressure of 0.918 atm and a temperature of 10.C.What is the molar mass of the gas?290. A large balloon contains 11.7 g of helium. What vol-ume will the helium occupy at an altitude of 10 000 m,where the atmospheric pressure is 0.262 atm and thetemperature is 50.C?291. A student collects ethane by water displacement at a temperature of 15C (vapor pressure of water is1.5988 kPa) and a total pressure of 100.0 kPa. The vol-ume of the collection bottle is 245 mL. How manymoles of ethane are in the bottle?292. A reaction yields 3.75 L of nitrogen monoxide. Thevolume is measured at 19C and at a pressure of 1.10 atm. What mass of NO was produced by the reac-tion?293. A reaction has a theoretical yield of 8.83 g of ammo-nia. The reaction gives off 10.24 L of ammonia mea-sured at 52C and 105.3 kPa. What was the percentyield of the reaction?294. An unknown gas has a density of 0.405 g/L at a pres-sure of 0.889 atm and a temperature of 7C. Calculateits molar mass.295. A paper label has been lost from an old tank of com-pressed gas. To help identify the unknown gas, youmust calculate its molar mass. It is known that thetank has a capacity of 90.0 L and weighs 39.2 kg whenempty. You find its current mass to be 50.5 kg. Thegauge shows a pressure of 1780 kPa when the temper-ature is 18C. What is the molar mass of the gas in thecylinder?296. What is the pressure inside a tank that has a volumeof 1.20 103 L and contains 12.0 kg of HCl gas at atemperature of 18C?297. What pressure in kPa is exerted at a temperature of20.C by compressed neon gas that has a density of2.70 g/L?298. A tank with a volume of 658 mL contains 1.50 g ofneon gas. The maximum safe pressure that the tankcan withstand is 4.50 102 kPa. At what temperaturewill the tank have that pressure?299. The atmospheric pressure on Mars is about 6.75 milli-bars (1 bar 100 kPa 0.9869 atm), and the night-time temperature can be about 75C on the sameday that the daytime temperature goes up to 8C.What volume would a bag containing 1.00 g of H2 gashave at both the daytime and nighttime temperatures?300. What is the pressure in kPa of 3.95 mol of Cl2 gas if itis compressed in a cylinder with a volume of 850. mLat a temperature of 15C?301. What volume in mL will 0.00660 mol of hydrogen gasoccupy at a pressure of 0.907 atm and a temperatureof 9C?302. What volume will 8.47 kg of sulfur dioxide gas occupyat a pressure of 89.4 kPa and a temperature of 40.C?303. A cylinder contains 908 g of compressed helium. It isto be used to inflate a balloon to a final pressure of128.3 kPa at a temperature of 2C. What will the vol-ume of the balloon be under these conditions?304. The density of dry air at 27C and 100.0 kPa is 1.162 g/L. Use this information to calculate the molarmass of air (calculate as if air were a pure substance).Stoichiometry of Gases: Chap. 11,Sec. 3305. In one method of manufacturing nitric acid, ammoniais oxidized to nitrogen monoxide and water:4NH3(g) 5O2(g) 4NO(g) 6H2O(l)What volume of oxygen will be used in a reaction of2800 L of NH3 ? What volume of NO will be pro-duced? All volumes are measured under the sameconditions.306. Fluorine gas reacts violently with water to producehydrogen fluoride and ozone according to the follow-ing equation:3F2(g) 3H2O(l) 6HF(g) O3(g)What volumes of O3 and HF gas would be producedby the complete reaction of 3.60 104 mL of fluorinegas? All gases are measured under the same condi-tions.307. A sample of ethanol burns in O2 to form CO2 andH2O according to the following equation:C2H5OH 3O2 2CO2 3H2OIf the combustion uses 55.8 mL of oxygen measured at2.26 atm and 40.C, what volume of CO2 is producedwhen measured at STP?308. Dinitrogen pentoxide decomposes into nitrogen diox-ide and oxygen. If 5.00 L of N2O5 reacts at STP, whatvolume of NO2 is produced when measured at 64.5Cand 1.76 atm?309. Complete the table below using the following equa-tion, which represents a reaction that produces alu-minum chloride:2Al(s) 3Cl2(g) 2AlCl3(s)A P P E N D I X D 899Mass Volume Mass Al Cl2 Conditions AlCl3a. excess ? L STP 7.15 gb. 19.4 g ? L STP NAc. 1.559 ? L 20.C and NAkg 0.945 atmd. excess 920. L STP ? ge. ? g 1.049 mL 37C and NA5.00 atmf. 500.00 ? m3 15C and NAkg 83.0 kPaMixed Review310. The industrial production of ammonia proceeds accord-ing to the following equation:N2(g) 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)a. What volume of nitrogen at STP is needed to reactwith 57.0 mL of hydrogen measured at STP?b. What volume of NH3 at STP can be produced fromthe complete reaction of 6.39 104 L of hydrogen?c. If 20.0 mol of nitrogen is available, what volume ofNH3 at STP can be produced?d. What volume of H2 at STP will be needed to pro-duce 800. L of ammonia, measured at 55C and0.900 atm?311. Propane burns according to the following equation:C3H8(g) 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) 4H2O(g)a. What volume of water vapor measured at 250.Cand 1.00 atm is produced when 3.0 L of propane atSTP is burned?b. What volume of oxygen at 20.C and 102.6 kPa isused if 640. L of CO2 is produced? The CO2 is alsomeasured at 20.C and 102.6 kPa.c. If 465 mL of oxygen at STP is used in the reaction,what volume of CO2 , measured at 37C and 0.973 atm, is produced?d. When 2.50 L of C3H8 at STP burns, what total vol-ume of gaseous products is formed? The volume ofthe products is measured at 175C and 1.14 atm.312. Carbon monoxide will burn in air to produce CO2according to the following equation:2CO(g) O2(g) 2CO2(g)What volume of oxygen at STP will be needed to reactwith 3500. L of CO measured at 20.C and a pressureof 0.953 atm?313. Silicon tetrafluoride gas can be produced by the actionof HF on silica according to the following equation:SiO2(s) 4HF(g) SiF4(g) 2H2O(l)1.00 L of HF gas under pressure at 3.48 atm and atemperature of 25C reacts completely with SiO2 toform SiF4 . What volume of SiF4 , measured at 15Cand 0.940 atm, is produced by this reaction?314. One method used in the eighteenth century to gener-ate hydrogen was to pass steam through red-hot steeltubes. The following reaction takes place:3Fe(s) 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) 4H2(g)a. What volume of hydrogen at STP can be producedby the reaction of 6.28 g of iron?b. What mass of iron will react with 500. L of steam at250.C and 1.00 atm pressure?c. If 285 g of Fe3O4 are formed, what volume ofhydrogen, measured at 20.C and 1.06 atm, is pro-duced?315. Sodium reacts vigorously with water to producehydrogen and sodium hydroxide according to the fol-lowing equation:2Na(s) 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) H2(g)If 0.027 g of sodium reacts with excess water, what vol-ume of hydrogen at STP is formed?316. Diethyl ether burns in air according to the followingequation:C4H10O(l) 6O2(g) 4CO2(g) 5H2O(l)If 7.15 L of CO2 is produced at a temperature of125C and a pressure of 1.02 atm, what volume of oxy-gen, measured at STP, was consumed and what massof diethyl ether was burned?317. When nitroglycerin detonates, it produces large vol-umes of hot gases almost instantly according to thefollowing equation:4C3H5N3O9(l) 6N2(g) 12CO2(g) 10H2O(g) O2(g)a. When 0.100 mol of nitroglycerin explodes, whatvolume of each gas measured at STP is produced?b. What total volume of gases is produced at 300.Cand 1.00 atm when 10.0 g of nitroglycerin explodes?318. Dinitrogen monoxide can be prepared by heatingammonium nitrate, which decomposes according tothe following equation:NH4NO3(s) N2O(g) 2H2O(l)What mass of ammonium nitrate should be decom-posed in order to produce 250. mL of N2O, measuredat STP?319. Phosphine, PH3 , is the phosphorus analogue toammonia, NH3 . It can be produced by the reactionbetween calcium phosphide and water according tothe following equation:Ca3P2(s) 6H2O(l) 3Ca(OH)2(s and aq) 2PH3(g)What volume of phosphine, measured at 18C and102.4 kPa, is produced by the reaction of 8.46 g ofCa3P2?320. In one method of producing aluminum chloride, HClgas is passed over aluminum and the following reac-tion takes place:2Al(s) 6HCl(g) 2AlCl3(g) 3H2(g)What mass of Al should be on hand in order to pro-duce 6.0 103 kg of AlCl3? What volume of com-pressed HCl at 4.71 atm and a temperature of 43Cshould be on hand at the same time?321. Urea, (NH2)2CO, is an important fertilizer that ismanufactured by the following reaction:2NH3(g) CO2(g) (NH2)2CO(s) H2O(g)What volume of NH3 at STP will be needed to pro-duce 8.50 104 kg of urea if there is an 89.5% yield inthe process?322. An obsolete method of generating oxygen in the labo-ratory involves the decomposition of barium peroxideby the following equation:2BaO2(s) 2BaO(s) O2(g)What mass of BaO2 reacted if 265 mL of O2 is collect-ed by water displacement at 0.975 atm and 10.C?323. It is possible to generate chlorine gas by dripping con-centrated HCl solution onto solid potassium perman-ganate according to the following equation:2KMnO4(aq) 16HCl(aq) 2KCl(aq) 2MnCl2(aq) 8H2O(l) 5Cl2(g)If excess HCl is dripped onto 15.0 g of KMnO4 , whatvolume of Cl2 will be produced? The Cl2 is measuredat 15C and 0.959 atm.324. Ammonia can be oxidized in the presence of a plat-inum catalyst according to the following equation:4NH3(g) 5O2(g) 4NO(g) 6H2O(l)The NO that is produced reacts almost immediatelywith additional oxygen according to the followingequation:2NO(g) O2(g) 2NO2(g)If 35.0 kL of oxygen at STP react in the first reaction,what volume of NH3 at STP reacts with it? What vol-ume of NO2 at STP will be formed in the second reac-tion, assuming there is excess oxygen that was notused up in the first reaction?325. Oxygen can be generated in the laboratory by heatingpotassium chlorate. The reaction is represented by thefollowing equation:2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) 3O2(g)What mass of KClO3 must be used in order to gener-ate 5.00 L of O2, measured at STP?326. One of the reactions in the Solvay process is used tomake sodium hydrogen carbonate. It occurs when car-A P P E N D I X D900bon dioxide and ammonia are passed through concen-trated salt brine. The following equation representsthe reaction:NaCl(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g) NH3(g) NaHCO3(s) NH4Cl(aq)a. What volume of NH3 at 25C and 1.00 atm pressurewill be required if 38 000 L of CO2 , measuredunder the same conditions, react to form NaHCO3?b. What mass of NaHCO3 can be formed when thegases in (a) react with NaCl?c. If this reaction forms 46.0 kg of NaHCO3 , what vol-ume of NH3 , measured at STP, reacted?d. What volume of CO2 , compressed in a tank at 5.50 atm and a temperature of 42C, will be neededto produce 100.00 kg of NaHCO3?327. The combustion of butane is represented in the fol-lowing equation:2C4H10(g) 13O2(g) 8CO2(g) 10H2O(l)a. If 4.74 g of butane react with excess oxygen, whatvolume of CO2 , measured at 150.C and 1.14 atm,will be formed?b. What volume of oxygen, measured at 0.980 atm and75C, will be consumed by the complete combus-tion of 0.500 g of butane?c. A butane-fueled torch has a mass of 876.2 g. Afterburning for some time, the torch has a mass of 859.3 g. What volume of CO2 , at STP, was formedwhile the torch burned?d. What mass of H2O is produced when butane burnsand produces 3720 L of CO2 , measured at 35C and0.993 atm pressure?Concentration of Solutions:Chap. 12, Sec. 3Percentage Concentration328. What is the percentage concentration of 75.0 g ofethanol dissolved in 500.0 g of water?329. A chemist dissolves 3.50 g of potassium iodate and6.23 g of potassium hydroxide in 805.05 g of water.What is the percentage concentration of each solute inthe solution?330. A student wants to make a 5.00% solution of rubi-dium chloride using 0.377 g of the substance. Whatmass of water will be needed to make the solution?331. What mass of lithium nitrate would have to be dis-solved in 30.0 g of water in order to make an 18.0%solution?Molarity332. Determine the molarity of a solution prepared by dis-solving 141.6 g of citric acid, C3H5O(COOH)3 , in waterand then diluting the resulting solution to 3500.0 mL.333. What is the molarity of a salt solution made by dis-solving 280.0 mg of NaCl in 2.00 mL of water?Assume the final volume is the same as the volume ofthe water.334. What is the molarity of a solution that contains 390.0 g of acetic acid, CH3COOH, dissolved in enough acetone to make 1000.0 mL of solution?335. What mass of glucose, C6H12O6 , would be required toprepare 5.000 103 L of a 0.215 M solution?336. What mass of magnesium bromide would be requiredto prepare 720. mL of a 0.0939 M aqueous solution?337. What mass of ammonium chloride is dissolved in 300. mL of a 0.875 M solution?Molality338. Determine the molality of a solution of 560 g of ace-tone, CH3COCH3 , in 620 g of water.339. What is the molality of a solution of 12.9 g of fructose,C6H12O6 , in 31.0 g of water?340. How many moles of 2-butanol, CH3CHOHCH2CH3 ,must be dissolved in 125 g of ethanol in order to pro-duce a 12.0 m 2-butanol solution? What mass of 2-butanol is this? Mixed Review341. Complete the table below by determining the missingquantity in each example. All solutions are aqueous.Any quantity that is not applicable to a given solution ismarked NA.A P P E N D I X D 901Mass Quantity Quantityof Solute of Solution of SolventSolution Made Used Made Useda. 12.0% KMnO4 ? g KMnO4 500.0 g ? g H2Ob. 0.60 M BaCl2 ? g BaCl2 1.750 L NAc. 6.20 m glycerol, ? g glycerol NA 800.0 gHOCH2CHOHCH2OH H2Od. ? M K2Cr2O7 12.27 g 650. mL NAK2Cr2O7e. ? m CaCl2 288 g CaCl2 NA 2.04 kgH2Of. 0.160 M NaCl ? g NaCl 25.0 mL NAg. 2.00 m glucose, ? g glucose ? g solution 1.50 kg C6H12O6 H2O342. How many moles of H2SO4 are in 2.50 L of a 4.25 Maqueous solution?343. Determine the molal concentration of 71.5 g of lin-oleic acid, C18H32O2 , in 525 g of hexane, C6H14 .344. You have a solution that is 16.2% sodium thiosulfate,Na2S2O3 , by mass.a. What mass of sodium thiosulfate is in 80.0 g of solu-tion?b. How many moles of sodium thiosulfate are in 80.0 gof solution?c. If 80.0 g of the sodium thiosulfate solution is dilutedto 250.0 mL with water, what is the molarity of theresulting solution?345. What mass of anhydrous cobalt(II) chloride would beneeded in order to make 650.00 mL of a 4.00 Mcobalt(II) chloride solution?346. A student wants to make a 0.150 M aqueous solutionof silver nitrate, AgNO3, and has a bottle containing11.27 g of silver nitrate. What should be the final vol-ume of the solution?347. What mass of urea, NH2CONH2 , must be dissolved in2250 g of water in order to prepare a 1.50 m solution?348. What mass of barium nitrate is dissolved in 21.29 mLof a 3.38 M solution?349. Describe what you would do to prepare 100.0 g of a3.5% solution of ammonium sulfate in water.350. What mass of anhydrous calcium chloride should bedissolved in 590.0 g of water in order to produce a 0.82 m solution?351. How many moles of ammonia are in 0.250 L of a 5.00 M aqueous ammonia solution? If this solutionwere diluted to 1.000 L, what would be the molarity ofthe resulting solution?352. What is the molar mass of a solute if 62.0 g of thesolute in 125 g of water produce a 5.3 m solution?353. A saline solution is 0.9% NaCl. What masses of NaCland water would be required to prepare 50. L of thissaline solution? Assume that the density of water is1.000 g/mL and that the NaCl does not add to the vol-ume of the solution.354. A student weighs an empty beaker on a balance andfinds its mass to be 68.60 g. The student weighs thebeaker again after adding water and finds the newmass to be 115.12 g. A mass of 4.08 g of glucose isthen dissolved in the water. What is the percentageconcentration of glucose in the solution?355. The density of ethyl acetate at 20C is 0.902 g/mL.What volume of ethyl acetate at 20C would berequired to prepare a 2.0% solution of cellulosenitrate using 25 g of cellulose nitrate?356. Aqueous cadmium chloride reacts with sodium sulfideto produce bright-yellow cadmium sulfide. Write thebalanced equation for this reaction and answer the fol-lowing questions.a. How many moles of CdCl2 are in 50.00 mL of a 3.91 M solution?b. If the solution in (a) reacted with excess sodium sul-fide, how many moles of CdS would be formed?c. What mass of CdS would be formed?357. What mass of H2SO4 is contained in 60.00 mL of a5.85 M solution of sulfuric acid?358. A truck carrying 22.5 kL of 6.83 M aqueous hydro-chloric acid used to clean brick and masonry has over-turned. The authorities plan to neutralize the acid withsodium carbonate. How many moles of HCl will haveto be neutralized?359. A chemist wants to produce 12.00 g of barium sulfateby reacting a 0.600 M BaCl2 solution with excessH2SO4 , as shown in the reaction below. What volumeof the BaCl2 solution should be used?BaCl2 H2SO4 BaSO4 2HCl360. Many substances are hydrates. Whenever you make asolution, it is important to know whether or not thesolute you are using is a hydrate and, if it is a hydrate,how many molecules of water are present per formulaunit of the substance. This water must be taken intoaccount when weighing out the solute. Something elseto remember when making aqueous solutions fromhydrates is that once the hydrate is dissolved, thewater of hydration is considered to be part of the sol-vent. A common hydrate used in the chemistry labora-tory is copper sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO45H2O.Describe how you would make each of the followingsolutions using CuSO45H2O. Specify masses and vol-umes as needed.a. 100. g of a 6.00% solution of CuSO4b. 1.00 L of a 0.800 M solution of CuSO4c. a 3.5 m solution of CuSO4 in 1.0 kg of water361. What mass of calcium chloride hexahydrate is requiredin order to make 700.0 mL of a 2.50 M solution?362. What mass of the amino acid arginine, C6H14N4O2,would be required to make 1.250 L of a 0.00205 M solu-tion?363. How much water would you have to add to 2.402 kg ofnickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate in order to prepare a25.00% solution?364. What mass of potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahy-drate, KAl(SO4)212H2O, would be needed to prepare35.00 g of a 15.00% KAl(SO4)2 solution? What massof water would be added to make this solution?Dilutions: Chap. 12, Sec. 3365. Complete the table below by calculating the missingvalue in each row.A P P E N D I X D902Molarity Volume Molarity Volumeof Stock of Stock of Dilute of DiluteSolution Solution Solution Solutiona. 0.500 M 20.00 mL ? M KBr 100.00 mLKBrb. 1.00 M ? mL 0.075 M 500.00 mLLiOH LiOHc. ? M HI 5.00 mL 0.0493 M 100.00 mLHId. 12.0 M 0.250 L 1.8 M HCl ? LHCle. 7.44 M ? mL 0.093 M 4.00 LNH3 NH3366. What volume of water would be added to 16.5 mL of a0.0813 M solution of sodium borate in order to get a0.0200 M solution?Mixed Review367. What is the molarity of a solution of ammonium chlo-ride prepared by diluting 50.00 mL of a 3.79 M NH4Clsolution to 2.00 L?368. A student takes a sample of KOH solution and dilutesit with 100.00 mL of water. The student determinesthat the diluted solution is 0.046 M KOH, but has for-gotten to record the volume of the original sample.The concentration of the original solution is 2.09 M.What was the volume of the original sample?369. A chemist wants to prepare a stock solution of H2SO4so that samples of 20.00 mL will produce a solutionwith a concentration of 0.50 M when added to 100.0 mL of water.a. What should the molarity of the stock solution be?b. If the chemist wants to prepare 5.00 L of the stocksolution from concentrated H2SO4 , which is 18.0 M,what volume of concentrated acid should be used?c. The density of 18.0 M H2SO4 is 1.84 g/mL. Whatmass of concentrated H2SO4 should be used to makethe stock solution in (b)?370. To what volume should 1.19 mL of an 8.00 M aceticacid solution be diluted in order to obtain a final solu-tion that is 1.50 M?371. What volume of a 5.75 M formic acid solution should beused to prepare 2.00 L of a 1.00 M formic acid solution?372. A 25.00 mL sample of ammonium nitrate solution pro-duces a 0.186 M solution when diluted with 50.00 mLof water. What is the molarity of the stock solution?373. Given a solution of known percentage concentrationby mass, a laboratory worker can often measure out acalculated mass of the solution in order to obtain acertain mass of solute. Sometimes, though, it isimpractical to use the mass of a solution, especiallywith fuming solutions, such as concentrated HCl andconcentrated HNO3 . Measuring these solutions byvolume is much more practical. In order to determinethe volume that should be measured, a worker wouldneed to know the density of the solution. This infor-mation usually appears on the label of the solutionbottle.a. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is 36% HCl bymass and has a density of 1.18 g/mL. What is thevolume of 1.0 kg of this HCl solution? What vol-ume contains 1.0 g of HCl? What volume contains 1.0 mol of HCl?b. The density of concentrated nitric acid is 1.42 g/mL,and its concentration is 71% HNO3 by mass. Whatvolume of concentrated HNO3 would be needed toprepare 10.0 L of a 2.00 M solution of HNO3 ?c. What volume of concentrated HCl solution wouldbe needed to prepare 4.50 L of 3.0 M HCl? See (a)for data.374. A 3.8 M solution of FeSO4 solution is diluted to eighttimes its original volume. What is the molarity of thediluted solution?375. A chemist prepares 480. mL of a 2.50 M solution ofK2Cr2O7 in water. A week later, the chemist wants touse the solution, but the stopper has been left off theflask and 39 mL of water has evaporated. What is thenew molarity of the solution?376. You must write out procedures for a group of lab tech-nicians. One test they will perform requires 25.00 mLof a 1.22 M solution of acetic acid. You decide to use a6.45 M acetic acid solution that you have on hand.What procedure should the technicians use in order toget the solution they need?377. A chemical test has determined the concentration of asolution of an unknown substance to be 2.41 M. A100.0 mL volume of the solution is evaporated to dry-ness, leaving 9.56 g of crystals of the unknown solute.Calculate the molar mass of the unknown substance.378. Tincture of iodine can be prepared by dissolving 34 gof I2 and 25 g of KI in 25 mL of distilled water anddiluting the solution to 500. mL with ethanol. What isthe molarity of I2 in the solution?379. Phosphoric acid is commonly supplied as an 85% solu-tion. What mass of this solution would be required toprepare 600.0 mL of a 2.80 M phosphoric acid solu-tion?380. Commercially available concentrated sulfuric acid is18.0 M H2SO4 . What volume of concentrated H2SO4would you use in order to make 3.00 L of a 4.0 Mstock solution?381. Describe how to prepare 1.00 L of a 0.495 M solutionof urea, NH2CONH2 , starting with a 3.07 M stocksolution.382. Honey is a solution consisting almost entirely of amixture of the hexose sugars fructose and glucose;both sugars have the formula C6H12O6 , but they differin molecular structure.a. A sample of honey is found to be 76.2% C6H12O6by mass. What is the molality of the hexose sugarsin honey? Consider the sugars to be equivalent.b. The density of the honey sample is 1.42 g/mL. Whatmass of hexose sugars are in 1.00 L of honey? Whatis the molarity of the mixed hexose sugars inhoney?383. Industrial chemicals used in manufacturing are almostnever pure, and the content of the material may varyfrom one batch to the next. For these reasons, a sam-ple is taken from each shipment and sent to a labora-tory, where its makeup is determined. This procedureis called assaying. Once the content of a material isknown, engineers adjust the manufacturing process toaccount for the degree of purity of the starting chemicals.Suppose you have just received a shipment of sodi-um carbonate, Na2CO3 . You weigh out 50.00 g of thematerial, dissolve it in water, and dilute the solution to1.000 L. You remove 10.00 mL from the solution anddilute it to 50.00 mL. By measuring the amount of asecond substance that reacts with Na2CO3 , you deter-mine that the concentration of sodium carbonate inthe diluted solution is 0.0890 M. Calculate the percent-age of Na2CO3 in the original batch of material. Themolar mass of Na2CO3 is 105.99 g. (Hint: Determinethe number of moles in the original solution and con-vert to mass of Na2CO3 .)384. A student wants to prepare 0.600 L of a stock solutionof copper(II) chloride so that 20.0 mL of the stocksolution diluted by adding 130.0 mL of water will yieldA P P E N D I X D 903a 0.250 M solution. What mass of CuCl2 should beused to make the stock solution?385. You have a bottle containing a 2.15 M BaCl2 solution.You must tell other students how to dilute this solu-tion to get various volumes of a 0.65 M BaCl2 solution.By what factor will you tell them to dilute the stocksolution? In other words, when a student removes anyvolume, V, of the stock solution, how many times V ofwater should be added to dilute to 0.65 M?386. You have a bottle containing an 18.2% solution ofstrontium nitrate (density 1.02 g/mL).a. What mass of strontium nitrate is dissolved in 80.0 mL of this solution?b. How many moles of strontium nitrate are dissolvedin 80.0 mL of the solution?c. If 80.0 mL of this solution is diluted with 420.0 mLof water, what is the molarity of the solution?Colligative Properties: Chap. 13,Sec. 2387. Determine the freezing point of a solution of 60.0 g of glucose, C6H12O6 , dissolved in 80.0 g ofwater.388. What is the freezing point of a solution of 645 g ofurea, H2NCONH2 , dissolved in 980. g of water?389. What is the expected boiling point of a brine solutioncontaining 30.00 g of KBr dissolved in 100.00 g ofwater?390. What is the expected boiling point of a CaCl2 solutioncontaining 385 g of CaCl2 dissolved in 1.230 103 g ofwater?391. A solution of 0.827 g of an unknown non-electrolytecompound in 2.500 g of water has a freezing point of10.18C. Calculate the molar mass of the compound.392. A 0.171 g sample of an unknown organic com-pound is dissolved in ether. The solution has a total mass of 2.470 g. The boiling point of the solution is found to be 36.43C. What is the molar mass of the organic compound?Mixed ReviewIn each of the following problems, assume that thesolute is a nonelectrolyte unless otherwise stated.393. Calculate the freezing point and boiling point of a solu-tion of 383 g of glucose dissolved in 400. g of water.394. Determine the boiling point of a solution of 72.4 g ofglycerol dissolved in 122.5 g of water.395. What is the boiling point of a solution of 30.20 g ofethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, in 88.40 g of phenol?396. What mass of ethanol, CH3CH2OH, should be dis-solved in 450. g of water to obtain a freezing point of 4.5C?397. Calculate the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte that low-ers the freezing point of 25.00 g of water to 3.9Cwhen 4.27 g of the substance is dissolved in the water.398. What is the freezing point of a solution of 1.17 g of 1-naphthol, C10H8O, dissolved in 2.00 mL of benzeneat 20C? The density of benzene at 20C is 0.876g/mL. Kf for benzene is 5.12C/m, and benzenesnormal freezing point is 5.53C.399. The boiling point of a solution containing 10.44 g of anunknown nonelectrolyte in 50.00 g of acetic acid is159.2C. What is the molar mass of the solute?400. A 0.0355 g sample of an unknown molecular com-pound is dissolved in 1.000 g of liquid camphor at200.0C. Upon cooling, the camphor freezes at157.7C. Calculate the molar mass of the unknowncompound.401. Determine the boiling point of a solution of 22.5 g offructose, C6H12O6 , in 294 g of phenol.402. Ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, is effective as anantifreeze, but it also raises the boiling temperature ofautomobile coolant, which helps prevent loss ofcoolant when the weather is hot.a. What is the freezing point of a 50.0% solution ofethylene glycol in water?b. What is the boiling point of the same 50.0% solution?403. The value of Kf for cyclohexane is 20.0C/m, and itsnormal freezing point is 6.6C. A mass of 1.604 g of awaxy solid dissolved in 10.000 g of cyclohexane resultsin a freezing point of 4.4C. Calculate the molarmass of the solid.404. What is the expected freezing point of an aqueoussolution of 2.62 kg of nitric acid, HNO3 , in a solutionwith a total mass of 5.91 kg? Assume that the nitricacid is completely ionized.405. An unknown organic compound is mixed with 0.5190 g of naphthalene crystals to give a mixture hav-ing a total mass of 0.5959 g. The mixture is heateduntil the naphthalene melts and the unknown sub-stance dissolves. Upon cooling, the solution freezes ata temperature of 74.8C. What is the molar mass ofthe unknown compound?406. What is the boiling point of a solution of 8.69 g of theelectrolyte sodium acetate, NaCH3COO, dissolved in15.00 g of water?407. What is the expected freezing point of a solution of110.5 g of H2SO4 in 225 g of water? Assume sulfuricacid completely dissociates in water.408. A compound called pyrene has the empirical formulaC8H5 . When 4.04 g of pyrene is dissolved in 10.00 g ofbenzene, the boiling point of the solution is 85.1C.Calculate the molar mass of pyrene and determine itsmolecular formula. The molal boiling-point constantfor benzene is 2.53C/m. Its normal boiling point is80.1C.409. What mass of CaCl2 , when dissolved in 100.00 g ofwater, gives an expected freezing point of 5.0C;CaCl2 is ionic? What mass of glucose would give thesame result?A P P E N D I X D904410. A compound has the empirical formula CH2O. When0.0866 g is dissolved in 1.000 g of ether, the solutionsboiling point is 36.5C. Determine the molecular for-mula of this substance.411. What is the freezing point of a 28.6% (by mass) aque-ous solution of HCl? Assume the HCl is 100% ion-ized.412. What mass of ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH, mustbe dissolved in 4.510 kg of water to result in a freezingpoint of 18.0C? What is the boiling point of thesame solution?413. A water solution containing 2.00 g of an unknownmolecular substance dissolved in 10.00 g of water has afreezing point of 4.0C.a. Calculate the molality of the solution.b. When 2.00 g of the substance is dissolved in acetoneinstead of in water, the boiling point of the solutionis 58.9C. The normal boiling point of acetone is56.00C, and its Kb is 1.71C/m. Calculate the molal-ity of the solution from this data.414. A chemist wants to prepare a solution with a freezingpoint of 22.0C and has 100.00 g of glycerol onhand. What mass of water should the chemist mix withthe glycerol?415. An unknown carbohydrate compound has the empiri-cal formula CH2O. A solution consisting of 0.515 g ofthe carbohydrate dissolved in 1.717 g of acetic acidfreezes at 8.8C. What is the molar mass of the carbo-hydrate? What is its molecular formula?416. An unknown organic compound has the empirical for-mula C2H2O. A solution of 3.775 g of the unknowncompound dissolved in 12.00 g of water is cooled untilit freezes at a temperature of 4.72C. Determine themolar mass and the molecular formula of the com-pound.pH: Chap. 15, Sec. 1417. The hydroxide ion concentration of an aqueous solu-tion is 6.4 105 M. What is the hydronium ion con-centration?418. Calculate the H3O and OH concentrations in a 7.50 104 M solution of HNO3 , a strong acid.419. Determine the pH of a 0.001 18 M solution of HBr.420. a. What is the pH of a solution that has a hydronium ion concentration of 1.0 M?b. What is the pH of a 2.0 M solution of HCl, assum-ing the acid remains 100% ionized?c. What is the theoretical pH of a 10. M solution ofHCl?421. What is the pH of a solution with the followinghydroxide ion concentrations?a. 1 105 Mb. 5 108 Mc. 2.90 1011 M422. What are the pOH and hydroxide ion concentration ofa solution with a pH of 8.92?423. What are the pOH values of solutions with the follow-ing hydronium ion concentrations?a. 2.51 1013 Mb. 4.3 103 Mc. 9.1 106 Md. 0.070 M424. A solution is prepared by dissolving 3.50 g of sodiumhydroxide in water and adding water until the totalvolume of the solution is 2.50 L. What are the OHand H3O concentrations?425. If 1.00 L of a potassium hydroxide solution with a pHof 12.90 is diluted to 2.00 L, what is the pH of theresulting solution?Mixed Review426. Calculate the H3O and OH concentrations in thefollowing solutions. Each is either a strong acid or astrong base.a. 0.05 M sodium hydroxideb. 0.0025 M sulfuric acidc. 0.013 M lithium hydroxided. 0.150 M nitric acide. 0.0200 M calcium hydroxidef. 0.390 M perchloric acid427. What is the pH of each solution in item 426?428. Calculate [H3O] and [OH] in a 0.160 M solution ofpotassium hydroxide. Assume that the solute is 100%dissociated at this concentration.429. The pH of an aqueous solution of NaOH is 12.9. Whatis the molarity of the solution?430. What is the pH of a 0.001 25 M HBr solution? If 175 mL of this solution is diluted to a total volume of3.00 L, what is the pH of the diluted solution?431. What is the pH of a 0.0001 M solution of NaOH?What is the pH of a 0.0005 M solution of NaOH?432. A solution is prepared using 15.0 mL of 1.0 M HCland 20.0 mL of 0.50 M HNO3 . The final volume of thesolution is 1.25 L. Answer the following questions:a. What are the [H3O] and [OH] in the final solu-tion?b. What is the pH of the final solution?433. A container is labeled 500.0 mL of 0.001 57 M nitricacid solution. A chemist finds that the container wasnot sealed and that some evaporation has taken place.The volume of solution is now 447.0 mL.a. What was the original pH of the solution?b. What is the pH of the solution now?434. Calculate the hydroxide ion concentration in an aque-ous solution that has a 0.000 35 M hydronium ion con-centration.435. A solution of sodium hydroxide has a pH of 12.14. If50.00 mL of the solution is diluted to 2.000 L withwater, what is the pH of the diluted solution?436. An acetic acid solution has a pH of 4.0. What are the[H3O] and [OH] in this solution?437. What is the pH of a 0.000 460 M solution of Ca(OH)2?A P P E N D I X D 905438. A solution of strontium hydroxide with a pH of 11.4 isto be prepared. What mass of strontium hydroxidewould be required to make 1.00 L of this solution?439. A solution of NH3 has a pH of 11.00. What are theconcentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions inthis solution?440. Acetic acid does not completely ionize in solution.Percent ionization of a substance dissolved in water isequal to the moles of ions produced as a percentage ofthe moles of ions that would be produced if the sub-stance were completely ionized. Calculate the percentionization of acetic acid in the following solutions.a. 1.0 M acetic acid solution with a pH of 2.40b. 0.10 M acetic acid solution with a pH of 2.90c. 0.010 M acetic acid solution with a pH of 3.40441. Calculate the pH of a solution that contains 5.00 g ofHNO3 in 2.00 L of solution.442. A solution of HCl has a pH of 1.50. Determine the pHof the solutions made in each of the following ways.a. 1.00 mL of the solution is diluted to 1000. mL withwater.b. 25.00 mL is diluted to 200. mL with distilled water.c. 18.83 mL of the solution is diluted to 4.000 L with dis-tilled water.d. 1.50 L is diluted to 20.0 kL with distilled water.443. An aqueous solution contains 10 000 times morehydronium ions than hydroxide ions. What is the con-centration of each ion?444. A potassium hydroxide solution has a pH of 12.90.Enough acid is added to react with half of the OHions present. What is the pH of the resulting solution?Assume that the products of the neutralization haveno effect on pH and that the amount of additionalwater produced is negligible.445. A hydrochloric acid solution has a pH of 1.70. What isthe [H3O] in this solution? Considering that HCl is astrong acid, what is the HCl concentration of the solu-tion?446. What is the molarity of a solution of the strong baseCa(OH)2 in a solution that has a pH of 10.80?447. You have a 1.00 M solution of the strong acid, HCl.What is the pH of this solution? You need a solutionof pH 4.00. To what volume would you dilute 1.00 L ofthe HCl solution to get this pH? To what volumewould you dilute 1.00 L of the pH 4.00 solution to geta solution of pH 6.00? To what volume would youdilute 1.00 L of the pH 4.00 solution to get a solutionof pH 8.00?448. A solution of chloric acid, HClO3 , a strong acid, has apH of 1.28. How many moles of NaOH would berequired to react completely with the HClO3 in 1.00 Lof the solution? What mass of NaOH is required?449. A solution of the weak base NH3 has a pH of 11.90.How many moles of HCl would have to be added to1.00 L of the ammonia to react with all of the OHions present at pH 11.90?450. The pH of a citric acid solution is 3.15. What are the[H3O] and [OH] in this solution?Titrations: Chap. 15, Sec. 2In each of the following problems, the acids andbases react in a mole ratio of 1 mol base : 1 molacid.451. A student titrates a 20.00 mL sample of a solution ofHBr with unknown molarity. The titration requires20.05 mL of a 0.1819 M solution of NaOH. What is themolarity of the HBr solution?452. Vinegar can be assayed to determine its acetic acid content. Determine the molarity of acetic acid in a 15.00 mL sample of vinegar that requires 22.70 mL of a 0.550 M solution of NaOH to reach the equivalence point.453. A 20.00 mL sample of a solution of Sr(OH)2 is titratedto the equivalence point with 43.03 mL of 0.1159 MHCl. What is the molarity of the Sr(OH)2 solution?454. A 35.00 mL sample of ammonia solution is titrated tothe equivalence point with 54.95 mL of a 0.400 M sul-furic acid solution. What is the molarity of the ammo-nia solution?In the problems below, assume that impurities arenot acidic or basic and that they do not react in anacid-base titration.455. A supply of glacial acetic acid has absorbed waterfrom the air. It must be assayed to determine the actu-al percentage of acetic acid. 2.000 g of the acid is di-luted to 100.00 mL, and 20.00 mL is titrated with asolution of sodium hydroxide. The base solution has aconcentration of 0.218 M, and 28.25 mL is used in thetitration. Calculate the percentage of acetic acid in theoriginal sample. Write the titration equation to get themole ratio.456. A shipment of crude sodium carbonate must beassayed for its Na2CO3 content. You receive a smalljar containing a sample from the shipment and weighout 9.709 g into a flask, where it is dissolved in waterand diluted to 1.0000 L with distilled water. A 10.00 mL sample is taken from the flask and titratedto the equivalence point with 16.90 mL of a 0.1022 MHCl solution. Determine the percentage of Na2CO3 inthe sample. Write the titration equation to get themole ratio.Mixed Review457. A 50.00 mL sample of a potassium hydroxide is titratedwith a 0.8186 M HCl solution. The titration requires27.87 mL of the HCl solution to reach the equivalencepoint. What is the molarity of the KOH solution?458. A 15.00 mL sample of acetic acid is titrated with 34.13 mL of 0.9940 M NaOH. Determine the molarityof the acetic acid.459. A 12.00 mL sample of an ammonia solution is titratedwith 1.499 M HNO3 solution. A total of 19.48 mL ofacid is required to reach the equivalence point. Whatis the molarity of the ammonia solution?A P P E N D I X D906460. A certain acid and base react in a 1 :1 ratio. a. If the acid and base solutions are of equal concen-tration, what volume of acid will titrate a 20.00 mLsample of the base?b. If the acid is twice as concentrated as the base, whatvolume of acid will be required to titrate 20.00 mLof the base?c. How much acid will be required if the base is fourtimes as concentrated as the acid, and 20.00 mL ofbase is used?461. A 10.00 mL sample of a solution of hydrofluoric acid,HF, is diluted to 500.00 mL. A 20.00 mL sample of thediluted solution requires 13.51 mL of a 0.1500 MNaOH solution to be titrated to the equivalence point.What is the molarity of the original HF solution?462. A solution of oxalic acid, a diprotic acid, is used totitrate a 16.22 mL sample of a 0.5030 M KOH solu-tion. If the titration requires 18.41 mL of the oxalicacid solution, what is its molarity?463. A H2SO4 solution of unknown molarity is titrated witha 1.209 M NaOH solution. The titration requires 42.27 mL of the NaOH solution to reach the equiva-lent point with 25.00 mL of the H2SO4 solution. Whatis the molarity of the acid solution?464. Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4 , is a solidacidic substance that reacts in a 1 :1 mole ratio withbases that have one hydroxide ion. Suppose that0.7025 g of potassium hydrogen phthalate is titrated tothe equivalence point by 20.18 mL of a KOH solution.What is the molarity of the KOH solution?465. A solution of citric acid, a triprotic acid, is titratedwith a sodium hydroxide solution. A 20.00 mL sampleof the citric acid solution requires 17.03 mL of a 2.025 M solution of NaOH to reach the equivalencepoint. What is the molarity of the acid solution?466. A flask contains 41.04 mL of a solution of potassiumhydroxide. The solution is titrated and reaches anequivalence point when 21.65 mL of a 0.6515 M solu-tion of HNO3 is added. Calculate the molarity of thebase solution.467. A bottle is labeled 2.00 M H2SO4 . You decide totitrate a 20.00 mL sample with a 1.85 M NaOH solu-tion. What volume of NaOH solution would youexpect to use if the label is correct?468. What volume of a 0.5200 M solution of H2SO4 wouldbe needed to titrate 100.00 mL of a 0.1225 M solutionof Sr(OH)2?469. A sample of a crude grade of KOH is sent to the labto be tested for KOH content. A 4.005 g sample is dissolved and diluted to 200.00 mL with water. A 25.00 mL sample of the solution is titrated with a0.4388 M HCl solution and requires 19.93 mL to reachthe equivalence point. How many moles of KOH werein the 4.005 g sample? What mass of KOH is this?What is the percent of KOH in the crude material?470. What mass of magnesium hydroxide would berequired for the magnesium hydroxide to react tothe equivalence point with 558 mL of 3.18 Mhydrochloric acid?471. An ammonia solution of unknown concentration istitrated with a solution of hydrochloric acid. The HClsolution is 1.25 M, and 5.19 mL are required to titrate12.61 mL of the ammonia solution. What is the molar-ity of the ammonia solution?472. What volume of 2.811 M oxalic acid solution is neededto react to the equivalence point with a 5.090 g sampleof material that is 92.10% NaOH? Oxalic acid is adiprotic acid.473. Standard solutions of accurately known concentrationare available in most laboratories. These solutions areused to titrate other solutions to determine their con-centrations. Once the concentration of the other solu-tions are accurately known, they may be used totitrate solutions of unknowns.The molarity of a solution of HCl is determined bytitrating the solution with an accurately known solu-tion of Ba(OH)2 , which has a molar concentration of0.1529 M. A volume of 43.09 mL of the Ba(OH)2 solu-tion titrates 26.06 mL of the acid solution. The acidsolution is in turn used to titrate 15.00 mL of a solu-tion of rubidium hydroxide. The titration requires27.05 mL of the acid.a. What is the molarity of the HCl solution?b. What is the molarity of the RbOH solution?474. A truck containing 2800 kg of a 6.0 M hydrochloricacid has been in an accident and is in danger ofspilling its load. What mass of Ca(OH)2 should be sentto the scene in order to neutralize all of the acid incase the tank bursts? The density of the 6.0 M HClsolution is 1.10 g/mL.475. A 1.00 mL sample of a fairly concentrated nitric acidsolution is diluted to 200.00 mL. A 10.00 mL sample ofthe diluted solution requires 23.94 mL of a 0.0177 Msolution of Ba(OH)2 to be titrated to the equivalencepoint. Determine the molarity of the original nitricacid solution.476. What volume of 4.494 M H2SO4 solution would berequired to react to the equivalence point with 7.2280 g of LiOH(s)?Thermochemistry: Chap. 16, Sec. 1477. Calculate the reaction enthalpy for the following reaction:5CO2(g) Si3N4(s) 3SiO(s) 2N2O(g) 5CO(g)Use the following equations and data:(1) CO(g) SiO2(s) SiO(g) CO2(g)(2) 8CO2(g) Si3N4(s) 3SiO2(s) 2N2O(g) 8CO(g)Hreaction 1 520.9 kJHreaction 2 461.05 kJA P P E N D I X D 907Determine H for each of the following three reac-tions.478. The following reaction is used to make CaO fromlimestone:CaCO3(s) CaO(s) CO2(g)479. The following reaction represents the oxidation ofFeO to Fe2O3:2FeO(s) O2(g) Fe2O3(s)480. The following reaction of ammonia and hydrogen flu-oride produces ammonium fluoride:NH3(g) HF(g) NH4F(s)481. Calculate the free energy change, G, for the combus-tion of hydrogen sulfide according to the followingchemical equation. Assume reactants and products areat 25C:H2S(g) O2(g) H2O(l) SO2(g)Hreaction 562.1 kJ/molSreaction 0.09278 kJ/molK482. Calculate the free energy change for the decomposi-tion of sodium chlorate. Assume reactants and prod-ucts are at 25C:NaClO3(s) NaCl(s) O2(g)Hreaction 19.1 kJ/molSreaction 0.1768 kJ/molK483. Calculate the free energy change for the combustionof 1 mol of ethane. Assume reactants and products areat 25C:C2H6(g) O2(g) 2CO2(g) 3H2O(l) Hreaction 1561 kJ/molSreaction 0.4084 kJ/molKMixed Review484. Calculate for the reaction of fluorine with water:F2(g) H2O(l) 2HF(g) O2(g)485. Calculate for the reaction of calcium oxide andsulfur trioxide:CaO(s) SO3(g) CaSO4(s)Use the following equations and data:H2O(l) SO3(g) H2SO4(l)H 132.5 kJ/molH2SO4(l) Ca(s) CaSO4(s) H2(g)H 602.5 kJ/molCa(s) O2(g) CaO(s)H 634.9 kJ/molH2(g) O2(g) H2O(l)H 285.8 kJ/mol486. Calculate for the reaction of sodium oxide withsulfur dioxide:Na2O(s) SO2(g) Na2SO3(s)487. Use enthalpies of combustion to calculate H for theoxidation of 1-butanol to make butanoic acid:C4H9OH(l) O2(g) C3H7COOH(l) H2O(l) Combustion of butanol:C4H9OH(l) 6O2(g) 4CO2(g) 5H2O(l)Hc 2675.9 kJ/molCombustion of butanoic acid:C3H7COOH(l) 5O2(g) 4CO2(g) 4H2O(l)Hc 2183.6 kJ/mol488. Determine the free energy change for the reduction ofCuO with hydrogen. Products and reactants are at 25C.CuO(s) H2(g) Cu(s) H2O(l)H 128.5 kJ/molS 70.1 J/molK489. Calculate the enthalpy change at 25C for the reactionof sodium iodide and chlorine. Use only the data given.NaI(s) Cl2(g) NaCl(s) I2(l)S 79.9 J/molKG 98.0 kJ/mol490. The element bromine can be produced by the reactionof hydrogen bromide and manganese(IV) oxide:4HBr(g) MnO2(s) MnBr2(s) 2H2O(l) Br2(l)H for the reaction is 291.3 kJ/mol at 25C. Use thisvalue and the following values of Hf0 to calculateHf0 of MnBr2(s).Hf0HBr 36.29 kJ/molHf0MnO2 520.0 kJ/molHf0H2O 285.8 kJ/molHf0Br2 0.00 kJ/mol491. Calculate the change in entropy, S, at 25C for thereaction of calcium carbide with water to produceacetylene gas:CaC2(s) 2H2O(l) C2H2(g) Ca(OH)2(s)G 147.7 kJ/molH 125.6 kJ/mol492. Calculate the free energy change for the explosivedecomposition of ammonium nitrate at 25C. Notethat H2O is a gas in this reaction:NH4NO3(s) N2O(g) 2H2O(g)S 446.4 J/molK493. In locations where natural gas, which is mostlymethane, is not available, many people burn propane,which is delivered by truck and stored in a tank underpressure. a. Write the chemical equations for the complete com-bustion of 1 mol of methane, CH4, and 1 mol ofpropane, C3H8. b. Calculate the enthalpy change for each reaction todetermine the amount of energy as heat evolved byburning 1 mol of each fuel.c. Using the molar enthalpies of combustion you calcu-lated, determine the energy output per kilogram of each fuel. Which fuel yields more energy per unit mass?494. The hydration of acetylene to form acetaldehyde isshown in the following equation:C2H2(g) H2O(l) CH3CHO(l) A P P E N D I X D908Use enthalpies of combustion for C2H2 and CH3CHOto compute the enthalpy of the above reaction.C2H2(g) 2O2(g) 2CO2(g) H2O(l)H 1299.6 kJ/molCH3CHO(l) 2O2(g) 2CO2(g) 2H2O(l)H 1166.9 kJ/mol495. Calculate the enthalpy for the combustion of decane.Hf0 for liquid decane is 300.9 kJ/mol.C10H22(l) 15O2(g) 10CO2(g) 11H2O(l)496. Find the enthalpy of the reaction of magnesium oxidewith hydrogen chloride:MgO(s) 2HCl(g) MgCl2(s) H2O(l)Use the following equations and data.Mg(s) 2HCl(g) MgCl2(s) H2(g)H 456.9 kJ/molMg(s) O2(g) MgO(s) 601.6 kJ/molH2O(l) H2(g) O2(g) 285.8 kJ/mol497. What is the free energy change for the following reac-tion at 25C?2NaOH(s) 2Na(s) 2 Na2O(s) H2(g)S 10.6 J/molK Hf0NaOH 425.9 kJ/mol498. The following equation represents the reactionbetween gaseous HCl and gaseous ammonia to formsolid ammonium chloride:NH3(g) HCl(g) NH4Cl(s)Calculate the entropy change in J/molK for the reac-tion of hydrogen chloride and ammonia at 25C usingthe following data and the table following item 500.G 91.2 kJ/mol499. The production of steel from iron involves the removalof many impurities in the iron ore. The following equa-tions show some of the purifying reactions. Calculatethe enthalpy for each reaction. Use the table following item 500 and the data given below.a. 3C(s) Fe2O3(s) 3CO(g) 2Fe(s)Hf0CO(g) 110.53 kJ/molb. 3Mn(s) Fe2O3(s) 3MnO(s) 2Fe(s)Hf0MnO(s) 384.9 kJ/molc. 12P(s) 10Fe2O3(s) 3P4O10(s) 20Fe(s)Hf0P4O10(s) 3009.9 kJ/mold. 3Si(s) 2Fe2O3(s) 3SiO2(s) 4Fe(s)Hf0SiO2(s) 910.9 kJ/mole. 3S(s) 2Fe2O3(s) 3SO2(g) 4Fe(s)Equilibrium: Chap. 18, Sec. 1500. Calculate the equilibrium constants for the followinghypothetical reactions. Assume that all components ofthe reactions are gaseous.a. A C DAt equilibrium, the concentration of A is 2.24 102 M and the concentrations of both C and D are6.41 103 M.b. A B C DAt equilibrium, the concentrations of both A and Bare 3.23 105 M and the concentrations of both Cand D are 1.27 102 M.c. A B 2CAt equilibrium, the concentrations of both A and Bare 7.02 103 M and the concentration of C is2.16 102 M.d. 2A 2C DAt equilibrium, the concentration of A is 6.59 104 M. The concentration of C is 4.06 103 M,and the concentration of D is 2.03 103 M.e. A B C D EAt equilibrium, the concentrations of both A and Bare 3.73 104 M and the concentrations of C, D,and E are 9.35 104 M.f. 2A B 2CAt equilibrium, the concentration of A is 5.50 103 M, the concentration of B is 2.25 103,and the concentration of C is 1.02 102 M.501. Calculate the concentration of product D in the fol-lowing hypothetical reaction:2A(g) 2C(g) D(g)At equilibrium, the concentration of A is 1.88 101 M, the concentration of C is 6.56 M,and the equilibrium constant is 2.403 102.502. At a temperature of 700 K, the equilibrium constant is3.164 103 for the following reaction system for thehydrogenation of ethene, C2H4 , to ethane, C2H6 :C2H4(g) H2(g) C2H6(g)A P P E N D I X D 909H0f H0fSubstance (kj/mol) Substance (kj/mol)NH3(g) 45.9 HF(g) 273.3NH4Cl(s) 314.4 H2O(g) 241.82NH4F(s) 125 H2O(l) 285.8NH4NO3(s) 365.56 H2O2(l) 187.8Br2(l) 0.00 H2SO4(l) 813.989CaCO3(s) 1207.6 FeO(s) 825.5CaO(s) 634.9 Fe2O3(s) 1118.4CH4(g) 74.9 MnO2(s) 520.0C3H8(g) 104.7 N2O(g) 82.1CO2(g) 393.5 O2(g) 0.00F2(g) 0.00 Na2O(s) 414.2H2(g) 0.00 Na2SO3(s) 1101HBr(g) 36.29 SO2(g) 296.8HCl(g) 92.3 SO3(g) 395.7For problems 498499What will be the equilibrium concentration ofethene if the concentration of H2 is 0.0619 M andthe concentration of C2H6 is 1.055 M?Mixed Review503. Using the reaction A 2B C 2D, determine theequilibrium constant if the following equilibrium con-centrations are found. All components are gases.[A] 0.0567 M[B] 0.1171 M[C] 0.000 3378 M[D] 0.000 6756 M504. In the reaction 2A 2C 2D, determine the equilib-rium constant when the following equilibrium concen-trations are found. All components are gases.[A] 0.1077 M[C] 0.000 4104 M[D] 0.000 4104 M505. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the followingreaction. Note the phases of the components.2A(g) B(s) C(g) D(g)The equilibrium concentrations of the components are [A] 0.0922 M[C] 4.11 104 M[D] 8.22 104 M506. The equilibrium constant of the following reaction forthe decomposition of phosgene at 25C is 4.282 102.COCl2(g) CO(g) Cl2(g)a. What is the concentration of COCl2 when the con-centrations of both CO and Cl2 are 5.90 103 M?b. When the equilibrium concentration of COCl2 is0.003 70 M, what are the concentrations of CO andCl2? Assume the concentrations are equal.507. Consider the following hypothetical reaction.A(g) B(s) C(g) D(s)a. If K 1 for this reaction at 500 K, what can you say about the concentrations of A and C at equilibrium?b. If raising the temperature of the reaction results inan equilibrium with a higher concentration of Cthan A, how will the value of K change?508. The following reaction occurs when steam is passedover hot carbon. The mixture of gases it generates iscalled water gas and is useful as an industrial fuel andas a source of hydrogen for the production of ammonia.C(s) H2O(g) CO(g) H2(g)The equilibrium constant for this reaction is 4.251 102 at 800 K. If the equilibrium concentra-tion of H2O(g) is 0.1990 M, what concentrations ofCO and H2 would you expect to find?509. When nitrogen monoxide gas comes in contact withair, it oxidizes to the brown gas nitrogen dioxideaccording to the following equation:2NO(g) O2(g) 2NO2(g)a. The equilibrium constant for this reaction at 500 Kis 1.671 104. What concentration of NO2 is pres-ent at equilibrium if [NO] 6.200 102 M and[O2] 8.305 103 M?b. At 1000 K, the equilibrium constant, K, for thesame reaction is 1.315 102. What will be the con-centration of NO2 at 1000 K given the same concen-trations of NO and O2 as were in (a)?510. Consider the following hypothetical reaction, forwhich K 1 at 300 K:A(g) B(g) 2C(g)a. If the reaction begins with equal concentrations ofA and B and a zero concentration of C, what canyou say about the relative concentrations of thecomponents at equilibrium?b. Additional C is introduced at equilibrium, and thetemperature remains constant. When equilibrium isrestored, how will the concentrations of all compo-nents have changed? How will K have changed?511. The equilibrium constant for the following reaction ofhydrogen gas and bromine gas at 25C is 5.628 1018:H2(g) Br2(g) 2HBr(g)a. Write the equilibrium expression for this reaction.b. Assume that equimolar amounts of H2 and Br2were present at the beginning. Calculate the equi-librium concentration of H2 if the concentration ofHBr is 0.500 M.c. If equal amounts of H2 and Br2 react, which reac-tion component will be present in the greatest con-centration at equilibrium? Explain your reasoning.512. The following reaction reaches an equilibrium state:N2F4(g) 2NF2(g)At equilibrium at 25C the concentration of N2F4 isfound to be 0.9989 M and the concentration of NF2 is1.131 103 M. Calculate the equilibrium constant ofthe reaction.513. The equilibrium between dinitrogen tetroxide and nitro-gen dioxide is represented by the following equation:N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)A student places a mixture of the two gases into aclosed gas tube and allows the reaction to reach equi-librium at 25C. At equilibrium, the concentration ofN2O4 is found to be 5.95 101 M and the concentra-tion of NO2 is found to be 5.24 102 M. What is theequilibrium constant of the reaction?514. Consider the following equilibrium system:NaCN(s) HCl(g) HCN(g) NaCl(s)a. Write a complete expression for the equilibriumconstant of this system.b. The equilibrium constant for this reaction is 2.405 106. What is the concentration of HCl remainingwhen the concentration of HCN is 0.8959 M?515. The following reaction is used in the industrial pro-duction of hydrogen gas:CH4(g) H2O(g) CO(g) 3H2(g)A P P E N D I X D910The equilibrium constant of this reaction at 298 K(25C) is 3.896 1027, but at 1100 K the constant is3.112 102. a. What do these equilibrium constants tell you aboutthe progress of the reaction at the two tempera-tures?b. Suppose the reaction mixture is sampled at 1100 K and found to contain 1.56 M of hydrogen, 3.70 102 M of methane, and 8.27 101 M ofgaseous H2O. What concentration of carbonmonoxide would you expect to find? 516. Dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4 , is soluble in cyclohexane,a common nonpolar solvent. While in solution, N2O4can break down into NO2 according to the followingequation:N2O4(cyclohexane) 2(cyclohexane)At 20C, the following concentrations were observedfor this equilibrium reaction: [N2O4] 2.55 103 M [NO2] 10.4 103 MWhat is the value of the equilibrium constant for thisreaction? Note: the chemical equation must be bal-anced first.517. The reaction given in item 516 also occurs when thedinitrogen tetroxide and nitrogen dioxide are dis-solved in carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, another nonpolarsolvent.N2O4(CCl4) 2(CCl4)The following experimental data were obtained at20C:[N2O4] 2.67 103 M [NO2] 10.2 103 MCalculate the value of the equilibrium constant for thisreaction occurring in carbon tetrachloride.Equilibrium of Acids and Bases Kaand Kb: Chap. 18, Sec. 3518. At 25C, a 0.025 M solution of formic acid, HCOOH,is found to have a hydronium ion concentration of2.03 103 M. Calculate the ionization constant offormic acid.519. The pH of a 0.400 M solution of iodic acid, HIO3 , is0.726 at 25C. What is the Ka at this temperature?520. The pH of a 0.150 M solution of hypochlorous acid,HClO, is found to be 4.55 at 25C. Calculate the Kafor HClO at this temperature.521. The compound propylamine, CH3CH2CH2NH2 , is aweak base. At equilibrium, a 0.039 M solution of pro-pylamine has an OH concentration of 3.74 103 M.Calculate the pH of this solution and Kb for propyl-amine.522. The Ka of nitrous acid is 4.6 104 at 25C. Calculatethe [H3O] of a 0.0450 M nitrous acid solution.Mixed Review523. Hydrazoic acid, HN3 , is a weak acid. The [H3O] of a0.102 M solution of hydrazoic acid is 1.39 103 M.Determine the pH of this solution, and calculate Ka at25C for HN3 .524. Bromoacetic acid, BrCH2COOH, is a moderatelyweak acid. A 0.200 M solution of bromoacetic acid hasa H3O concentration of 0.0192 M. Determine the pHof this solution and the Ka of bromoacetic acid at25C.525. A base, B, dissociates in water according to the fol-lowing equation:B H2O OHComplete the following table for base solutions withthe characteristics given.A P P E N D I X D 911Initial [B] at[B] Equilibrium [OH] Kb [H3O] pHa. 0.400 M NA 2.70 ? ? M ?104 Mb. 0.005 50 M ? M 8.45 ? NA ?104 Mc. 0.0350 M ? M ? M ? ? M 11.29d. ? M 0.006 28 M 0.000 ? NA ?92 M526. The solubility of benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, in waterat 25C is 2.9 g/L. The pH of this saturated solution is2.92. Determine Ka at 25C for benzoic acid. (Hint:first calculate the initial concentration of benzoicacid.)527. A 0.006 50 M solution of ethanolamine,H2NCH2CH2OH, has a pH of 10.64 at 25C. Calculatethe Kb of ethanolamine. What concentration of undis-sociated ethanolamine remains at equilibrium?528. The weak acid hydrogen selenide, H2Se, has twohydrogen atoms that can form hydronium ions. Thesecond ionization is so small that the concentration ofthe resulting H3O is insignificant. If the [H3O] of a0.060 M solution of H2Se is 2.72 103 M at 25C,what is the Ka of the first ionization?529. Pyridine, C5H5N, is a very weak base. Its Kb at 25C is1.78 109. Calculate the [OH] and pH of a 0.140 Msolution. Assume that the concentration of pyridine atequilibrium is equal to its initial concentration becauseso little pyridine is dissociated.530. A solution of a monoprotic acid, HA, at equilibrium isfound to have a 0.0208 M concentration of nonionizedacid. The pH of the acid solution is 2.17. Calculate theinitial acid concentration and Ka for this acid. 531. Pyruvic acid, CH3COCOOH, is an important interme-diate in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the cellsof the body. A solution made by dissolving 438 mg ofpyruvic acid in 10.00 mL of water is found to have apH of 1.34 at 25C. Calculate Ka for pyruvic acid.532. The [H3O] of a solution of acetoacetic acid,CH3COCH2COOH, is 4.38 103 M at 25C. Theconcentration of nonionized acid is 0.0731 M atequilibrium. Calculate Ka for acetoacetic acid at 25C.533. The Ka of 2-chloropropanoic acid, CH3CHClCOOH,is 1.48 103. Calculate the [H3O] and the pH of a0.116 M solution of 2-chloropropionic acid. Let x [H3O]. The degree of ionization of the acid is toolarge to ignore. If your set up is correct, you will havea quadratic equation to solve.534. Sulfuric acid ionizes in two steps in water solution. Forthe first ionization shown in the following equation,the Ka is so large that in moderately dilute solutionthe ionization can be considered 100%. H2SO4 H2O H3O HSO4The second ionization is fairly strong, and Ka 1.3 102:HSO4 H2O 3 SO42Calculate the total [H3O] and pH of a 0.0788 MH2SO4 solution. Hint: If the first ionization is 100%,what will [HSO4] and [H3O] be? Remember toaccount for the already existing concentration ofH3O in the second ionization. Let x [SO42].535. The hydronium ion concentration of a 0.100 M solu-tion of cyanic acid, HOCN, is found to be 5.74 103 M at 25C. Calculate the ionization constant ofcyanic acid. What is the pH of this solution?536. A solution of hydrogen cyanide, HCN, has a 0.025 Mconcentration. The cyanide ion concentration is foundto be 3.16 106 M.a. What is the hydronium ion concentration of thissolution?b. What is the pH of this solution?c. What is the concentration of nonionized HCN inthe solution? Be sure to use the correct number ofsignificant figures.d. Calculate the ionization constant of HCN.e. How would you characterize the strength of HCNas an acid?f. Determine the [H3O] for a 0.085 M solution ofHCN.537. A 1.20 M solution of dichloroacetic acid, CCl2HCOOH,at 25C has a hydronium ion concentration of 0.182 M.a. What is the pH of this solution?b. What is the Ka of dichloroacetic acid at 25C?c. What is the concentration of nonionizeddichloroacetic acid in this solution?d. What can you say about the strength ofdichloroacetic acid?538. Phenol, C6H5OH, is a very weak acid. The pH of a0.215 M solution of phenol at 25C is found to be 5.61.Calculate the Ka for phenol.539. A solution of the simplest amino acid, glycine(NH2CH2COOH), is prepared by dissolving 3.75 g in250.0 mL of water at 25C. The pH of this solution isfound to be 0.890.a. Calculate the molarity of the glycine solution.b. Calculate the Ka for glycine.540. Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, dissociates in water thesame way that NH3 doesby accepting a proton froma water molecule. The [OH] of a 0.0750 M solutionof trimethylamine at 25C is 2.32 103 M. Calculatethe pH of this solution and the Kb of trimethylamine.541. Dimethylamine, (CH3)2NH, is a weak base similar tothe trimethylamine in item 540. A 5.00 103 M solu-tion of dimethylamine has a pH of 11.20 at 25C.Calculate the Kb of dimethylamine. Compare this Kbwith the Kb for trimethylamine that you calculated initem 540. Which substance is the stronger base?542. Hydrazine dissociates in water solution according tothe following equations:H2NNH2 H2O(l) H2NNH3(aq) OH(aq)H2NNH3(aq) H2O(l) H3NNH32(aq) OH(aq)The Kb of this second dissociation is 8.9 1016, so itcontributes almost no hydroxide ions in solution andcan be ignored here. a. The pH of a 0.120 M solution of hydrazine at 25Cis 10.50. Calculate Kb for the first ionization ofhydrazine. Assume that the original concentrationof H2NNH2 does not change.b. Make the same assumption as you did in (a) andcalculate the [OH] of a 0.020 M solution.c. Calculate the pH of the solution in (b).Equilibrium of Salts, Ksp: Chap. 18,Sec. 4543. Silver bromate, AgBrO3, is slightly soluble in water. Asaturated solution is found to contain 0.276 g AgBrO3dissolved in 150.0 mL of water. Calculate Ksp for silverbromate.544. 2.50 L of a saturated solution of calcium fluorideleaves a residue of 0.0427 g of CaF2 when evaporatedto dryness. Calculate the Ksp of CaF2 .545. The Ksp of calcium sulfate, CaSO4, is 9.1 106. Whatis the molar concentration of CaSO4 in a saturatedsolution?546. A salt has the formula X2Y, and its Ksp is 4.25 107. a. What is the molarity of a saturated solution of thesalt?b. What is the molarity of a solution of AZ if its Ksp isthe same value?In each of the following problems, include the cal-culated ion product with your answer.547. Will a precipitate of Ca(OH)2 form when 320. mL of a0.046 M solution of NaOH mixes with 400. mL of a0.085 M CaCl2 solution? Ksp of Ca(OH)2 is 5.5 106.548. 20.00 mL of a 0.077 M solution of silver nitrate,AgNO3 , is mixed with 30.00 mL of a 0.043 M solutionof sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2 . Does a precipitateform? The Ksp of AgC2H3O2 is 2.5 103.549. If you mix 100. mL of 0.036 M Pb(C2H3O2)2 with 50. mL of 0.074 M NaCl, will a precipitate of PbCl2form? The Ksp of PbCl2 is 1.9 104 .A P P E N D I X D912550. If 20.00 mL of a 0.0090 M solution of (NH4)2S ismixed with 120.00 mL of a 0.0082 M solution ofAl(NO3)3 , does a precipitate form? The Ksp of Al2S3is 2.00 107.Mixed Review551. The molar concentration of a saturated calcium chro-mate, CaCrO4 , solution is 0.010 M at 25C. What is theKsp of calcium chromate?552. A 10.00 mL sample of a saturated lead selenate solu-tion is found to contain 0.00136 g of dissolved PbSeO4at 25C. Determine the Ksp of lead selenate.553. A 22.50 mL sample of a saturated copper(I) thio-cyanate, CuSCN, solution at 25C is found to have a 4.0 106 M concentration.a. Determine the Ksp of CuSCN.b. What mass of CuSCN would be dissolved in 1.0 103 L of solution?554. A saturated solution of silver dichromate, Ag2Cr2O7 ,has a concentration of 3.684 103 M. Calculate theKsp of silver dichromate.555. The Ksp of barium sulfite, BaSO3 , at 25C is 8.0 107 .a. What is the molar concentration of a saturated solu-tion of BaSO3 ?b. What mass of BaSO3 would dissolve in 500. mL ofwater?556. The Ksp of lead(II) chloride at 25C is 1.9 104.What is the molar concentration of a saturated solu-tion at 25C?557. The Ksp of barium carbonate at 25C is 1.2 108.a. What is the molar concentration of a saturated solu-tion of BaCO3 at 25C?b. What volume of water would be needed to dissolve0.10 g of barium carbonate?558. The Ksp of SrSO4 is 3.2 107 at 25C.a. What is the molar concentration of a saturatedSrSO4 solution?b. If 20.0 L of a saturated solution of SrSO4 wereevaporated to dryness, what mass of SrSO4 wouldremain?559. The Ksp of strontium sulfite, SrSO3 , is 4.0 108 at25C. If 1.0000 g of SrSO3 is stirred in 5.0 L of wateruntil the solution is saturated and then filtered, whatmass of SrSO3 would remain?560. The Ksp of manganese(II) arsenate is 1.9 1011 at25C. What is the molar concentration of Mn3(AsO4)2in a saturated solution? Note that five ions are pro-duced from the dissociation of Mn3(AsO4)2 .561. Suppose that 30.0 mL of a 0.0050 M solution ofSr(NO3)2 is mixed with 20.0 mL of a 0.010 M solutionof K2SO4 at 25C. The Ksp of SrSO4 is 3.2 107.a. What is the ion product of the ions that can poten-tially form a precipitate?b. Does a precipitate form?562. Lead(II) bromide, PbBr2 , is slightly soluble in water.Its Ksp is 6.3 106 at 25C. Suppose that 120. mL of a 0.0035 M solution of MgBr2 is mixed with 180. mLof a 0.0024 M Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution at 25C.a. What is the ion product of Br and Pb2 in themixed solution?b. Does a precipitate form?563. The Ksp of Mg(OH)2 at 25C is 1.5 1011 .a. Write the equilibrium equation for the dissociationof Mg(OH)2 .b. What volume of water would be required to dis-solve 0.10 g of Mg(OH)2 ?c. Considering that magnesium hydroxide is essen-tially insoluble, why is it possible to titrate a suspen-sion of Mg(OH)2 to an equivalence point with astrong acid such as HCl?564. Lithium carbonate is somewhat soluble in water; itsKsp at 25C is 2.51 102 .a. What is the molar concentration of a saturatedLi2CO3 solution?b. What mass of Li2CO3 would you dissolve in orderto make 3440 mL of saturated solution?565. A 50.00 mL sample of a saturated solution of bariumhydroxide, Ba(OH)2 , is titrated to the equivalencepoint by 31.61 mL of a 0.3417 M solution of HCl.Determine the Ksp of Ba(OH)2 .566. Calculate the Ksp for salts represented by QR that dis-sociate into two ions, Q and R, in each of the fol-lowing solutions:a. saturated solution of QR is 1.0 Mb. saturated solution of QR is 0.50 Mc. saturated solution of QR is 0.1 Md. saturated solution of QR is 0.001 M567. Suppose that salts QR, X2Y, KL2 , A3Z, and D2E3form saturated solutions that are 0.02 M in concentra-tion. Calculate Ksp for each of these salts.568. The Ksp at 25C of silver bromide is 5.0 1013. Whatis the molar concentration of a saturated AgBr solu-tion? What mass of silver bromide would dissolve in10.0 L of saturated solution at 25C?569. The Ksp at 25C for calcium hydroxide is 5.5 106.a. Calculate the molarity of a saturated Ca(OH)2 solu-tion.b. What is the OH concentration of this solution?c. What is the pH of the saturated solution?570. The Ksp of magnesium carbonate is 3.5 108 at25C. What mass of MgCO3 would dissolve in 4.00 Lof water at 25C?Redox Equations: Chap. 19, Sec. 2Reactions in Acidic SolutionBalance the following redox equations. Assumethat all reactions take place in an acid environmentwhere H and H2O are readily available.571. Fe SnCl4 FeCl3 SnCl2572. H2O2 FeSO4 H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 H2O573. CuS HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 NO S H2O574. K2Cr2O7 HI CrI3 KI I2 H2OA P P E N D I X D 913Reactions in Basic SolutionBalance the following redox equations. Assumethat all reactions take place in a basic environmentwhere OH and H2O are readily available.575. CO2 NH2OH CO N2 H2O576. Bi(OH)3 K2SnO2 Bi K2SnO3(Both of the potassium-tin-oxygen compounds dissoci-ate into potassium ions and tin-oxygen ions.)Mixed ReviewBalance each of the following redox equations.Unless stated otherwise, assume that the reactionoccurs in acidic solution.577. Mg N2 Mg3N2578. SO2 Br2 H2O HBr H2SO4579. H2S Cl2 S HCl580. PbO2 HBr PbBr2 Br2 H2O581. S HNO3 NO2 H2SO4 H2O582. NaIO3 N2H4 HCl N2 NaICl2 H2O (N2H4is hydrazine; do not separate it into ions.)583. MnO2 H2O2 HCl MnCl2 O2 H2O584. AsH3 NaClO3 H3AsO4 NaCl (AsH3 is arsine,the arsenic analogue of ammonia, NH3.)585. K2Cr2O7 H2C2O4 HCl CrCl3 CO2 KCl H2O (H2C2O4 is oxalic acid; it can be treated as 2H C2O42.)586. Hg(NO3)2heat HgO NO2 O2 (The reaction is notin solution.)587. HAuCl4 N2H4 Au N2 HCl (HAuCl4 can beconsidered as H AuCl4.)588. Sb2(SO4)3 KMnO4 H2O H3SbO4 K2SO4 MnSO4 H2SO4589. Mn(NO3)2 NaBiO3 HNO3 Bi(NO3)2 HMnO4 NaNO3 H2O590. H3AsO4 Zn HCl AsH3 ZnCl2 H2O591. KClO3 HCl Cl2 H2O KCl592. The same reactants as in item 591 can combine in thefollowing way when more KClO3 is present. Balancethe equation.KClO3 HCl Cl2 ClO2 H2O KCl593. MnCl3 H2O MnCl2 MnO2 HCl594. NaOH H2O Al NaAl(OH)4 H2 in basicsolution595. Br2 Ca(OH)2 CaBr2 Ca(BrO3)2 H2O inbasic solution596. N2O NaClO NaOH NaCl NaNO2 H2O inbasic solution597. Balance the following reaction, which can be used toprepare bromine in the laboratory:HBr MnO2 MnBr2 H2O Br2598. The following reaction occurs when gold is dissolvedin aqua regia. Balance the equation.Au HCl HNO3 HAuCl4 NO H2OElectrochemistry: Chap. 20, Sec. 2Use the reduction potentials in the table on page915 to determine whether the following reactionsare spontaneous as written. Report the E0cell for thereactions.599. Cu2 Fe Fe2 Cu600. Pb2 Fe2 Fe3 Pb601. Mn2 4H2O Sn2 MnO4 8H Sn602. MnO42 Cl2 MnO4 2Cl603. Hg22 2MnO42 2Hg 2MnO4604. 2Li Pb 2Li Pb2605. Br2 2Cl 2Br Cl2606. S 2I S2 I2If a cell is constructed in which the following pairsof reactions are possible, what would be the cath-ode reaction, the anode reaction, and the overallcell voltage?607. Ca2 2e CaFe3 3e Fe608. Ag e Ag S 2H 2e H2S609. Fe3 e Fe2Sn2 2e Sn610. Cu2 2e Cu Au3 3e AuMixed ReviewUse reduction potentials to determine whether thereactions in the following 10 problems are sponta-neous.611. Ba Sn2 Ba2 Sn612. Ni Hg2 Ni2 Hg613. 2Cr3 7 H2O 6Fe3 Cr2O72 14H 6Fe2614. Cl2 Sn 2Cl Sn2615. Al 3Ag Al3 3Ag616. Hg22 S2 2Hg S617. Ba 2Ag Ba2 2Ag618. 2I Ca2 I2 Ca619. Zn 2MnO4 Zn2 2MnO42620. 2Cr3 3Mg2 7H2O Cr2O72 14H 3MgA P P E N D I X D914A P P E N D I X D 915In the following problems, you are given a pair ofreduction half-reactions. If a cell were constructedin which the pairs of half-reactions were possible,what would be the balanced equation for the overall cell reaction that would occur? Write thehalf-reactions that occur at the cathode and anode,and calculate the cell voltage.621. Cl2 2e 2ClNi2 2e Ni622. Fe3 3e FeHg2 2e Hg623. MnO4 e MnO42Al3 3e Al624. MnO4 8H 5e Mn2 4H2OS 2H 2e H2S625. Ca2 2e CaLi e Li626. Br2 2e 2BrMnO4 8H 5e Mn2 4H2O627. Sn2 2e SnFe3 e Fe2628. Zn2 2e ZnCr2O72 14H 6e 2Cr3 7H2O629. Ba2 2e BaCa2 2e Ca630. Hg22 2e 2HgCd2 2e CdFor problems 599606Standard StandardElectrode ElectrodePotential, Potential,Reduction E0 Reduction E0Half-reaction (in volts) Half-reaction (in volts)MnO4 8H 5e Mn2 4H2O 1.50 Fe3 3e Fe 0.04Au3 3e Au 1.50 Pb2 2e Pb 0.13Cl2 2e 2Cl 1.36 Sn2 2e Sn 0.14Cr2O27 14H 6e 2Cr3 7H2O 1.23 Ni2 2e Ni 0.26MnO2 4H 2e Mn2 2H2O 1.22 Cd2 2e Cd 0.40Br2 2e 2Br 1.07 Fe2 2e Fe 0.45Hg2 2e Hg 0.85 S 2e S2 0.48Ag e Ag 0.80 Zn2 2e Zn 0.76Hg22 2e 2Hg 0.80 Al3 3e Al 1.66Fe3 e Fe2 0.77 Mg2 2e Mg 2.37MnO4 e MnO240.56 Na e Na 2.71I2 2e 2l 0.54 Ca2 2e Ca 2.87Cu2 2e Cu 0.34 Ba2 2e Ba 2.91S 2H(aq) 2e H2S(aq) 0.14 K e K 2.932H(aq) 2e H2 0.00 Li e Li 3.04Matter and ChangeMath Tutor Practice1. a. 5 significant figuresb. 4 significant figures2. a. 4.21 g/cm3b. 16.5 gMeasurements and CalculationsPractice Problems A1. 2.75 g/cm32. 1.14 g3. 5.60 mLPractice Problems B1. 1645 cm, 0.01645 km2. 0.000 014 gPractice Problems C1. 17%2. 2.7%Practice Problems D1. a. 5b. 6c. 4d. 1e. 5f. 62. a. 7000 cmb. 7000. cmc. 7000.00 cmPractice Problems C1. 0.125 mol Ca2. 1.83 107 mol Au3. 8.18 103Practice Problems D1. 2.49 1012 mol Pb2. 4.2 1021 mol Sn3. 1.66 1024 atoms AlPractice Problems E1. 7.3 107 g Ni2. 7.51 1022 atoms S3. 66 g AuMath Tutor Practice1. a. 2.25 gb. 59 300 L2. a. 7.2 101 gb. 3.98 103 kmArrangement ofElectrons in AtomsPractice Problems A1. 7, 7,2. 9, 2Practice Problems B1. a. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5, [Kr]4d105s25p5, 46b. 27, 26, 12. a. [Kr]4d105s25p2, 2b. 10, germanium2s1sPractice Problems E1. 2.156 g2. 85.6 cm3. 1.00 m24. 440 gPractice Problems F1. 9.69 mL2. 1.67 g/cm33. 5.12 1011 mm4. 5.2 103 sMath Tutor Practice1. a. 7.45 105 gb. 5.984102 106 nm2. a. 9.11 103b. 8.25 102Atoms: The BuildingBlocks of MatterPractice Problems A1. 35 protons, 35 electrons, 45 neutrons2. 136C3. phosphorus-30Practice Problems B1. 126 g Fe2. 14.7 g K3. 0.310 g Na4. 957 g NiA P P E N D I X E916A P P E N D I X ESelected Answersegfgh2p3. a. 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2b. manganese4. a. 9, 1s22s22p63s23p6b. argonPractice Problems C1. a. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s2, [Xe]6s2b. Be, Mg, Ca, Sr2. a. [Xe]4f 145d106s1b. Au, Cs, Pt Math Tutor Practice1. 85.47 amu2. 28.1 amuThe Periodic LawPractice Problems A1. Group 1, fifth period, s block2. a. ns2b. 1s22s22p63s23p64s2c. Ca, [Ar]4s2Practice Problems B1. fourth period, d block, Group102. 4d105s2Practice Problems C1. a. 3s23p5b. chlorine, nonmetal2. a. fourth period, p block,Group 15b. arsenic, metalloidPractice Problems G1. a. All are in the p block. E, J,and M are in the same period,and E, G, and L are in the samegroup.b. E should have the highestelectron affinity; E, G, and Lare most likely to form 1 ions;E should have the highest elec-tronegativity.c. The ionic radius would belarger.d. E, G, and LMath Tutor Practice 1. a. 1s22s22p63s23p1b. 1s22s22p6c. 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p2d. 1s22s22p63s23p64s12. a. [Ne]3s23p2b. [Kr]5s1c. [Kr]4d105s25p3d. [Ar]3d104s24p3Chemical BondingPractice Problems ASee table below.Practice Problems C1. or2. or HISIHS HHHINIHHN HHHPractice Problems D1. a. p block, second period,Group 17, halogens, fluorine,nonmetal, high reactivityb. d block, fourth period,Group 11, transition elements,copper, metal, low reactivityPractice Problems E1. Li; F2. All of the elements are inGroup 2. Of the four, bariumhas the highest atomic numberand is farthest down the group.Therefore, barium has thelargest atomic radius becauseatomic radii increase down agroup.3. All of the elements are inPeriod 3. Of the four, silicon hasthe largest atomic number andtherefore is the farthest to theright on the periodic table.Therefore, silicon has the small-est atomic radius because atom-ic radii decrease from left toright across a period.Practice Problems F1. a. Q is in the p block, R is inthe s block, T is in the p block,and X is in the p block.b. Q and R, and X and T are inthe same period. Q and T are inthe same group.c. Q would have the highestionization energy, and R wouldhave the lowest.d. Re. RA P P E N D I X E 917Bonding between Electronegativity Bond More-negativechlorine and difference type atomcalcium 3.0 1.0 = 2.0 ionic chlorineoxygen 3.5 3.0 = 0.5 polar-covalent oxygenbromine 3.0 2.8 = 0.2 nonpolar- chlorinecovalent3. or4. orPractice Problems D1.2.Practice Problems E1. a. linearb. tetrahedralc. tetrahedralPractice Problems F1. a. bent or angularb. trigonal-pyramidalMath Tutor Practice1. a. Si b. Sr 2. a. HHSb. OHCOHChemical Formulasand ChemicalCompoundsPractice Problems A1. a. KIb. MgCl2c. Na2Sd. Al2S3e. AlNHICKNOJCJOFIPIFFPFFFHISiIHHHSiHHHHPractice Problem Fa. 98.09 amub. 164.10 amuc. 94.97 amud. 95.21 amuPractice Problems G1. a. 2 mol Al, 3 mol Sb. 1 mol Na, 1 mol N, 3 mol Oc. 1 mol Ba, 2 mol O, 2 mol H2. a. 150.17 g/molb. 85.00 g/molc. 171.35 g/molPractice Problems I1. a. 0.0499 mol b. 61 mol 2. a. 1.53 1023 molecules b. 2.20 1023 molecules 3. 1170 gPractice Problems K1. a. 74.51% Pb, 25.49% Clb. 52.55% Ba, 10.72% N,36.73% O2. 43.85% H2O3. 96.0 g O; 6.00 mol OPractice Problems M1. FeS2. K2Cr2O73. CaBr2Practice Problems N1. C6H62. H2O2Math Tutor Practice1. 43.38% Na, 11.33% C, 45.29% O2. 61.13% I2. a. silver chlorideb. zinc oxidec. calcium bromided. strontium fluoridee. barium oxidef. calcium chloridePractice Problems B1. a. CuBr2, copper(II) bromideb. FeO, iron(II) oxidec. PbCl2, lead(II) chlorided. HgS, mercury(II) sulfidee. SnF2, tin(II) fluoridef. Fe2O3, iron(III) oxide2. a. copper(II) oxideb. cobalt(III) fluoridec. tin(IV) iodided. iron(II) sulfidePractice Problems C1. a. NaI e. CuSO4b. CaCl2 f. Na2CO3c. K2S g. Ca(NO2)2d. LiNO3 h. KClO42. a. silver oxideb. calcium hydroxidec. potassium chlorated. ammonium hydroxidee. iron(III) chromatef. potassium hypochloritePractice Problems D1. a. sulfur trioxideb. iodine trichloridec. phosphorus pentabromide2. a. CI4b. PCl3c. N2O3Practice Problem Ea. +1, 1 f. +1, 1b. +4, 1 g. +5, 2c. +3, 1 h. +1, +5, 2d. +4, 2 i. +5, 2e. +1, +5, 2 j. +2, 1A P P E N D I X E918Chemical Equationsand ReactionsPractice Problems B1. a. calcium + sulfur calciumsulfide; 8Ca(s) + S8(s) 8CaS(s)b. hydrogen + fluorine hydrogen fluoride; H2(g) +F2(g) 2HF(g)c. aluminum + zinc chloride zinc + aluminum chloride;2Al(s) + 3ZnCl2(aq) 3Zn(s) + 2AlCl3(aq)2. a. Liquid carbon disulfidereacts with oxygen gas to pro-duce carbon dioxide gas andsulfur dioxide gas.b. Aqueous solutions of sodiumchloride and silver nitrate reactto produce aqueous sodiumnitrate and a precipitate of silver chloride.3. N2H4(l) + O2(g) N2(g) +2H2O(l)Practice Problems C1. a. Word: magnesium +hydrochloric acid magne-sium chloride + hydrogenFormula: Mg(s) + HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)Balanced: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)b. Word: nitric acid + magne-sium hydroxide magnesiumnitrate + waterFormula: HNO3(aq) +Mg(OH)2(s) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l)Balanced: 2HNO3(aq) +Mg(OH)2(s) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)2. Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)Practice Problems E1. a. 60.0 g NH4NO3b. 27.0 g H2O2. 339 g Ag3. 2.6 kg AlPractice Problems F1. a. H2O2b. 0.500 mol N2H4c. 0.250 mol N2, 1.00 mol H2OPractice Problems G1. a. Znb. 0.75 mol S8 remainsc. 2.00 mol ZnS2. a. carbonb. 2.40 mol H2 and 2.40 mol COc. 4.85 g H2 and 67.2 g COPractice Problems H1. 79.7%2. 3.70 g CuMath Tutor Practice1. 24.48 mol SO32. 30.75 g O2States of MatterPractice Problems A1. 169 kJ2. 2.19 105 gMath Tutor Practice 1. 11.65 kJ/mol2. 74.7 kJPractice Problems E1. a. 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)b. Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)c. Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)Practice Problems F1. a.nob. noc. yes; Cd(s) + 2HBr(aq) CdBr2(aq) + H2(g)d. yes; Mg(s) + 2H2O(g) Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)2. Pb3. MnMath Tutor Practice1. C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O2. a. 2KI(aq) + Cl2(g) 2KCl(aq) + I2(s)b. 2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g)StoichiometryPractice Problems A1. 4 mol NH32. 10. mol KClO3Practice Problems C1. 80.6 g MgO2. 300 g C6H12O6Practice Problems D1. 7.81 mol HgO2. 7.81 mol HgA P P E N D I X E 919GasesPractice Problems A1. 177 kPa, 1330 mm Hg2. 7.37 106 PaPractice Problems B1. 760.0 torrPractice Problems C1. 1000 mL HePractice Problems D1. 941 mL2. 91CPractice Problems E1. 1.30 atm2. 1.29 atm3. 219CPractice Problems F1. 26.3 mL2. 3.94 105 Pa; or 394 kPaPractice Problems G1. 159 L N22. 0.629 mol H2Practice Problems H1. 9.10 L H22. 0.313 L O23. 236 L NOPractice Problems I1. 2.01 atm2. 3.98 atmc. Ba(NO3)2(s)Ba++(aq) + 2NO3(aq); 0.5 molBa2+, 1 mol NO3, 1.5 mol ionsPractice Problems B1. Yes;Ba2+(aq) + SO42(aq)BaSO4(s)2. No3. Yes; Na+ and Cl; Ba2+(aq) +SO42(aq) BaSO4(s)4. Ni2(aq) + S2(aq)NiS(s)Practice Problems C and D1. 0.426C2. 0.175 m3. 118.1C4. a. 9.0Cb. 4.8 mPractice Problems E1. 0.15C2. 102.7C3. 2.0 m4. a. 0.75Cb. 1.5 mPractice Problems F1. 7.4C2. 2.6C3. 0.054 m NaClMath Tutor Practice1. 4.77C2. 106.3CH2OPractice Problems J1. CO2 will effuse about 0.9 timesas fast as HCl2. 160 g/mol3. about 235 m/sMath Tutor Practice 1. T2 = PP2T112. 694 mLSolutionsPractice Problems AC1. 0.282 M KI2. 0.0750 mol3. 0.834 LPractice Problems D1. 22.0 m acetone2. 3.13 g CH3OHMath Tutor Practice 1. 0.700 M Na2SO42. 0.4758 M Cd(NO3)2Ions in AqueousSolutions andColligative PropertiesPractice Problems A1. a. NH4Cl(s) NH4+(aq) +Cl (aq); 1mol MH4+, 1 mol Cl, 2 mol ionsb. Na2S(s) 2Na++(aq) +S2 (aq); 2 mol Na+, 1 mol S2, 3 mol ionsH2OH2OA P P E N D I X E920Acids and BasesMath Tutor Practice1. Formula equation: CuSO4(aq) +Na2S(aq) Na2SO4(aq) +CuS(s)Full ionic equation: Cu2+(aq) +SO42(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + S2(aq) 2Na+(aq) + SO42(aq) +CuS(s)Net ionic equation: Cu2+(aq) +S2(aq) CuS(s)2. Full ionic equation: Cd2+(aq) +2Cl(aq) + 2Na+(aq) +CO32(aq) 2Na+(aq) +2Cl(aq) + CdCO3(s)Net ionic equation: Cd2+(aq) +CO32(aq) CdCO3(s)Acid-Base Titrationand pHPractice Problems A1. [H3O+] = 1 104 M;[OH] = 1 1010 M2. [H3O+] = 1.0 103 M;[OH] = 1.0 1011 M3. [H3O+] = 3.3 1013 M;[OH] = 3.0 102 M4. [H3O+] = 5.0 1011 M;[OH] = 2.0 104 MReaction EnergyPractice Problems A1. 0.14 J/(gK)2. 329 KPractice Problems B1. 890.8 kJ2. 2 kJPractice Problems C1. 125.4 kJ2. +66.4 kJ3. 296.1 kJPractice Problems D1. above 333 KMath Tutor Practice 1. H0 = 396.0 kJ2. H0 = 441.8 kJReaction KineticsPractice Problems A1. a. See figure belowEforward = 150 kJ/molEreverse = +150 kJ/molEa = 100 kJ/molEa = 250 kJ/molPractice Problems B1. a. pH = 3.0b. pH = 5.00c. pH = 10.0d. pH = 12.00Practice Problems C1. pH = 3.172. pH = 1.603. pH = 5.604. pH = 12.60Practice Problems E1. [H3O+] = 1 105 M2. [H3O+] = 1 1012 M3. [H3O+] = 3.2 102 M;[OH] = 3.2 1013 M4. [H3O+] = 2.1 104 MPractice Problems F1. 0.157 M CH3COOH2. 0.0128 M H2SO4Math Tutor Practice1. pH = 3.072. 8.9 105 M OHA P P E N D I X E 921Energy (kJ/mol)ReverseForward1000150ReactantsProductsEaEEab. exothermic; The energy ofthe reactants is greater thanthe energy of the products.2. a.b. Eforward = 39 kJ/molEreverse = 39 kJ/molc. endothermic; The energy ofthe products is greater that theenergy of the products3. a.b. Ea (reverse) = 18 kJ/molPractice Problems B1. rate = k[A]22. 27Practice Problems E1. R = k[L][M]22. R = k[NO2]2Math Tutor Practice1. R = k[O2][NO]22. R = k[H2]; Students shouldobserve that changing the con-centration of C2H2 has no effecton the rate. The rate dependson only the concentration ofhydrogen.154136EaEaEForward ReverseEnergy (kJ/mol)ReactantsProducts1251007550250EaEaEForward ReverseEnergy (kJ/mol)ReactantsProductsElectrochemistryPractice Problems A1. a. Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 3Ni 2Cr3+ + 3Ni2+ + 7H2O;E0 = 1.33 (0.23) = 1.56 Vb. 2Fe3+ + H2 2Fe2+ + 2H+;E0 = 0.77 0.0 = 0.77 VMath Tutor Practice 1. E0 = 1.82 V2. E0 = 1.20 VNuclear ChemistryPractice Problems A1. 25399Es + 42He 10n + 256101Md2. 14261Pm + 01e 60142NdPractice Problems B1. 0.25 mg2. 6396 years3. 7.648 days4. 0.00977 mg5. 4.46 109 yearsMath Tutor Practice1. 1.4 106 g chromium-512. 8 half-lives or 420 000 years(expressed with 2 significant figures)Organic ChemistryPractice Problems A1. methylbutane2. 3-ethyl-4-methylhexaneChemical EquilibriumPractice Problems A1. 0.2862. 4.9 1033. 4.36Practice Problems B1. 1.9 1042. 1.6 105Practice Problems C1. 8.9 1014 mol/L2. 5.7 104 mol/LPractice Problems D1. AgBr precipitates.2. PbCl2 does not precipitate.Math Tutor Practice1. a. K = [[AA]B[B2]]2b. K = [D[D2]E[E2]22]22. K = 2.6 109Oxidation-ReductionReactionsPractice Problems A1. Cu + 2H2SO4 CuSO4 + SO2+ 2H2O2. 8HNO3 + 6KI 6KNO3 + 3I2+ 2NO + 4H2OMath Tutor Practice1. 2MnO2 + NaClO3 + 2NaOH 2NaMnO4 + NaCl + H2O2. N2O + 2KClO + 2KOH 2KCl + 2KNO2 + H2OA P P E N D I X E922Practice Problems B1. 2-hexene2. 2-methyl-2-butene ormethyl-2-butene3. 2-methyl-3-hexene4. 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-heptadieneMath Tutor Practice 1. CH4N2O2. C3H5Br3. CH2OBiological ChemistryMath Tutor Practice 1. leucinehistidineasparticacidtyrosineasparaginetryptophan2. leucinethreonineglycine; Thecodon UGA is a stop codon, sono more amino acids will beadded.A P P E N D I X E 923G L O S S A R Y924Aabsolute zero the temperature atwhich molecular energy is at a mini-mum (0 K on the Kelvin scale or273.15 C on the Celsius scale)(371)accuracy a description of how close ameasurement is to the true value ofthe quantity measured (44)acid-base indicator a substance thatchanges in color depending on thepH of the solution that the sub-stance is in (511)acid ionization constant the term Ka(605)actinide any of the series of heavyradioactive elements that extendsfrom thorium (atomic number 90)through lawrencium (atomic num-ber 103) on the periodic table (136)activated complex a molecule in anunstable state intermediate to thereactants and the products in thechemical reaction (565)activation energy the minimumamount of energy required to start achemical reaction (564)activity series a series of elementsthat have similar properties and thatare arranged in descending order ofchemical activity; examples of activi-ty series include metals and halo-gens (285)actual yield the measured amount ofa product of a reaction (317)addition reaction a reaction in whichan atom or molecule is added to anunsaturated molecule (735)adensosine diphosphate (ADP) anorganic molecule that is involved inenergy metabolism; composed of anitrogenous base, a sugar, and twophosphate groups (767)adenosine triphosphate (ATP) anorganic molecule that acts as themain energy source for cell processes;composed of a nitrogenous base, asugar, and three phosphate groups(766)alcohol an organic compound that con-tains one or more hydroxyl groupsattached to carbon atoms (731)aldehyde an organic compound thatcontains the carbonyl group, CHO (733)alkali metal one of the elements ofGroup 1 of the periodic table (lithi-um, sodium, potassium, rubidium,cesium, and francium) (142)alkaline-earth metal one of the ele-ments of Group 2 of the periodictable (beryllium, magnesium, calci-um, strontium, barium, and radium)(142)alkane a hydrocarbon characterizedby a straight or branched carbonchain that contains only singlebonds (716)alkene a hydrocarbon that containsone or more double bonds (724)alkyl group a group of atoms thatforms when one hydrogen atom isremoved from an alkane molecule(719)alkyl halide a compound formed froman alkyl group and a halogen (fluo-rine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine)(732)alkyne a hydrocarbon that containsone or more triple bonds (727)alpha particle a positively chargedatom that is released in the disinte-gration of radioactive elements andthat consists of two protons and twoneutrons (686)amine an organic compound that canbe considered to be a derivative ofammonia (733)amino acid any one of 20 differentorganic molecules that contain acarboxyl and an amino group andthat combine to form proteins (756)amorphous solid a solid in which theparticles are not arranged with peri-odicity or order (338)amphoteric describes a substance,such as water, that has the proper-ties of an acid and the properties ofa base (485)anabolism the metabolic synthesis ofproteins, fats, and other large bio-molecules from smaller molecules;requires energy in the form of ATP(769)angular momentum quantum numberthe quantum number that indicatesthe shape of an orbital (107)anion an ion that has a negativecharge (159)anode the electrode on whose surfaceoxidation takes place; anionsmigrate toward the anode, and elec-trons leave the system from theanode (656)aromatic hydrocarbon a member ofthe class of hydrocarbons (of whichbenzene is the first member) thatconsists of assemblages of cyclicconjugated carbon atoms and that ischaracterized by large resonanceenergies (729)Arrhenius acid a substance thatincreases the concentration ofhydronium ions in aqueous solution(473)Arrhenius base a substance thatincreases the concentration ofhydroxide ions in aqueous solution(473)artificial transmutation the transfor-mation of atoms of one element into atoms of another element as a result of a nuclear reaction, suchas bombardment with neutrons(691)atmosphere of pressure the pressureof Earths atmosphere at sea level;exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg(364)atom the smallest unit of an elementthat maintains the chemical proper-ties of that element (6, 72)atomic mass unit a unit of mass thatdescribes the mass of an atom ormolecule; it is exactly 1/12 of themass of a carbon atom with massnumber 12 (abbreviation, amu) (80)atomic number the number of pro-tons in the nucleus of an atom; theatomic number is the same for allatoms of an element (77)atomic radius one-half of the distancebetween the center of identicalatoms that are not bonded together(150)G L O S S A R YG L O S S A R Y 925Aufbau principle the principle thatstates that the structure of each suc-cessive element is obtained by addingone proton to the nucleus of the atomand one electron to the lowest-energyorbital that is available (111)autotroph an organism that producesits own nutrients from inorganicsubstances or from the environmentinstead of consuming other organ-isms (766)average atomic mass the weightedaverage of the masses of all natural-ly occurring isotopes of an element(81)Avogadros law the law that statesthat equal volumes of gases at thesame temperature and pressure con-tain equal numbers of molecules(379)Avogadros number 6.02 1023, thenumber of atoms or molecules in 1 mol (83)Bbarometer an instrument that mea-sures atmospheric pressure (363)benzene the simplest aromatic hydro-carbon (729)beta particle a charged electron emit-ted during certain types of radioac-tive decay, such as beta decay (686)binary acid an acid that does not con-tain oxygen, such as hydrofluoricacid (468)binary compound a compound com-posed of two different elements(222)boiling the conversion of a liquid to avapor within the liquid as well as atthe surface of the liquid at a specifictemperature and pressure; occurswhen the vapor pressure of the liq-uid equals the atmospheric pressure(344)boiling point the temperature andpressure at which a liquid and a gasare in equilibrium (344)boiling-point elevation the differencebetween the boiling point of a liquidin pure state and the boiling point ofthe liquid in solution; the increasedepends on the amount of soluteparticles present (450)bond energy the energy required tobreak the bonds in 1 mol of a chem-ical compound (181)Boyles law the law that states that fora fixed amount of gas at a constanttemperature, the volume of the gas increases as the pressure of the gas decreases and the volume of the gas decreases as the pressureof the gas increases (370)Brnsted-Lowry acid a substance thatdonates a proton to another sub-stance (478)Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reactionthe transfer of protons from onereactant (the acid) to another (thebase) (479)Brnsted-Lowry base a substance thataccepts a proton (479)buffered solution a solution that canresist changes in pH when an acid ora base is added to it; a buffer (606)Ccalorimeter a device used to measurethe energy as heat absorbed orreleased in a chemical or physicalchange (531)capillary action the attraction of thesurface of a liquid to the surface of asolid, which causes the liquid to riseor fall (335)carbohydrate any organic compoundthat is made of carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen and that provides nutri-ents to the cells of living things (751)carboxylic acid an organic acid thatcontains the carboxyl functionalgroup (734)catabolism the chemical decomposi-tion of complex biological sub-stances, such as carbohydrates,proteins, and glycogen, accompa-nied by the release of energy (768)catalysis the acceleration of a chemi-cal reaction by a catalyst (570)catalyst a substance that changes therate of a chemical reaction withoutbeing consumed or changed signifi-cantly (570)catenation the binding of an elementto itself to form chains or rings (712)cathode the electrode on whose sur-face reduction takes place (656)cation an ion that has a positivecharge (159)chain reaction a reaction in which thematerial that starts the reaction isalso one of the products and canstart another reaction (697)change of state the change of a sub-stance from one physical state toanother (8)Charless law the law that states thatfor a fixed amount of gas at a con-stant pressure, the volume of the gasincreases as the temperature of thegas increases and the volume of thegas decreases as the temperature ofthe gas decreases (372)chemical any substance that has adefined composition (4)chemical bond the attractive forcethat holds atoms or ions together(175)chemical change a change that occurswhen one or more substanceschange into entirely new substanceswith different properties (9)chemical equation a representation ofa chemical reaction that uses symbolsto show the relationship between thereactants and the products (261)chemical equilibrium a state of bal-ance in which the rate of a forwardreaction equals the rate of thereverse reaction and the concentra-tions of products and reactantsremain unchanged (590)chemical equilibrium expression theequation for the equilibrium con-stant, Keq (592)chemical formula a combination ofchemical symbols and numbers torepresent a substance (178)chemical kinetics the area of chem-istry that is the study of reactionrates and reaction mechanisms (568)chemical property a property of mat-ter that describes a substances abili-ty to participate in chemicalreactions (8)chemical reaction the process bywhich one or more substanceschange to produce one or more dif-ferent substances (9)chemistry the scientific study of thecomposition, structure, and proper-ties of matter and the changes thatmatter undergoes (3)G L O S S A R Y926clone an organism that is produced byasexual reproduction and that isgenetically identical to its parent; tomake a genetic duplicate (775)coefficient a small whole number thatappears as a factor in front of a for-mula in a chemical equation (263)colligative property a property that isdetermined by the number of parti-cles present in a system but that isindependent of the properties of theparticles themselves (446)collision theory the theory that statesthat the number of new compoundsformed in a chemical reaction isequal to the number of moleculesthat collide, multiplied by a factorthat corrects for low-energy colli-sions (562)colloid a mixture consisting of tinyparticles that are intermediate insize between those in solutions andthose in suspensions and that aresuspended in a liquid, solid, or gas(403)combined gas law the relationshipbetween the pressure, volume, andtemperature of a fixed amount ofgas (374)combustion reaction the oxidationreaction of an element or com-pound, in which energy as heat isreleased (283)common-ion effect the phenomenonin which the addition of an ion com-mon to two solutes brings aboutprecipitation or reduces ionization(603)composition stoichiometry calcula-tions involving the mass relation-ships of elements in compounds(299)compound a substance made up ofatoms of two or more different ele-ments joined by chemical bonds (7)concentration the amount of a partic-ular substance in a given quantity ofa mixture, solution, or ore (418)condensation the change of state froma gas to a liquid (342)condensation reaction a chemicalreaction in which two or more mole-cules combine to produce water oranother simple molecule (736, 752)conjugate acid an acid that formswhen a base gains a proton (483)conjugate base a base that formswhen an acid loses a proton (483)continuous spectrum the uninterrupt-ed broad band of all colors (wave-lengths) emitted by incandescentsolids (100)control rod a neutron-absorbing rodthat helps control a nuclear reactionby limiting the number of free neu-trons (698)conversion factor a ratio that isderived from the equality of two dif-ferent units and that can be used toconvert from one unit to the other(40)copolymer a polymer made from twodifferent monomers (737)covalent bond a bond formed whenatoms share one or more pairs ofelectrons (175)critical mass the minimum mass of afissionable isotope that provides thenumber of neutrons needed to sus-tain a chain reaction (698)critical point the temperature andpressure at which the gas and liquidstates of a substance become identi-cal and form one phase (347)critical pressure the lowest pressure atwhich a substance can exist as a liq-uid at the critical temperature (348)critical temperature the temperatureabove which a substance cannotexist in the liquid state (347)crystal a solid whose atoms, ions, ormolecules are arranged in a regular,repeating pattern (338)crystal structure the arrangement ofatoms, ions, or molecules in a regu-lar way to form a crystal (339)crystalline solid a solid that consists ofcrystals (338)cycloalkane a saturated carbon chainthat forms a loop or a ring (718)DDaltons law of partial pressures thelaw that states that the total pres-sure of a mixture of gases is equal tothe sum of the partial pressures ofthe component gases (365)daughter nuclide a nuclide producedby the radioactive decay of anothernuclide (690)decay series a series of radioactivenuclides produced by successiveradioactive decay until a stablenuclide is reached (690)decomposition reaction a reaction inwhich a single compound breaksdown to form two or more simplersubstances (279)denature to change irreversibly thestructure or shapeand thus thesolubility and other propertiesof aprotein by heating, shaking, or treat-ing the protein with acid, alkali, orother species (764)density the ratio of the mass of a sub-stance to the volume of the sub-stance; often expressed as grams percubic centimeter for solids and liq-uids and as grams per liter for gases(38)deposition the change of state from agas directly to a solid (346)derived unit a unit of measure that isa combination of other measure-ments (36)diffusion the movement of particlesfrom regions of higher density toregions of lower density (331)dimensional analysis a mathematicaltechnique for studying dimensionsof physical quantities (40)dipole a molecule or a part of a mole-cule that contains both positivelyand negatively charged regions(204)diprotic acid an acid that has two ionizable hydrogen atoms in each molecule, such as sulfuric acid(480)direct proportion the relationshipbetween two variables whose ratio isa constant value (55)disaccharide a sugar formed from twomonosaccharides (752)disproportionation the process bywhich a substance is transformedinto two or more dissimilar sub-stances, usually by simultaneous oxi-dation and reduction (645)dissociation the separating of a mole-cule into simpler molecules, atoms,radicals, or ions (435)DNA replication the process of mak-ing a copy of DNA (772)G L O S S A R YG L O S S A R Y 927double-displacement reaction a reac-tion in which a gas, a solid precipi-tate, or a molecular compoundforms from the apparent exchangeof atoms or ions between two com-pounds (282)ductility the ability of a substance tobe hammered thin or drawn out intoa wire (196)Eeffervescence a bubbling of a liquidcaused by the rapid escape of a gasrather than by boiling (413)effusion the passage of a gas underpressure through a tiny opening(332)elastic collision a collision betweenideally elastic bodies in which thefinal and initial kinetic energies arethe same (329)electrochemistry the branch of chem-istry that is the study of the relation-ship between electric forces andchemical reactions (655)electrode a conductor used to estab-lish electrical contact with a non-metallic part of a circuit, such as anelectrolyte (656)electrode potential the difference inpotential between an electrode andits solution (662)electrolysis the process in which anelectric current is used to produce achemical reaction, such as thedecomposition of water (279, 670)electrolyte a substance that dissolvesin water to give a solution that con-ducts an electric current (405)electrolytic cell an electrochemicaldevice in which electrolysis takesplace when an electric current is inthe device (667)electromagnetic radiation the radia-tion associated with an electric andmagnetic field; it varies periodicallyand travels at the speed of light (97)electromagnetic spectrum all of thefrequencies or wavelengths of elec-tromagnetic radiation (97)electron affinity the energy needed toremove an electron from a negativeion to form a neutral atom or mole-cule (157)electron capture the process in whichan inner orbital electron is capturedby the nucleus of the atom that con-tains the electron (687)electron configuration the arrange-ment of electrons in an atom (111)electron-dot notation an electron-configuration notation in which onlythe valence electrons of an atom ofthe a particular element are shown,indicated by dots placed around theelements symbol (184)electronegativity a measure of theability of an atom in a chemicalcompound to attract electrons (161)electroplating the electrolytic processof plating or coating an object witha metal (668)element a substance that cannot beseparated or broken down into sim-pler substances by chemical means;all atoms of an element have thesame atomic number (6)elimination reaction a reaction inwhich a simple molecule, such aswater or ammonia, is removed and anew compound is produced (737)emission-line spectrum a diagram orgraph that indicates the degree towhich a substance emits radiantenergy with respect to wavelength(100)empirical formula a chemical formulathat shows the composition of acompound in terms of the relativenumbers and kinds of atoms in thesimplest ratio (245)end point the point in a titration atwhich a marked color change takesplace (516)enthalpy change the amount of ener-gy released or absorbed as heat by asystem during a process at constantpressure (534)enthalpy of combustion the energyreleased as heat by the completecombustion of a specific amount ofa substance at constant pressure orconstant volume (539)enthalpy of reaction the amount ofenergy released or absorbed as heatduring a chemical reaction (534)enthalpy of solution the amount ofenergy released or absorbed as heatwhen a specific amount of solutedissolves in a solvent (416)entropy a measure of the randomnessor disorder of a system (547)enzyme a type of protein that speedsup metabolic reactions in plants andanimals without being permanentlychanged or destroyed (763)equilibrium in chemistry, the state inwhich a chemical process and thereverse chemical process occur atthe same rate such that the concen-trations of reactants and productsdo not change; in physics, the statein which the net force on an objectis zero (342)equilibrium constant a number thatrelates the concentrations of startingmaterials and products of areversible chemical reaction to oneanother at a given temperature(592)equilibrium vapor pressure the vaporpressure of a system at equilibrium(343)equivalence point the point at whichthe two solutions used in a titrationare present in chemically equivalentamounts (516)ester an organic compound formed bycombining an organic acid with analcohol such that water is eliminated(734)ether an organic compound in whichtwo carbon atoms bond to the sameoxygen atom (732)evaporation the change of state froma liquid to a gas (335)excess reactant the substance that isnot used up completely in a reaction(312)excited state a state in which an atomhas more energy than it does at itsground state (100)extensive property a property thatdepends on the extent or size of asystem (7)Ffamily a vertical column of the peri-odic table (17)G L O S S A R Y928fatty acid an organic acid that is con-tained in lipids, such as fats or oils(754)film badge a device that measures theapproximate amount of radiationreceived in a given period of time bypeople who work with radiation(694)fluid a nonsolid state of matter inwhich the atoms or molecules arefree to move past each other, as in agas or liquid (333)formula equation a representation ofthe reactants and products of achemical reaction by their symbolsor formulas (264)formula mass the sum of the averageatomic masses of all atoms repre-sented in the formula of any mole-cule, formula unit, or ion (237)formula unit the collection of atomscorresponding to an ionic com-pounds formula such that the molarmass of the compound is the sameas the mass of 1 mol of formulaunits (190)free energy the energy in a systemthat is available for work; a systemscapacity to do useful work (548)free-energy change the differencebetween the change in enthalpy, H,and the product of the Kelvin tem-perature and the entropy change,which is defined as TS, at a con-stant pressure and temperature (548)freezing the change of state in whicha liquid becomes a solid as energy asheat is removed (336)freezing point the temperature atwhich a solid and liquid are in equi-librium at 1 atm pressure; the tem-perature at which a liquid substancefreezes (345)freezing-point depression the differ-ence between the freezing points ofa pure solvent and a solution, whichis directly proportional to theamount of solute present (448)frequency the number of cycles orvibrations per unit of time; also thenumber of waves produced in agiven amount of time (98)functional group the portion of a mol-ecule that is active in a chemicalreaction and that determines theproperties of many organic com-pounds (730)Ggamma ray the high-energy photonemitted by a nucleus during fissionand radioactive decay (687)gas a form of matter that does nothave a definite volume or shape (8)Gay-Lussacs law the law that statesthat the volume occupied by a gas ata constant pressure is directly pro-portional to the absolute tempera-ture (373)Gay-Lussacs law of combining vol-umes of gases the law that statesthat the volumes of gases involvedin a chemical change can be repre-sented by a ratio of small wholenumbers (378)Geiger-Mller counter an instrumentthat detects and measures the inten-sity of radiation by counting thenumber of electric pulses that passbetween the anode and the cathodein a tube filled with gas (694)geometric isomer a compound thatexists in two or more geometricallydifferent configurations (714)Grahams law of effusion the law thatstates that the rates of effusion ofgases at the same temperature andpressure are inversely proportionalto the square roots of their molarmasses (387)ground state the lowest energy stateof a quantized system (100)group a vertical column of elements inthe periodic table; elements in agroup share chemical properties (17)Hhalf-cell a single electrode immersedin a solution of its ions (656)half-life the time required for half ofa sample of a radioactive isotope tobreak down by radioactive decay toform a daughter isotope (688)half-reaction the part of a reactionthat involves only oxidation orreduction (633)halogen one of the elements of Group17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine,iodine, and astatine); halogens com-bine with most metals to form salts(147)heat the energy transferred betweenobjects that are at different temper-atures; energy is always transferredfrom higher-temperature objects tolower-temperature objects untilthermal equilibrium is reached (532)Heisenberg uncertainty principle theprinciple that states that determin-ing both the position and velocity ofan electron or any other particlesimultaneously is impossible (105)Henrys law the law that states that atconstant temperature, the solubilityof a gas in a liquid is directly pro-portional to the partial pressure ofthe gas on the surface of the liquid(413)Hesss law the overall enthalpychange in a reaction is equal to thesum of the enthalpy changes for theindividual steps in the process (539)heterogeneous composed of dissimi-lar components (12)heterogeneous catalyst a catalyst thatis in a different phase from thephase of the reactants (570)heterogeneous reaction a reaction inwhich the reactants are in two dif-ferent phases (568)heterotroph an organism that obtainsorganic food molecules by eatingother organisms or their byproductsand that cannot synthesize organiccompounds from inorganic materials(766)homogeneous describes somethingthat has a uniform structure or com-position throughout (12)homogeneous catalyst a catalyst thatis in the same phase as the reactantsare (570)homogeneous reaction a reaction inwhich all of the reactants and prod-ucts are in the same phase (562)Hunds rule the rule that states thatfor an atom in the ground state, thenumber of unpaired electrons is themaximum possible and theseunpaired electrons have the samespin (112)hybrid orbitals orbitals that have theproperties to explain the geometryof chemical bonds between atoms(202)G L O S S A R Y 929hybridization the mixing of two ormore atomic orbitals of the sameatom to produce new orbitals;hybridization represents the mixingof higher- and lower-energy orbitalsto form orbitals of intermediateenergy (201)hydration the strong affinity of watermolecules for particles of dissolvedor suspended substances that causeselectrolytic dissociation (411)hydrocarbon an organic compoundcomposed only of carbon andhydrogen (712)hydrogen bond the intermolecularforce occurring when a hydrogenatom that is bonded to a highly elec-tronegative atom of one molecule isattracted to two unshared electronsof another molecule (206)hydrolysis a chemical reactionbetween water and another sub-stance to form two or more newsubstances; a reaction betweenwater and a salt to create an acid ora base (608, 752)hydronium ion an ion consisting of aproton combined with a molecule ofwater; H3O+ (441)hypothesis an explanation that is basedon prior scientific research or obser-vations and that can be tested (30)Iideal gas an imaginary gas whose par-ticles are infinitely small and do notinteract with each other (329)ideal gas constant the proportionalityconstant that appears in the equa-tion of state for 1 mol of an idealgas; R = 0.082 057 84 L atm/mol K (384)ideal gas law the law that states themathematical relationship of pres-sure (P), volume (V), temperature(T), the gas constant (R), and thenumber of moles of a gas (n); PV =nRT (383)immiscible describes two or more liq-uids that do not mix with each other(412)intensive property a property thatdoes not depend on the amount ofmatter present, such as pressure,temperature, or density (7)intermediate a substance that formsin a middle stage of a chemical reac-tion and is considered a steppingstone between the parent substanceand the final product (562)inverse proportion the relationshipbetween two variables whose prod-uct is constant (56)ion an atom, radical, or molecule thathas gained or lost one or more elec-trons and has a negative or positivecharge (153)ionic bond a force that attracts elec-trons from one atom to another,which transforms a neutral atominto an ion (175)ionic compound a compound com-posed of ions bound together byelectrostatic attraction (190)ionization the process of adding or removing electrons from an atom or molecule, which gives theatom or molecule a net charge (153, 441)ionization energy the energy requiredto remove an electron from an atomor ion (abbreviation, IE) (153)isomer one of two or more com-pounds that have the same chemicalcomposition but different structures(712)isotope an atom that has the samenumber of protons (or the sameatomic number) as other atoms ofthe same element do but that has adifferent number of neutrons (andthus a different atomic mass)(78)Jjoule the unit used to express energy;equivalent to the amount of workdone by a force of 1 N actingthrough a distance of 1 m in thedirection of the force (abbreviation,J) (531)Kketone an organic compound in whicha carbonyl group is attached to twoalkyl groups; obtained by the oxida-tion of secondary alcohols (733)kinetic-molecular theory a theory thatexplains that the behavior of physi-cal systems depends on the com-bined actions of the moleculesconstituting the system (329)Llanthanide a member of the rare-earth series of elements, whoseatomic numbers range from 58 (ceri-um) to 71 (lutetium) (136)lattice energy the energy associatedwith constructing a crystal latticerelative to the energy of all con-stituent atoms separated by infinitedistances (192)law of conservation of mass the lawthat states that mass cannot be cre-ated or destroyed in ordinary chemi-cal and physical changes (68)law of definite proportions the lawthat states that a chemical com-pound always contains the same ele-ments in exactly the sameproportions by weight or mass (68)law of multiple proportions the lawthat states that when two elementscombine to form two or more com-pounds, the mass of one elementthat combines with a given mass ofthe other is in the ratio of smallwhole numbers (68)Lewis acid an atom, ion, or moleculethat accepts a pair of electrons (481)Lewis acid-base reaction the forma-tion of one or more covalent bondsbetween an electron-pair donor andan electron-pair acceptor (482)Lewis base an atom, ion, or moleculethat donates a pair of electrons (482)Lewis structure a structural formulain which electrons are representedby dots; dot pairs or dashes betweentwo atomic symbols represent pairsin covalent bonds (185)limiting reactant the substance thatcontrols the quantity of product thatcan form in a chemical reaction (312)lipid a type of biochemical that doesnot dissolve in water, including fatsand steroids; lipids store energy andmake up cell membranes (754)liquid the state of matter that has adefinite volume but not a definiteshape (8)G L O S S A R Y930London dispersion force the intermol-ecular attraction resulting from theuneven distribution of electrons andthe creation of temporary dipoles(207)Mmagic numbers the numbers (2, 8, 20,28, 50, 82, and 126) that representthe number of particles in an extrastable atomic nucleus that has com-pleted shells of protons and neu-trons (683)magnetic quantum number the quan-tum number that corresponds to thealignment of the angular momentumcomponent with a magnetic field(108)main-group element an element inthe s-block or p-block of the period-ic table (146)malleability the ability of a substanceto be hammered or beaten into asheet (196)mass a measure of the amount ofmatter in an object (6)mass defect the difference betweenthe mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of the atoms protons, neutrons, and electrons(681)mass number the sum of the numbersof protons and neutrons that makeup the nucleus of an atom (78)matter anything that has mass andtakes up space (6)melting the change of state in which asolid becomes a liquid by addingenergy as heat or changing pressure(338)melting point the temperature andpressure at which a solid becomes aliquid (338)metabolism the sum of all chemicalprocesses that occur in an organism(766)metal an element that is shiny andthat conducts heat and electricitywell (18)metallic bond a bond formed by theattraction between positivelycharged metal ions and the electronsaround them (195)metalloid an element that has proper-ties of both metals and nonmetals;sometimes referred to as a semicon-ductor (19)millimeters of mercury a unit of pres-sure (364)miscible describes two or more liquidsthat can dissolve into each other invarious proportions (412)mixture a combination of two ormore substances that are not chemi-cally combined (11)model a pattern, plan, representation,or description designed to show thestructure or workings of an object,system, or concept (31)moderator a material that slows thevelocity of neutrons so that theymay be absorbed by the nuclei (698)molal boiling-point constant a quanti-ty calculated to represent the boil-ing-point elevation of a 1-molalsolution of a nonvolatile, nonelec-trolyte solution (450)molal freezing-point constant a quan-tity calculated to represent thefreezing-point depression of a 1-molal solution of a nonvolatile,nonelectrolyte solute (448)molality the concentration of a solu-tion expressed in moles of solute perkilogram of solvent (422)molar enthalpy of formation theamount of energy as heat resultingfrom the formation of 1 mol of asubstance at constant pressure (537)molar enthalpy of fusion the amountof energy as heat required to change1 mol of a substance from solid toliquid at constant temperature andpressure (346)molar enthalpy of vaporization theamount of energy as heat required toevaporate 1 mol of a liquid at con-stant pressure and temperature (345)molar mass the mass in grams of 1 molof a substance (83)molarity a concentration unit of asolution expressed as moles ofsolute dissolved per liter of solution(418)mole the SI base unit used to measurethe amount of a substance whosenumber of particles is the same asthe number of atoms of carbon inexactly 12 g of carbon-12 (83)mole ratio a conversion factor thatrelates the amounts in moles of anytwo substances involved in a chemi-cal reaction (300)molecular compound a chemical com-pound whose simplest units are mol-ecules (178)molecular formula a chemical formulathat shows the number and kinds ofatoms in a molecule, but not thearrangement of the atoms (178)molecule a group of atoms that areheld together by chemical forces; amolecule is the smallest unit ofmatter that can exist by itself andretain all of a substances chemicalproperties (178)monatomic ion an ion formed from asingle atom (220)monomer a simple molecule that cancombine with other like or unlikemolecules to make a polymer (737)monoprotic acid an acid that candonate only one proton to a base(479)monosaccharide a simple sugar that isthe basic subunit of a carbohydrate(751)multiple bond a bond in which theatoms share more than one pair ofelectrons, such as a double bond ora triple bond (187)Nnatural gas a mixture of gaseoushydrocarbons located under the sur-face of Earth, often near petroleumdeposits; used as a fuel (723)net ionic equation an equation thatincludes only those compounds andions that undergo a chemical changein a reaction in an aqueous solution(439)neutralization the reaction of the ionsthat characterize acids (hydroniumions) and the ions that characterizebases (hydroxide ions) to formwater molecules and a salt (489)newton the SI unit for force; the forcethat will increase the speed of a 1 kgmass by 1 m/s each second that theforce is applied (abbreviation, N)(362)G L O S S A R Y 931noble gas one of the elements ofGroup 18 of the periodic table (heli-um, neon, argon, krypton, xenon,and radon); noble gases are unreac-tive (117)noble-gas configurationan outer main energy level fullyoccupied, in most cases, by eightelectrons (118)nomenclature a naming system (222)nonelectrolyte a liquid or solid sub-stance or mixture that does notallow an electric current (406)nonmetal an element that conductsheat and electricity poorly and thatdoes not form positive ions in anelectrolytic solution (19)nonpolar covalent bond a covalentbond in which the bonding electronsare equally attracted to both bondedatoms (176)nonvolatile substance a substance thathas little tendency to become a gasunder existing conditions (446)nuclear binding energy the energyreleased when a nucleus is formedfrom nucleons (682)nuclear fission the splitting of thenucleus of a large atom into two ormore fragments; releases additionalneutrons and energy (697)nuclear forces the interaction thatbinds protons and neutrons, protonsand protons, and neutrons and neu-trons together in a nucleus (76)nuclear fusion the combination of thenuclei of small atoms to form a larg-er nucleus; releases energy (699)nuclear power plant a facility thatuses heat from nuclear reactors toproduce electrical energy (698)nuclear radiation the particles thatare released from the nucleus duringradioactive decay, such as neutrons,electrons, and photons (685)nuclear reaction a reaction thataffects the nucleus of an atom (684)nuclear reactor a device that usescontrolled nuclear reactions to pro-duce energy or nuclides (698)nuclear shell model a model whichrepresents nucleons as existing indifferent energy levels, or shells, inthe nucleus (683)nuclear waste waste that containsradioisotopes (696)nucleic acid an organic compound,either RNA or DNA, whose mole-cules are made up of one or twochains of nucleotides and carrygenetic information (770)nucleon a proton or neutron (681)nuclide an atom that is identified bythe number of protons and neutronsin its nucleus (79, 681)Oorbital a region in an atom wherethere is a high probability of findingelectrons (106)order in chemistry, a classification ofchemical reactions that depends onthe number of molecules thatappear to enter into the reaction(572)organic compound a covalently bond-ed compound that contains carbon,excluding carbonates and oxides(711)osmosis the diffusion of water oranother solvent from a more dilutesolution (of a solute) to a more con-centrated solution (of the solute)through a membrane that is perme-able to the solvent (452)osmotic pressure the external pres-sure that must be applied to stoposmosis (452)oxidation a reaction that removes oneor more electrons from a substancesuch that the substances valence oroxidation state increases (632)oxidation number the number of elec-trons that must be added to orremoved from an atom in a com-bined state to convert the atom intothe elemental form (232)oxidation state the condition of anatom expressed by the number ofelectrons that the atom needs toreach its elemental form (232)oxidation-reduction reaction anychemical change in which onespecies is oxidized (loses electrons)and another species is reduced(gains electrons); also called redoxreaction (633)oxidized describes an element thathas lost electrons and that hasincreased its oxidation number (632)oxidizing agent the substance thatgains electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction and that isreduced (642)oxyacid an acid that is a compound ofhydrogen, oxygen, and a third ele-ment, usually a nonmetal (469)oxyanion a polyatomic ion that con-tains oxygen (225)Pparent nuclide a radionuclide thatyields a specific daughter nuclide asa later member of a radioactiveseries (690)partial pressure the pressure of eachgas in a mixture (365)pascal the SI unit of pressure; equalto the force of 1 N exerted over anarea of 1 m2 (abbreviation, Pa)(364)Pauli exclusion principle the principlethat states that two particles of acertain class cannot be in exactly thesame energy state (112)percentage composition the percent-age by mass of each element in acompound (243)percentage error a figure that is calcu-lated by subtracting the acceptedvalue from the experimental value,dividing the difference by theaccepted value, and then multiply-ing by 100 (45)percentage yield the ratio of the actu-al yield to the theoretical yield, mul-tiplied by 100 (317)period in chemistry, a horizontal rowof elements in the periodic table(17)periodic law the law that states thatthe repeating chemical and physicalproperties of elements change peri-odically with the atomic numbers ofthe elements (135)periodic table an arrangement of theelements in order of their atomicnumbers such that elements withsimilar properties fall in the samecolumn, or group (135)petroleum a liquid mixture of com-plex hydrocarbon compounds; usedwidely as a fuel source (723)G L O S S A R Y932pH a value that is used to express theacidity or alkalinity (basicity) of asystem; each whole number on thescale indicates a tenfold change inacidity; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH ofless than 7 is acidic, and a pH ofgreater than 7 is basic (503)pH meter a device used to determinethe pH of a solution by measuringthe voltage between the two elec-trodes that are placed in the solu-tion (512)phase in chemistry, one of the fourstates or conditions in which a sub-stance can exist: solid, liquid, gas, orplasma; a part of matter that is uni-form (342)phase diagram a graph of the rela-tionship between the physical stateof a substance and the temperatureand pressure of the substance (347)photoelectric effect the emission ofelectrons from a material when lightof certain frequencies shines on thesurface of the material (99)photon a unit or quantum of light; aparticle of electromagnetic radiationthat has zero rest mass and carries aquantum of energy (100)physical change a change of matterfrom one form to another without achange in chemical properties (7)physical property a characteristic of asubstance that does not involve achemical change, such as density,color, or hardness (7)plasma in physical science, a state ofmatter that starts as a gas and thenbecomes ionized; it consists of free-moving ions and electrons, it takeson an electric charge, and its prop-erties differ from those of a solid,liquid, or gas (8)pOH the negative of the common log-arithm of the hydroxide ion concen-tration of a solution (503)polar describes a molecule in whichthe positive and negative chargesare separated (176)polar covalent bond a covalent bondin which a pair of electrons sharedby two atoms is held more closelyby one atom (176)polyatomic ion an ion made of two ormore atoms (194)polymer a large molecule that isformed by more than fivemonomers, or small units (737)polyprotic acid an acid that candonate more than one proton permolecule (479)polysaccharide one of the carbohy-drates made up of long chains of sim-ple sugars; polysaccharides includestarch, cellulose, and glycogen (753)positron a particle that has the samemass and spin as an electron butthat has a positive charge (686)precipitate a solid that is produced asa result of a chemical reaction insolution (262)precision the exactness of a measure-ment (44)pressure the amount of force exertedper unit area of a surface (361)primary standard a highly purifiedsolid compound used to check theconcentration of a known solutionin a titration (517)principal quantum number the quan-tum number that indicates the ener-gy and orbital of an electron in anatom (107)product a substance that forms in achemical reaction (9)protein an organic compound that ismade of one or more chains ofamino acids and that is a principalcomponent of all cells (757)pure substance a sample of matter,either a single element or a singlecompound, that has definite chemi-cal and physical properties (13)Qquantity something that has magni-tude, size, or amount (33)quantum the basic unit of electromag-netic energy; it characterizes thewave properties of electrons (99)quantum number a number that spec-ifies certain properties of electrons(107)quantum theory the study of thestructure and behavior of the atomand of subatomic particles from theview that all energy comes in tiny,indivisible bundles (105)Rradioactive dating the process bywhich the approximate age of anobject is determined based on theamount of certain radioactivenuclides present (695)radioactive decay the disintegrationof an unstable atomic nucleus intoone or more different nuclides,accompanied by the emission ofradiation, the nuclear capture orejection of electrons, or fission (685)radioactive nuclide a nuclide that con-tains isotopes that decay and thatemit radiation (685)radioactive tracer a radioactive mate-rial that is added to a substance sothat its distribution can be detectedlater (695)rate law the expression that showshow the rate of formation of prod-uct depends on the concentration ofall species other than the solventthat take part in a reaction (572)rate-determining step in a multistepchemical reaction, the step that hasthe lowest velocity, which deter-mines the rate of the overall reac-tion (576)reactant a substance or molecule thatparticipates in a chemical reaction (9)reaction mechanism the way in whicha chemical reaction takes place;expressed in a series of chemicalequations (561)reaction rate the rate at which achemical reaction takes place; mea-sured by the rate of formation of theproduct or the rate of disappearanceof the reactants (568)reaction stoichiometry calculationsinvolving the mass relationshipsbetween reactants and products in achemical reaction (299)real gas a gas that does not behavecompletely like a hypothetical idealgas because of the interactionsbetween the gas molecules (332)redox reaction [see oxidation-reduction reaction] (633)reduced describes a substance thathas gained electrons, lost an oxygenatom, or gained a hydrogen atom(633)G L O S S A R Y 933reducing agent a substance that hasthe potential to reduce another sub-stance (642)reduction a chemical change in whichelectrons are gained, either by theremoval of oxygen, the addition ofhydrogen, or the addition of elec-trons (633)reduction potential the decrease involtage that takes place when a pos-itive ion becomes less positive orneutral or when a neutral atombecomes negative ion (662)rem the quantity of ionizing radiationthat does as much damage to humantissue as 1 roentgen of high-voltageX rays does (693)resonance the bonding in moleculesor ions that cannot be correctly rep-resented by a single Lewis structure(189)reversible reaction a chemical reac-tion in which the products re-formthe original reactants (266, 589)roentgen a unit of radiation dose of Xrays or gamma rays that is equal tothe amount of radiation that willproduce 2.58 104 of ions per kilo-gram of air at atmospheric pressure(693)Ssalt an ionic compound that formswhen a metal atom or a positiveradical replaces the hydrogen of anacid (231, 489)saponification a chemical reaction inwhich esters of fatty acids react witha strong base to produce glyceroland a fatty acid salt; the process thatis used to make soap (754)saturated hydrocarbon an organiccompound formed only by carbonand hydrogen linked by single bonds(716)saturated solution a solution that can-not dissolve any more solute underthe given conditions (409)scientific method a series of steps fol-lowed to solve problems, includingcollecting data, formulating ahypothesis, testing the hypothesis,and stating conclusions (29)scientific notation a method ofexpressing a quantity as a numbermultiplied by 10 to the appropriatepower (50)scintillation counter an instrumentthat converts scintillating light intoan electrical signal for detectingand measuring radiation (694)self-ionization of water a process inwhich two water molecules producea hydronium ion and a hydroxideion by transfer of a proton (499)semipermeable membrane a mem-brane that permits the passage ofonly certain molecules (452)shielding a radiation-absorbing mater-ial that is used to decrease radiationleakage from nuclear reactors (698)SI Le Systme International dUnits,or the International System of Units,which is the measurement systemthat is accepted worldwide (33)significant figure a prescribed decimalplace that determines the amount ofrounding off to be done based on theprecision of the measurement (46)single bond a covalent bond in whichtwo atoms share one pair of elec-trons (185)single-displacement reaction a reac-tion in which one element or radicaltakes the place of another elementor radical in a compound (281)solid the state of matter in which thevolume and shape of a substance arefixed (8)solubility the ability of one substanceto dissolve in another at a giventemperature and pressure;expressed in terms of the amount ofsolute that will dissolve in a givenamount of solvent to produce a sat-urated solution (410)solubility product constant the equi-librium constant for a solid that is inequilibrium with the solids dis-solved ions (613)soluble capable of dissolving in a par-ticular solvent (401)solute in a solution, the substance thatdissolves in the solvent (402)solution a homogeneous mixture oftwo or more substances uniformlydispersed throughout a single phase(402)solution equilibrium the physical statein which the opposing processes ofdissolution and crystallization of asolute occur at equal rates (408)solvated describes a solute moleculethat is surrounded by solvent mole-cules (415)solvent in a solution, the substance inwhich the solute dissolves (402)specific heat the quantity of heatrequired to raise a unit mass ofhomogeneous material 1 K or 1C ina specified way given constant pres-sure and volume (532)spectator ions ions that are present ina solution in which a reaction is tak-ing place but that do not participatein the reaction (439)spin quantum number the quantumnumber that describes the intrinsicangular momentum of a particle(110)standard electrode potential thepotential developed by a metal orother material immersed in an elec-trolyte solution relative to thepotential of the hydrogen electrode,which is set at zero (663)standard solution a solution of knownconcentration, expressed in terms ofthe amount of solute in a givenamount of solvent or solution (517)standard temperature and pressurefor a gas, the temperature of 0Cand the pressure 1.00 atm (364)strong acid an acid that ionizes com-pletely in a solvent (474)strong electrolyte a compound thatcompletely or largely dissociates inan aqueous solution, such as solublemineral salts (442)structural formula a formula that indi-cates the location of the atoms,groups, or ions relative to oneanother in a molecule and that indi-cates the number and location ofchemical bonds (185, 712)structural isomers two or more com-pounds that have the same numberand kinds of atoms and the samemolecular weight but that differ inthe order in which the atoms areattached to one another (713)G L O S S A R Y934sublimation the process in which asolid changes directly into a gas (theterm is sometimes also used for thereverse process) (346)substitution reaction a reaction inwhich one or more atoms replaceanother atom or group of atoms in amolecule (735)supercooled liquid a liquid that iscooled below its normal freezingpoint without solidifying (338)supersaturated solution a solutionthat holds more dissolved solutethan is required to reach equilibri-um at a given temperature (409)surface tension the force that acts onthe surface of a liquid and that tendsto minimize the area of the surface(335)suspension a mixture in which parti-cles of a material are more or lessevenly dispersed throughout a liquidor gas (403)synthesis reaction a reaction in whichtwo or more substances combine toform a new compound (276)system a set of particles or interactingcomponents considered to be a dis-tinct physical entity for the purposeof study (29)Ttemperature a measure of how hot(or cold) something is; specifically, ameasure of the average kinetic ener-gy of the particles in an object (531)theoretical yield the maximumamount of product that can be pro-duced from a given amount of reac-tant (317)theory an explanation for some phe-nomenon that is based on observa-tion, experimentation, andreasoning (31)thermochemical equation an equationthat includes the quantity of energyas heat released or absorbed duringthe reaction as written (535)thermochemistry the branch of chem-istry that is the study of the energychanges that accompany chemicalreactions and changes of state (531)titration a method to determine theconcentration of a substance in solu-tion by adding a solution of knownvolume and concentration until thereaction is completed, which is usu-ally indicated by a change in color(515)transition element one of the metalsthat can use the inner shell beforeusing the outer shell to bond (144)transition interval the range in con-centration over which a variation ina chemical indicator can beobserved (512)transmutation the transformation ofatoms of one element into atoms ofa different element as a result of anuclear reaction (684)transuranium element a syntheticelement whose an atomic number isgreater than that of uranium (atom-ic number 92) (692)triple point the temperature and pres-sure conditions at which the solid,liquid, and gaseous phases of a sub-stance coexist at equilibrium (347)triprotic acid an acid that has threeionizable protons per molecule, suchas phosphoric acid (480)Uunit cell the smallest portion of acrystal lattice that shows the three-dimensional pattern of the entirelattice (339)unsaturated hydrocarbon a hydrocar-bon that has available valencebonds, usually from double or triplebonds with carbon (724)unsaturated solution a solution thatcontains less solute than a saturatedsolution does and that is able to dis-solve additional solute (409)Vvalence electron an electron that isfound in the outermost shell of anatom and that determines the atomschemical properties (160)vaporization the process by which aliquid or solid changes to a gas (335)volatile liquid a liquid that evaporatesreadily or at a low temperature(343)voltaic cell a primary cell that consistsof two electrodes made of differentmetals immersed in an electrolyte;used to generate voltage (658)volume a measure of the size of abody or region in three-dimensionalspace (37)VSEPR theory a theory that predictssome molecular shapes based on theidea that pairs of valence electronssurrounding an atom repel eachother (197)Wwavelength the distance from anypoint on a wave to an identical pointon the next wave (97)weak acid an acid that releases fewhydrogen ions in aqueous solution(474)weak electrolyte a compound that dis-sociates only to a small extent inaqueous solution (443)weight a measure of the gravitationalforce exerted on an object; its valuecan change with the location of theobject in the universe (35)word equation an equation in whichthe reactants and products in achemical reaction are representedby words (263)Page references followed by f refer to figures. Page refer-ences followed by t refer totables.absolute zero, 371absorption, 102, 102faccuracy, 4446, 44facetic acidas buffer, 606607common-ion effect in,603604, 604fhydrolysis of ions in, 610f,611ionization constant,605607, 606tproperties, 471strength of, 474475, 475f,484acetone, 746acetylene, 727acid-base indicatorscolors of, 500f, 512f, 513tequivalence point and,516517, 516f, 517ffunction of, 511512, 511flab procedure, 496497pH paper, 468, 468f, 471,512, 515fin titrations, 515521, 515f,516f, 517f, 518f519facid ionization constants,605606, 606t, 628629acidosis, 817acid rain, 279, 489, 489f, 510acids, 466489. See also pHamphoteric compounds,485487, 486f, 487fArrhenius, 473474, 473f,474t, 482tBrnsted-Lowry, 478481,480f, 482tconjugate, 483485, 485t,608609decomposition of, 280displacement reactions in,281experimental determinationof, 496497household, 472hydrolysis of salts, 608612,608f, 610f, 611fhydronium and hydroxideions in, 501502industrial, 470471ionization constants,605606, 606t, 628629Lewis, 481482, 482tmonoprotic and polyprotic,479481, 480fneutralization reactions, 468,472, 487489, 488f,517521nomenclature, 230231, 230t,468469, 468t, 469torganic, 474475properties, 468strength of, 474475, 474t,484485, 485t, 501t, 509actinides, 136, 148, 157tactivated complexes, 565567,565factivation energy, 465f, 564567, 564f, 565f, 764, 764factive sites, 763activity series, 285287, 286tactual yield, 317addition polymers, 738, 738faddition reactions, 735736adenine, 770, 770f, 824fadenosine diphosphate (ADP),767, 767fadenosine triphosphate (ATP),766769, 767f, 769t, 824fAIDS/HIV infection, 762air bags, 380air pollution, 836alcohols, 731, 731f, 731taldehydes, 731t, 733, 733falkali metals, 142, 142f,786791, 786f, 788talkaline batteries, 659, 659falkaline-earth metals, 142,142f, 792797, 792f, 794talkanes, 716724, 717t, 718t,719t, 722t, 723talkenes, 724727, 724t, 727falkyl groups, 719722, 719talkyl halides, 731t, 732, 735alkynes, 727728, 728fallotropes, 725alloys, 402403, 402t, 403f ,802804, 803t, 804f , 811, 811talpha particles, 74, 75f , 685t,686, 686f , 690f , 693, 693faluminumalloys, 811, 811telectron configuration, 117tindustrial production of, 671oxides, 835, 835tproperties, 18f, 808809,808f, 809f, 810tin water purification,273274amalgams, 402t, 802famines, 731t, 733amino acidschemical structures of, 756,756f, 819, 819fin the genetic code, 780in peptides and proteins,757758, 758fsynthesis of, 774ammoniain amines, 733as base, 475, 475t, 482oxidation of, 309polarity of, 205, 205fproduction of, 597, 598600structure of, 199, 199f, 202ammonium ions, 194, 194f,610612, 611famorphous solids, 338, 341amphoteric compounds,485487, 486f, 487famphoteric oxides, 835anabolism, 769angular momentum quantumnumber, 107108, 108tanhydrides, 834anionshydrolysis of, 608609, 608fionic radii, 159160, 159tnomenclature, 220221,221f, 221toxyanions, 225227, 226t,230anodes, 72f, 656, 656fantibodies, 756, 760taqueous solutions, 434456attraction between dis-sociated ions, 456boiling-point elevation,450451calculating hydronium andhydroxide ion concentra-tion of, 501502dissociation in, 435439,435f, 438felectrolysis, 444445, 444ffreezing-point depression,448450, 448t, 454456,455tionization, 441, 441fnet ionic equations, 439440osmotic pressure, 452453,452fprecipitation reactions,437440, 437t, 438fstandard solutions, 517strong and weak elec-trolytes, 442443, 442fvapor-pressure lowering,446447, 446f, 447farea, units of, 854targon, 114115, 117t, 118Aristotle, 43, 67aromatic hydrocarbons, 729Arrhenius, Svante 473Arrhenius acids and bases,473476, 473f, 474t, 475t,476f, 482tarsenic, 118t, 139, 229,828829, 829tartificial transmutations,691692, 691f, 692f, 692tasbestos, 825atmospheres (units), 364365,364tatmospheric pressure,362363, 362f, 363f, 365atomic masses, 8182, 82t, 128,133, 856t857tatomic mass units (amu), 76t,80, 855tatomic number, 77, 856t857tatomic radii, 150152, 150f,151f, 152f, 163atoms, 6687in ancient science, 43, 67atomic number, 77,856t857tatomic theory, 6769, 69faverage atomic masses,8182, 82tBohr model, 102103, 102f,103fdefinition, 6, 6f, 72isotopes, 7780, 78f, 78t, 79tmass numbers, 78, 78torbitals, 106110, 107f, 108f,108t, 109f, 110tplum pudding model, 73quantum model, 104110,107f, 108f, 108t, 109f, 110trelative atomic masses,8081sizes of, 76AI N D E X 935I N D E XI N D E X936atoms (continued)structure of, 7276, 74f, 75f,76t, 110tsubatomic particles, 682ATP (adenosine triphosphate),766769, 767f, 769t, 824fAufbau principle, 111, 116, 116fautomobiles, 380, 579, 666,669, 669f , 731, 811, 811faverage atomic masses, 8182,82t, 128Avogadros law, 379380, 379f,380fAvogadros number, 83, 86, 855tbalancing equationsformula equations, 264265,267by inspection, 270274, 294redox equations, 637641,650using models, 284ball-and-stick models,197198, 197f, 198f, 713fBalmer spectral series, 103,103fband of stability, 682683, 683fbarium, 121, 618620,792793, 792f, 794tbarometers, 363, 363f, 376base dissociation constants, 610base-pairing, 771772, 771f, 824bases, 471489. See also pHamphoteric compounds,485487Arrhenius, 473, 475476,475t, 482tBrnsted-Lowry, 478481,480f, 482tcalculating hydronium andhydroxide ion concentra-tion in, 501502conjugate, 483485, 485t,608609dissociation constants, 610experimental determinationof, 496497household, 472hydrolysis of salts, 608612,608f, 610f, 611fLewis, 481482, 482tneutralization reactions,487489, 488fproperties, 471472strength of, 475476, 475t,476f, 484485, 485tbatteries, 659660, 659f, 660f ,669, 669fBecquerel, Henri, 685, 693benzene, 729, 729fberyllium, 116, 116t, 792793,792f, 794tBerzelius, Jns Jacob, 444beta particles, 685t, 686, 686f,693, 693fbinary acids, 230231, 230t,468469, 468t. See also acidsbinary compounds, 222, 279binary molecular compounds,227229, 228t, 229tbinding energy per nucleon,682, 682fbiochemistry, 750775, 819824amino acids, 756, 756f,757758, 819, 819fcarbohydrates, 751753,752f, 753f, 766, 821822DNA, 771772, 771f, 772fgenetic engineering,774775, 774flipids, 754755, 754f, 755f,822823metabolism, 766769, 767f,768f, 769tnucleic acid structure, 770,770fproteins, 757765 RNA, 773774, 773fbioluminescence, 102blocks, of elements, 138139,139fblood. See also hemoglobinartificial, 417, 417f, 762buffers in, 609carbon dioxide in, 816817,817fsickle cell anemia, 761, 761ftransfusions, 762Bohr, Niels, 101f, 102103,102f, 103fboiling, 336, 344345, 344f, 345fboiling-point elevation,450451, 462boiling points, 7fbonding types and, 203, 204tof crystalline solids, 340tdetermining, 462of liquids, 344345, 344f, 345fof organic compounds, 722t,723, 723t, 730tof water, 344, 344f, 351, 855tbond angles, 199201, 199f,200t, 350bond energy, 181, 182t, 187tbonding. See chemical bondingbond length, 181, 182t, 187tbond strength, 196boron, 113, 116, 116t , 183,808809, 808f, 810tboron family elements,808811, 808f, 810t, 811tboron trifluoride, 198, 198f,203Bosch, Karl, 597Boyle, Robert, 369, 376377,396Boyles law, 369370, 369f, 370fbromine, 118t, 146, 161t, 162,235t , 838839, 838f, 839f,840tbromthymol blue, 513t, 516Brnsted-Lowry acids andbases, 478481, 480f, 482tBrownian motion, 404Buckyballs, 725buffers, 606607, 606f, 609butane, 713, 713t, 717tcaffeine, 484calciumdietary, 796, 796telectron configuration, 118,118tproperties, 792793, 792f,794treactivity, 142, 142f, 793, 793fcalorimeters, 531, 539, 539f,852853, 852fcalorimetry, 558559, 852853,852f, 853fCannizzaro, Stanislao, 133capillary action, 335, 335fcarbohydrateschemical structure, 821822,821f, 822fcondensation reactions,752753, 752f, 753fdigestion of, 768disaccharides, 752, 752f, 821,821fmonosaccharides, 751752,752f, 821, 821fpolysaccharides, 753, 753fcarbonallotropes, 725in aromatic hydrocarbons,729, 729fBuckyballs, 725carbon cycle, 815, 815fcovalent bonding in,186188, 187telectron configuration, 116t,148, 202, 202fforms of, 542in iron ore reduction, 814,814fisotopes, 82t, 695oxidation numbers, 235tproperties, 812813, 813tcarbonated beverages, 413,413fcarbon-14 dating, 695. See alsoradioactive datingcarbon dioxidein the carbon cycle, 815, 815fdry ice, 358359molecular geometry of, 201nonpolarity of, 205fphase diagram, 358fproperties, 815in respiration, 816817, 817fcarbon family of elements,812827. See also undernames of individual elementscarbon monoxide, 275, 815,818, 818tcarbonyl groups, 733carboxyl groups, 734, 734fcarboxylic acids, 731t, 734, 734fcareers in chemistryanalytical chemist, 516chemical technician, 300computational chemist, 204environmental chemist, 408forensic chemist, 774materials scientist, 145petroleum engineer, 720pharmacist, 222casein, 760, 760t, 782783catabolism, 768769, 768f, 769tcatalysis, 570, 571fcatalystscatalytic converters, 579in chemical equations, 266enzymes as, 763764, 763fheterogeneous vs. homo-geneous, 570reaction rate and, 570, 570f,571fcatalytic converters, 579catenation, 712, 712fcathode rays, 7273, 72f, 73fcathodes, 72f, 656, 656fcathodic protection, 662, 662fcationshydrolysis of, 609610ionic radii, 159160, 159t, 164nomenclature, 220, 221t,224225, 224fCBcellulose, 753, 753f, 822fCelsius temperature scale, 531centrifuges, 12, 12fcesium, 82t , 121, 177, 786787,786f, 787f, 788tchain reactions, 697698, 697fchanges of state, 342348boiling, 336, 344345, 344f,345fchemical, 811, 9fequilibrium and, 342343,342t, 343ffreezing, 336, 342t, 345346,351melting, 338, 342t, 346347phase diagrams, 347348,347f, 348fCharles, Jacques, 371Charless law, 371372, 371f,372f, 396chemical bonding, 174207carbon, 711712, 711f, 712fcovalent, 178189 definition, 175electronegativity and,176177, 176f, 177fenthalpy of vaporization,196, 196t, 345, 345f, 351intermolecular forces,203207, 204t, 205f, 206f,207fionic, 190194 metallic, 195196, 195f, 196t,204tobservable properties,216217types of, 175177, 176f,177f, 216217VSEPR theory, 197201,198f, 199f, 200tchemical changes, 910chemical equations, 262274balancing, 264267,270274, 284, 294,637641, 650coefficients in, 263, 265,268269elements in elemental state,262263net ionic equation, 439440requirements of, 262263significance of, 268270, 269fsymbols in, 265267, 266tthermochemical, 535word, 263264, 268chemical equilibrium, 588620acid ionization constants,605606, 606t, 628629base dissociation constants,610buffers, 606607, 606fcalcium-carbonate system,600common-ion effect,603604, 604fdetermining equilibriumconstants, 592, 626equilibrium expression,591595, 591f, 593tfactors in, 598601, 599f, 601fhydrogen-iodine system,592594, 593tionization constant of water,500501, 500t, 600, 607precipitation calculations,618620reactions that go to comple-tion, 601603, 602freversible reactions and,589591salt hydrolysis, 608612,608f, 610f, 611fsolubility products, 613620,615tchemical equilibrium expres-sion, 592, 626chemical formulas, 178calculation of, 245249for covalent-network com-pounds, 230empirical, 245247,258259, 746formula masses, 237238for ionic compounds, 222molar masses, 83, 83f,238242, 240ffor molecular compounds,227229, 228t, 229tfor monatomic ions,220221, 221toxidation numbers, 232235,235tfor polyatomic ions,225227, 226tsignificance of, 219220structural, 712713, 713fchemical kinetics, 568. See alsokinetics of reactionschemical properties, 810chemical purity, 14, 14f, 14tchemical reactions, 260288.See also chemical equations;chemical equilibrium; kinet-ics of reactions; oxidation-reduction reactionsacid-base, 483489, 485t,486f, 487f, 488factivated complexes,565567, 565factivation energy, 564567,564f, 565f, 570, 764, 764factivity series, 285287, 286taddition, 735736, 736famino acid, 756collision theory, 562563,563f, 569combustion, 283, 283f,538539, 539f, 856tcombustion synthesis, 288,288fcondensation, 736, 752753,752f, 756decomposition, 279280, 280fdefinition, 261double-displacement,282283, 282f, 438439,438f, 440driving force of, 546550,548f, 549telimination, 737, 737fendothermic, 535537, 537f,546, 549tenthalpy of, 534542, 536f,537f, 543fexothermic, 415416,535536, 536f, 549t, 564half-reactions, 633635indications of, 261262limiting vs. excess reactants,312316, 312fmechanisms of, 561562, 561fneutralization, 468, 472,487489, 488f, 517521nuclear, 684, 697698, 697fpercentage yield, 317318precipitation, 437439, 438frate laws, 571578, 584reactions that go to comple-tion, 601603, 602freversible, 266267, 270,589590single-displacement,281282, 281f, 285substitution, 735synthesis, 276279, 277f, 288chemicals, definition of, 4chemistry, science of, 35. See also history of chemistrychlorinechemical bonding, 177, 177f,183, 183felectron configuration, 117tisotopes, 7980oxidation numbers, 235t,634635oxyacids of, 486f, 487properties, 383f, 838839,839f, 840tsize of, 150fwater treatment by, 840841,840fchlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),732, 735chlorophyll, 766, 797fcholesterol, 755chromatography, 848849,848f, 849fchromium, 118t, 119, 632, 632f,798800, 799f, 800f, 801tcis isomers, 714, 724f, 724tcitric acid cycle, 768cloning, 775, 775fcobalt, 118t , 119, 798800,799f, 800f, 801t, 807tcoefficients, equation, 263,265, 268269, 537collagen, 760, 760tcolligative properties, 446456boiling-point elevation,450451, 462electrolytes and, 453456,453f, 455tfreezing-point depression,448450, 448t, 454456,455t, 462of nonvolatile substances,446447, 446f, 447fosmotic pressure, 452453,452fvapor-pressure lowering,446447, 446f, 447fcollision theory, 562563, 563f,569colloids, 403405, 404f, 404tcombined gas law, 374375, 396combustion reactions, 283,283f, 538539, 539f, 856tcombustion synthesis, 288, 288fcommon-ion effect, 603604,604fcomposition stoichiometry, 299compoundsamphoteric, 485487, 486f,487fbinary, 222223, 279definition, 7enthalpy of formation,537538, 542544, 543fionic, 190194, 191f, 192f,193t, 220227molecular, 178179, 193,227229, 441nomenclature, 220225organic, 711I N D E X 937compounds (continued)oxidation numbers, 232235,235t, 634635percentage composition,242244, 256polyatomic ions in, 225226,226tsolubility of, 861tcompressibility, 331, 334, 338,376concentration, 418424chemical equilibrium and,599600, 599fmolality, 422424, 422f, 454molarity, 418421, 419f, 430,499, 517521, 518f519fnotation, 499reaction rates and, 569570,569f, 570f, 584titration and, 517521,518f519f, 528529condensation, 342, 342tcondensation polymers, 739condensation reactions, 736,752753, 752f, 756conduction bands, 826, 826fconductivity, electrical, 7, 18,628629conjugate acids and bases,483485, 485t, 608609conservation of mass, 6869,69f, 9495, 303contact theory, 444continuous spectrum, 100control rods, 698, 698fconversion factorsmolar mass, 240242, 240f,301mole ratios, 245247,300301, 304310, 324SI units, 4042, 50, 92using, 4042, 50, 92copolymers, 737, 739copperin the body, 807tin electrochemical cells,655660, 655f, 656f, 657f,658felectron configuration, 118t,119ionization energy, 164isotopes, 82, 82toxidation and reduction of,643, 643tin photochromic lenses, 634properties, 18f, 19, 798800,799f, 800f, 801treactivity, 799, 799fin tap water, 477corrosion, 545, 661662, 661f,662fcosmic rays, 694covalent bonding, 178189compared to ionic, 193, 193felectron-dot notation,184186, 184felectronegativity and,175177, 176f, 177fhybridization, 201203, 202f,203tintermolecular forces, 203207, 204t, 205f, 206f, 207fLewis structures, 184188,214nomenclature, 227229,228t, 229toctet rule, 182183, 183fpolyatomic ions, 194,199200, 230, 230f, 294redox reactions and,634635resonance structures, 189VSEPR theory, 197201,198f, 199f, 200tcovalent molecular crystals,340t, 341covalent-network bonding,189, 230, 340, 341fcovalent network crystals, 340,340t, 341fCrick, Francis, 771critical mass, 698critical point, 347, 347fcritical temperature, 347, 347fCrookes, William, 596crystalline solids, 338binding forces in, 339341,340t, 341fbreakage and, 32, 32f, 193,193fhydrates, 411, 411fionic bonding in, 191192,191f, 192fsubstitutions in, 804, 804ftypes of, 339341, 339f, 340tCurie, Marie and Pierre, 685cycloalkanes, 718cysteine, 756f, 758, 758fcytosine, 770, 770f, 824fDaltons atomic theory, 6869Daltons law of partial pres-sures, 365368, 366fDaniell Cells, 656f, 657, 657fdata collection, 2930daughter nuclides, 690Davy, Humphry, 444d-block elements, 144146,144f, 163164de Broglie, Louis, 104Debye, Peter, 456decanting procedure, 844decay series, 690691, 690fdecomposition reactions,279280, 280fdecompression sickness, 368delocalized electrons, 195, 340,729, 729fDemocritus, 43, 67denaturation, 764765, 764f,821densitycalculation of, 39of familiar materials, 38t, 39of gases, 38, 331, 398399,859tof liquids, 334, 334fof organic compounds, 730tof solids, 338units of, 36t, 3839, 38tof water, 351, 859tdeposition, 342t, 346derived units, 3639, 36t, 38tdeuterium, 78, 78f, 79tdiamonds, 542, 725diatomic molecules, 178,197198, 197f, 263t, 380diffraction, 104, 105fdiffusionof gases, 331, 331f, 336f,386388, 386fof liquids, 334, 334fof solids, 339digestion, 765, 768769, 768fdimensional analysis, 4041dipeptides, 756dipoles, 204206, 205f, 206fdiprotic acids, 480, 480fdirectly proportional quan-tities, 5556, 55f, 55tdisaccharides, 752, 752f, 821,821fdispersed phase, 403displacement reactions,281283, 281f, 282fdisproportionation, 644645,645fdissociation, 435439, 435f,438fdissolution, 407408, 407f,547548, 548f. See alsosolubilitydisulfide bridges, 758, 758fDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid),771772, 771f, 772fDNA fingerprinting, 774, 774fDNA replication, 772, 772fdoping, 826827Dorn, Ernst, 115, 136double bonds, 186188, 187f,187t, 724725double-displacement reactions,282283, 282f, 438439,438f, 440Downs Cells, 671Drew, Charles, 762dry cells, 659660, 659f, 660fdry ice, 358359, 500fductility, 18, 196effervescence, 413, 413feffusion, 332, 386388, 386fEinstein, Albert, 99100,681682Einsteins equation, 681682elastic collisions, 329elastins, 760, 760telectrical potential, 662665,663f, 664t, 676electric charge, 73, 75electric circuits, 656electric current, 34t, 405406,406f, 468, 472electrochemical cells, 655657,655f, 656f, 657felectrochemistry, 654671corrosion, 661662, 661f, 662fdefinition, 655electrical potentials,662665, 663f, 664t, 676electrochemical cells,655657, 655f, 656f, 657felectrolysis, 279, 670671,670felectrolytic cells, 667671,667f, 668f, 669f, 670frechargeable cells, 669, 669fvoltaic cells, 658666, 658f,659f, 660f, 661felectrode potentials, 662665,663f, 664t, 676electrodes, 656, 656f, 663, 663felectrolysis, 279, 444445,444f, 445f, 670671, 670felectrolytes, 405406, 406fbalance of, 789, 789fcolligative properties and,453456, 453f, 455tEDI N D E X938in electrochemical cells, 656,656fstrong vs. weak, 442443,442felectrolytic cells, 667671,667f, 668f, 669f, 670felectromagnetic radiation,97100, 687, 687f. See alsolightelectromagnetic spectrum,9799, 98felectron affinity, 157159, 157f,158felectron capture, 687electron configurations,111122atomic radii and, 150152,150f, 151t, 152f, 163of d-block elements,144146, 144felectron-dot notation,184186, 184fnotation of, 112113period number and, 116121, 116t, 117t, 118t, 120tof s-block elements, 142, 142fsummary of, 111112, 111f,112f, 138139, 147t, 170valence electrons, 160, 160twriting, 170electron-dot notation,184186, 184f, 190191electronegativityacid strength and, 487chemical bonding and,176177, 176f, 177fdipole-dipole forces,204206, 205f, 206fperiod trends, 161164, 161f,162felectrons, 96122in Bohr model, 102103,102f, 103fcharge of, 73in covalent bonds, 179, 179f,181182, 181f, 182fdelocalized, 195, 340, 729,729fdiscovery of, 7273, 72f, 73fin electrochemical cells,655660, 655f, 656f, 657f,658fHeisenberg uncertaintyprinciple, 105in Lewis acids and bases,481482, 482tline-emission spectrum,100101, 100f, 101fmass of, 73, 76t, 855tin metallic bonding,195196, 195forbitals, 106110, 107f, 108f,108t, 109f, 110tphotoelectric effect, 99100,99fproperties, 76tunshared pairs, 185,199200, 199f, 200tvalence, 160, 160tas waves, 104106, 105f, 107felectroplating, 668669, 668felements, 1620. See alsofamiliesactivity series, 285287, 286talkali metals, 142, 142f,786791, 786f, 788tin ancient science, 43artificial transmutations,691692, 692f, 692tatomic masses, 8182, 82t,128, 133, 856t857tatomic numbers, 77, 8182,82t, 856t857tin the body, 806807, 806f,807tdefinition, 6Elements Handbook,786841enthalpy of formation, 538molar mass, 83, 83f,238242, 240fperiodic table of, 140f141fsymbols for, 16, 16t,856t857ttransmutation of, 684,691692, 692f, 692ttransuranic, 692, 692f, 692t,700701types of, 1820, 18f, 19felimination reactions, 737, 737femission, 102, 102f, 130131emission-line spectrum,100101, 100f, 101fEmpedokles, 43empirical formulas, 245247,258259, 746emulsions, 403, 404tendothermic reactions,535537, 537f, 546, 549t, 564fend point, 516, 516fenergy, 530550activation, 564567, 564f,565f, 570, 764, 764fATP, 766769, 767f, 769t,824fboiling and, 344345, 345fbond, 181182, 182t, 187tcatalysts and, 570, 571fchanges of state and, 1011,344352, 345felectron affinity, 157159,157t, 158felectron configuration and,111112, 111fof electrons, 100103, 101f,102f, 103fenthalpy of combustion,538539, 539f, 856tenthalpy of formation,537538, 542544, 543fenthalpy of reaction,534537, 536f, 537fenthalpy of solution,415416, 415f, 416tentropy, 546548, 547f, 548f,549tfree, 548550, 549tin hydrogen bonding, 179,179fionization, 153156, 153t,154f, 155t, 164kinetic, 329330, 386 lattice, 192, 193tnuclear binding, 681682,682fof photons, 100101quantum, 99specific heat, 532534, 533tunits of, 531enthalpyactivation energy and,564567, 564f, 565fcalculating, 539542, 556of combustion, 538539,539f, 856tof formation, 537538,542544, 543f, 902tin free energy, 549550, 549tof fusion, 346, 356Hesss law, 539542, 556,558559of reaction, 534537, 536f,537f, 543f, 546in reversed equations, 540of solution, 415416, 415f,416tof vaporization, 196, 196t,345, 345f, 351enthalpy changes, 534entropy, 546550, 547f, 548f,549tenzymes, 763765coenzymes, 820, 820fpH and, 765, 820821as proteins, 756specificity of, 763764, 763ftemperature and, 764, 764fenzyme-subtrate complexes,763764, 763fequations. See chemical equationsequilibrium. See chemicalequilibriumequilibrium, in state changes,342343equilibrium constants, 592. See also chemical equilibriumacid ionization, 605606,606t, 628629base dissociation, 610determining, 626ionization constant of water,500501, 500t, 600, 607measuring, 628629solubility products, 613620,615tequilibrium vapor pressure,343, 343fequivalence point, 516517,516f, 517ferror, 4546esters, 731t, 734ethane, 716, 717tethanol, 344f, 412, 713f, 731ethene, 727, 727fethers, 731t, 732ethyne, 727evaporation, 335336, 336f,342343, 343fexcess reactants, 312, 312fexcited state, 100exothermic reactionsactivation energy in, 564,564fenthalpies of solution and,415416, 416t, 549tthermochemical equationsfor, 535536, 536fexpansion of gases, 330explosives, 572, 597exponents, 5052extensive properties, 7extraction procedure, 844845families, 808837alkali metals, 142, 142f,786791, 786f, 788talkaline-earth metals, 142,142f, 792797, 792f, 794tboron, 808811, 808f, 810t,811tcarbon, 812827FI N D E X 939families (continued)halogens, 838841, 840tnitrogen, 828831, 829t, 831toxygen, 832837, 834t, 835ttransition metals, 144146,798807, 801tFaraday, Michael, 444445,445ffats. See lipidsfatty acids, 754, 822823, 822ff-block elements, 136,148149, 163164Fermi, Enrico, 700fertilizer production, 596597,831, 831tfibrous proteins, 760, 760tfifth-period elements, 119, 120tfilm badges, 694, 694ffiltration, 12, 12f, 844845,844f, 845ffireworks, 794795, 794ffission, 697698, 697f, 698f,700701flame tests, 130131, 787,787f , 793, 793f , 829, 829f ,833, 833fflavorings, 733ffluids, 330331, 333fluoridation, 283, 841fluorine covalent bonding, 183, 183felectron configuration, 116telectronegativity, 161, 161tproperties, 383f, 838839,839f, 840treactions, 278, 281282tooth decay and, 281, 841forces intermolecular, 203207,204t, 205f, 206f, 207fnuclear, 76, 682684, 683f,684fpressure and, 361362, 361f,362funits of, 362forensic chemists, 774formula equations, 264. Seealso chemical equationsformula masses, 237239,248249formula units, 190fossil fuels, 723, 723tfourth-period elements,118119, 118tfractional distillation, 723, 723fFranklin, Rosalind, 771free energy, 548550, 549tfree radicals, 836freezing, 336, 342t, 345346, 351freezing-point depression,448450, 448t, 454456,455t, 462freezing points, 345347, 462,855tfreons, 732frequency, 9899, 98ffructose, 751753, 752f, 753f,821ffuel cells, 660, 660f, 666fullerene, 725functional groups, 730734,730t, 731tfusion, 695696, 699, 699fgallium, 118t, 808809, 808f,810tgalvanic cells. See voltaic cellsgalvanizing, 662gamma rays, 685t, 687, 687f,693, 693fgas constant, 384385, 384t,855tgases, 360388Avogadros law, 379380,379f, 380fBoyles law, 369370, 369f,370f, 396Charless law, 371372, 371f,372f, 396from chemical reactions,262, 262f, 282283, 602combined gas law, 374375,396density of, 38, 331, 398399,859tdeviations from ideal behav-ior, 332, 332fGay-Lussacs law, 373374,373f, 396Gay-Lussacs law of combin-ing volumes of gases, 378Grahams law of effusion,386388, 386fHenrys law, 368, 413415,413f, 414fideal gas law, 383, 383fkinetic-molecular theory of,329332, 330f, 331f, 332fmeasuring properties of,398399molar volumes, 380381noble, 20, 20f, 135136,135f, 332partial pressures, 365368,366f, 599pressure, 361367, 361f,362f, 363f, 364tproperties, 8solubility in water, 860tstoichiometry of reactions,381382gasohol, 731gasoline, 412, 723tgauge pressure, 398399Gay-Lussac, Joseph, 373Gay-Lussacs law, 373374,373f, 396Gay-Lussacs law of combiningvolumes of gases, 378Geiger, Hans, 74, 74fGeiger-Mller counters, 694,694fgenes, 773genetic code, 772, 780genetic engineering, 774775,774fgeometric isomers, 714, 714fglacial acetic acid, 471glass, 32, 338, 825globular proteins, 760, 760tgluconeogenesis, 769glucose, 751753, 752f, 753f,816, 821fglutamic acid, 756f, 758, 758f,761fglycerol, 731, 731fglycogen, 753, 753f, 822fglycolipids, 755gold, 18f, 66f, 402403, 403f,798, 801tGrahams law of effusion,386388, 386fgram/mole conversions, 84graphite, 542, 725graphs, 30f, 55f, 57fgravimetric analysis, 326327,846847gravity filtration, 844845,844f, 845fgreenhouse gases, 579ground state, 100, 103, 103fground-state electron configu-ration, 111groups, 17. See also familiesguanine, 770, 770f, 824fHaber, Fritz, 597Haber process, 597, 598600Hahn, Otto, 700701, 700fhalf-cells, 656657, 656f,662665, 663f, 664thalf-life, 688689, 688f, 688t,706, 708709half-reaction method of bal-ancing equations, 637641,650half-reactions, 633635Hall-Hroult process, 671halogens, 838841activity series, 285286, 286tin alkyl halides, 731t, 732,732f, 735properties, 147, 147f,838839, 838f, 839f, 840treactions, 278, 281282heat, 261, 261f, 531534, 532f,533tHeisenberg uncertainty princi-ple, 105helium, 79t, 115, 136, 143hemoglobinin carbon monoxide poison-ing, 275, 818, 818theme molecule in, 816, 816firon in, 807, 807tin sickle cell anemia, 761,761fstructure of, 759, 820, 820fHenrys law, 368, 413415,413f, 414fhertz, 98Hesss law, 539542, 556,558559heterogeneous catalysts, 570,579heterogeneous mixtures, 11f,12, 401fheterogeneous reactions,568569heterotrophs, 766highest-occupied energy level,116history of chemistryair pressure, 376377, 376fancient Greek science, 43combustion, 302303, 303felectrolysis, 444445, 444f,445fnitrogen fertilizer produc-tion, 596597nuclear fission, 700701organic chemistry, 715, 715fperiodic table, 114115,115f, 133135, 134f,172173homogeneous catalysts, 570homogeneous mixtures, 11f,12, 401f. See also solutionsHGI N D E X940homogeneous reactions, 562homologous series, 716Hooke, Robert, 376hormones, 760tHckel, Erich, 456Human Genome Project, 772human growth hormone, 775Hunds rule, 112, 112fhybridization, 201203, 202f,203thybrid orbitals, 202, 202fhydrates, 243244, 411, 411fhydration, 411, 411f, 441hydrocarbons, 716729alkanes, 716724, 717t, 718t,719t, 724talkenes, 724727, 724t, 727falkynes, 727728, 728faromatic, 729, 729fcycloalkanes, 718functional groups, 730734,730t, 731tisomers, 713714nomenclature, 718722,718t, 719t, 725, 728saturated, 716structural formulas, 712713unsaturated, 724729, 724thydrochloric acid, 441, 441f,471, 480f, 484, 488489,488fhydrogenBohr model of, 102103,102f, 103felectron configuration,142143in fuel-cell cars, 666fusion of, 699, 699fhydronium ions, 441, 473474, 473f, 474t, 485, 485tisotopes, 7778, 78f, 78t, 79t,82tline-emission spectrum,100101, 100f, 101freactions with, 468, 592594solid, 338hydrogenation, 735736, 736fhydrogen bondingbond length and energy,181182, 181f, 182tcovalent bonding in, 176,177f, 179fdipole-dipole forces in, 206,206fin DNA, 771, 771f, 824fin water, 349350, 349t, 350thydrogen peroxide, 644645,763hydrolysis, 608612, 608f,610f, 611f, 752753, 753f ,767, 767fhydronium ionsin acid solutions, 473474,473f, 474t, 485calculating concentration of,501502ionization and, 441pH scale and, 503504, 503fhydroxide ions, 501hydroxides, 280, 476, 476fhydroxyl groups, 487, 731, 731thyphen notation, 79hypotheses (singular, hypoth-esis), 3031, 31fibuprofen, 241242ice, 342t, 346347ideal conditions, 304ideal gas constant, 384385,384t, 855tideal gases, 329332, 330f,331f, 332f, 383, 383fideal gas law, 383, 383fimmiscibility, 412, 412findicators. See acid-base indicatorsinduced dipoles, 205206, 206finks, 432433inner-shell electrons, 116insoluble substances, 613insulin, 756, 760, 760t, 775,819820intensive properties, 7interference, 104, 105f, 106intermediates, 562intermolecular forces, 203207,204t, 205f, 206f, 207finterstitial crystals, 804, 804finversely proportional quan-tities, 56, 56t, 57fiodine, 120t , 235t , 592594,593t, 838839, 838f, 839f,840tionic bonding, 190194boiling points and, 204tcovalent bonding comparedwith, 193, 193felectronegativity and,175177, 176fionic compoundscrystals, 340, 340tdissociation, 411, 411f,435439, 435f, 437f, 438fformation of, 190194, 191f,192f, 193f, 193tnomenclature, 222223,225226salts as, 231ionic radii, 159160, 159t,164ionizationof aqueous solutions, 441,441fchemical equilibrium and,603energy, 153156, 153t, 154f,155t, 164self-ionization of water,499500, 499f, 500t,599600ionization constants, 500501,500t, 600, 605607, 606tionization energy (IE), 153156, 153f, 154f, 155t, 164ions, 153hydronium, 441, 473474,473f, 474t, 485, 485tionization and, 441, 441fmonatomic, 220221, 221tnames of common, 858tpolyatomic, 194, 199200,230, 230f, 294ironalloys, 802803, 803fblast furnace reduction, 814,814fin blueprint paper, 296297in the body, 807, 807tcorrosion of, 661662, 661f,662felectron configuration, 118t,119120ionization energy, 164nomenclature, 224oxidation of, 277, 277f,314315, 652653properties, 798800, 799f,800f, 801tisoelectric point, 782isomers, 712, 713714, 713t,714fisotopes, 7780, 78f, 78t, 79t,82tIUPAC nomenclature, 718joules, 531, 852Kelvin temperature scale371372, 531ketones, 731t, 733, 733fkinetic energy, 329330, 386kinetic-molecular theoryBoyles law, 369, 369fDaltons law, 366, 366fof gases, 329332, 330f,331f, 332fof liquids, 333336, 334f,335f, 336fof solids, 337341, 337f,338f, 339f, 340t, 341fkinetics of reactions, 560579enzymes and, 764, 764fobserving, 586587rate-determining steps,576577rate-influencing factors,568570, 569f, 570f, 571f,578rate laws, 571578, 584reaction process, 561567,563f, 564f, 565fspecific rate constant,573575Krebs cycle, 768krypton, 115, 118t, 136lactose, 752753, 821flanthanides, 136, 148149, 157tlattice energy, 192, 193tLavoisier, Antoine, 303, 303flaw of conservation of mass,6869, 69f, 9495, 303law of definite proportions,6869, 69flaw of multiple proportions,68law of partial pressures,365368, 366fleadin car batteries, 669, 669fnomenclature, 224, 224fpoisoning, 477properties, 812813, 812f,813tLeChtelier, Henri Louis, 598LKJII N D E X 941LeChteliers principle, 598,603604length, 34t, 3536, 36f, 854tleptons, 682Lewis, G. N., 481Lewis acid-base reaction,482Lewis acids and bases,481482, 482tLewis structures, 184188, 214lightfrom chemical reactions,261, 261fdiffraction and interference,104, 105f, 106as particles, 99100photoelectric effect, 99100,99fspeed of, 855tas waves, 9799, 98flime, 278, 510limiting reactants, 312316lipidsdigestion of, 768fatty acids, 754, 822823,822fhydrogenation, 735736,736fphospholipids, 755, 755f,823, 823fstructure of, 822823, 822f,823fliquidsboiling, 344345, 344f, 345fequilibrium vapor pressure,343, 343ffreezing, 336, 342t, 345346,351miscibility of, 412, 412fproperties, 8, 333336, 334f,335f, 336fsupercooled, 338volatile, 343liters, 37, 37flithium, 116, 116t , 155156,155t , 786787, 786f, 787f,788tlitmus paper, 516lock and key model, 764logarithms, 505509, 526London dispersion forces, 207,207f, 722723lone pairs, 185, 199201, 200t,299fluster, 18lye, 754Lyman spectral series, 103,103fmacromolecules, 819. See alsobiochemistrymagic numbers, 683magnesiumin chlorophyll, 797, 797fdietary, 796797, 797telectron configuration, 117tproperties, 792793, 792f,794treactivity, 277f, 793, 793fmagnesium oxide, 258259magnetic quantum number,108109magnetite, 314315main-group elements,146148, 147tMALDI mass spectrometry,236malleability, 18, 196Malthus, Thomas, 596manganese, 118t, 119,652653, 800, 800f, 807tmanometers, 363, 363fmargarine, 736, 736fMarsden, Ernest, 74, 74fmass, 6atomic, 8182, 82t, 128, 133,856t857tconservation of, 6869, 69f,9495, 303conversion to moles,308310critical, 698of electrons, 73, 76t, 855tformula, 237238, 248249molar, 39, 83, 83f, 238240,240f, 248249molecular, 237238, 248249of neutrons, 76tnumbers of atoms and,8284percentage composition,242244, 256of protons, 75, 76t, 855trelative atomic, 8081units of, 3435, 34t, 854tmass defect, 681mass number, 78, 78tmass spectrometry, 236, 236fmaterials scientists, 145matter, 220. See also states ofmatterbuilding blocks of, 67chemical properties andchanges, 810, 10fclassical ideas about, 43classification, 1114, 11f,12f, 13fdefinition, 6kinetic-molecular theory of,329332, 330f, 331f, 332fparticle theory of, 67physical properties andchanges, 78, 9fmeasurements, 2857accuracy and precision in,4446, 44fdirect proportions, 5556,55f, 55tinverse proportions, 56, 56t,57fscientific method, 2931,30f, 31fscientific notation, 5052, 62significant figures, 24,4650, 47t, 48t, 505SI units, 3342 of water in popcorn, 6465Meitner, Lise, 700701, 701fmelting, 338, 342t, 346347melting points, 338, 340t,730tMendeleev, Dmitri, 114,133135, 134f, 172173meniscus, 335, 851fmercaptans, 636mercuryamalgams, 802fpoisoning, 805, 805fproperties, 10f, 144f, 798,801treversible reactions,589590, 589fmercury batteries, 660, 660fmessenger RNA (mRNA),773, 780metabolic pathways, 766metabolism, 766769, 767f,768f, 769tmetallic bonding, 195196,195f, 196t, 204tmetallic crystals, 340341, 340tmetalloids, 1920, 146147metals. See also transitionmetalsactivity series, 285287, 286talkali, 142, 142f, 786791,786f, 788talkaline-earth, 142, 142f,792797, 792f, 794talloys, 402403, 402t, 403f,802804, 803t, 804fas catalysts, 275, 579corrosion, 545, 661662,661f, 662fdecomposition reactions,279280, 280fdisplacement reactions,281282metallic bonding, 195196,195f, 196tas oxidizing and reducingagents, 642643, 643tproperties, 7, 1819, 18f,195196, 196treaction with acids, 468self-protecting, 810synthesis reactions, 276279,277ftransition, 144146, 798807methane, 198, 198f, 202, 202f,717tmethyl orange, 513t, 516metric units, 854tMiescher, Friedrich, 771Millikan, Robert A., 73millimeters of mercury,364365, 364tmiscibility, 412, 412fmixtures, 1112, 11fcolloids, 403405, 404f, 404tseparation procedure, 2627solutions, 401403, 401f,402f, 402t, 403fsuspensions, 403models, 31ball-and-stick, 197198,197f, 198f, 199f, 205f, 713fBohr, 102103, 102f, 103fconstructing, 71lock and key, 764nuclear shell, 683, 687space-filling, 713fmoderators, 698, 698fmolal boiling-point constants,448t, 450451molal freezing-point constants,448, 448tmolality, 422424, 422f, 454molar enthalpy of formation,537538molar enthalpy of fusion, 346,356molar enthalpy of vaporization,345, 345f, 351molarity, 418421, 419f, 430,517521, 518f519fmolar masses, 83, 83f ,238242, 240f , 248249,301, 306310, 306fmolar volumes, 380381, 855tmolecular compounds, 178.See also covalent bondingionization of, 441, 441fMI N D E X942nomenclature, 227229,228t, 229tproperties, 193, 193fmolecular formulas, 178, 245,248249molecular geometry, 197207hybridization, 201203, 202f,203tintermolecular forces, 203207, 204t, 205f, 206f, 207fVSEPR theory, 197201,198f, 199f, 200tmolecular masses, 237238,248249molecules, 7, 178mole ratios, 245247, 300301,304310, 305f, 324moles, 8384, 304310monatomic ions, 220221, 221tmonomers, 737739monoprotic acids, 479monosaccharides, 751752,752f, 821, 821fMoseley, Henry, 135multiple bonds, 186188, 187f,187tmuriatic acid. See hydrochloricacidNADPH, 766names. See nomenclaturenanotubes, 710fNational Institute of Standardsand Technology (NIST), 33natural gas, 723Nernst, Walther, 597net ionic equations, 439440,603neutralization reactions,487489, 488fhydrolysis and, 610f,611612, 611fsalts from, 468, 472in titrations, 515521, 515f,518f519f, 528529neutrons, 72, 76t, 855tnewtons, 362nickelin the body, 807telectron configuration, 118t,119, 144properties, 798800, 800f,801tnitric acid, 309, 470471, 470fnitrogencovalent bonds in, 187, 187f,187tfertilizers, 596597, 831, 831tfixation, 184, 596, 830, 830fnomenclature, 229, 229toxidation reactions, 235t,541542, 594595,600601, 601fproperties, 828829, 829tnitrogen-containing bases, 770,770f, 772, 780nitrogen family elements,828831, 829t, 831tnitrogen narcosis, 368nitrous oxide, 579noble gases, 20, 20fdiscovery of, 114115, 115fas ideal gases, 332in the periodic table,135136, 135fnoble gas notation, 117, 117tnomenclature. See alsonotationfor acids, 230231, 230t,468469, 468t, 469tfor covalent-network com-pounds, 230for ionic compounds,222223for molecular compounds,227229, 228t, 229tfor monatomic ions,220221, 221tfor organic compounds,718722, 718t, 719t, 725,728oxidation numbers and,234235, 235t, 642tfor oxyanions, 225226,226t, 469tfor salts, 231Stock system, 221, 224225,235nonelectrolytes, 406, 406f, 447nonmetals, 19, 19f, 146nonpolar-covalent bonds,176177, 176f, 177f, 204tnonvolatile substances,446447, 446f, 447fnormal boiling point, 344,344f, 347fnormal freezing point, 345, 347fnotation. See alsonomenclaturefor aqueous solutions, 435,499, 592for cycloalkanes, 718for electrochemical cells, 657for electron configuration,112113, 117, 117telectron-dot, 184186, 184f,190191for isotopes, 79, 79tfor nuclides, 691for proportionality, 572for reversible reactions, 590nuclear binding energy,681682, 682fnuclear chemistry, 680701applications, 695artificial transmutations,691692, 691f, 692f, 692tband of stability, 682683,683fchain reactions, 697698,697fdecay series, 690691, 690ffission, 695698, 697f, 698f,700701fusion, 695696, 699, 699fhalf-life, 688689, 688f, 688t,706, 708709mass defect, 681nuclear binding energy,681682, 682fnuclear radiation, 685,693696, 693f, 694f, 695fnuclear waste, 695696radiation detection, 694, 694fsimulation of decay,708709types of decay, 685687,685t, 686f, 687fnuclear forces, 76, 682684,683f, 684fnuclear power plants, 698, 698fnuclear reactions, 684,697698, 697fnuclear reactors, 698nuclear shell model, 683, 687nuclear symbol, 79nucleic acids, 770775DNA, 771772, 771f, 772fgenetic engineering,774775, 774fRNA, 773774, 773fstructure of, 770, 770f, 824,824fnucleons, 681682, 682fnucleus, atomic, 7276, 75f,76t, 682684, 683f, 684fnuclides, 79, 681, 685, 691692,692tnylon, 739octet rule, 182183, 183foleic acid, 754, 822forbitals, 107110. See alsoelectron configurationsin covalent bonding,181182, 181fhybridization, 201203, 202f,203tmodels, 106, 107fnotation, 112113order of filling, 116fquantum numbers and,107110, 108f, 108t, 109f,110torder of reaction, 572573organic acids, 474475, 734,734forganic chemistry, 710739alcohols, 731, 731f, 731taldehydes, 731t, 733, 733falkanes, 716723, 717t, 718t,719t, 722t, 723talkenes, 724727, 724t, 727falkyl halides, 731t, 732, 732f,735alkynes, 727728, 728famines, 731t, 733carbon bonding, 711712,711f, 712fcarboxylic acids, 731t, 734,734festers, 731t, 734ethers, 731t, 732functional groups, 730734,730t, 731thistory of, 715, 715fhydrocarbons, 712, 712f,716729 isomers, 712714, 713t, 714fketones, 731t, 733, 733forganic reactions, 735739,736f, 737f, 738fpolymers, 737739, 738f,748749structural formulas,712713, 713funsaturated hydrocarbons,724729, 724torganic reactions, 735739,736f, 737f, 738fosmotic pressure, 452453, 452foxidation, 632oxidation numbers, 232235,235t, 631632, 631t,634635ONI N D E X 943oxidation-reduction reactions,630645balancing equations for,637641, 644, 650in blast furnaces, 814, 814fcovalent bonds and,634635disproportionation,644645, 645fin electrochemical cells,655657half-reactions, 633634nomenclature, 642toxidation number rules, 631toxidation states, 232235,235t, 631632, 631toxidizing and reducingagents, 642645, 642t, 643tin photochromic lenses, 634titration exercise on,652653oxidation states, 232235, 235t,631632, 631toxides, 278279, 834835, 835toxidizing agents, 642645,642t, 643toxyacetylene torches, 728, 728foxyacids, 230231, 230t, 469,469t, 486f, 487oxyanions, 225227, 226t, 230,469toxygendiscovery of, 303electron configuration, 116t,117isotopes, 82tmolar mass, 240241ozone, 189, 579, 732, 836properties, 10f, 832833,834treactions with, 276277,277f, 283, 283f, 302303resonance structures in, 189ozone, 189, 579, 732, 836paper chromatographycapillary action in, 335, 335fin mixture separation, 12,12fprocedure, 432433,848849, 848f, 849fparent nuclides, 690partial pressures, 365368,366f, 599particle accelerators, 691, 691fparticlesalpha, 74, 75f, 685t, 686, 693,693fbeta, 685t, 686, 686fcolloids, 403405, 404f, 404tpositrons, 685t, 686687solvated, 415, 415fsubatomic, 72, 682pascals, 364365, 364tPaschen spectral series, 103,103fPauli exclusion principle, 112,112fPauling, Linus, 161, 161tp-block elements, 146148,147tpepsin, 765peptide bonds, 756percentage composition,242244, 256percentage error, 45percentage yield, 317318perchloric acid, 484perfluorocarbons, 417, 417f,762periodic law, 132135, 134f.See also periodic table ofthe elementsperiodic table of atomic radii,151fperiodic table of electronaffinities, 157fperiodic table of electronega-tivities, 161fperiodic table of ionizationenergies, 153fperiodic table of the elements,140f141fartificial nuclides in, 692,692f, 692tdesigning, 137, 172173electron configuration and,116122, 116t, 117t, 118t,120tgroups in, 135136, 135f,136f, 143 (see also families)history of, 133135, 134fnew elements in, 114115organization of, 1617, 17fperiodicity in, 136, 136fperiods and blocks of,138139, 139f, 142149,144f, 163164periodic trendsacidic and basic oxides, 835,835tatomic radii, 150152, 150f,151f, 152f, 163of d- and f-block elements,163164electron affinity, 157159,157t, 158felectronegativity, 161164,161t, 162fionic radii, 159160, 159t, 164ionization energy, 153156,153t, 154f, 155t, 164valence electrons, 160, 160tperiods, of elements, 17,138139, 138tpermanganate ions, 652653peroxide ions, 644645petroleum, 723, 723tpetroleum engineers, 720pH, 498521acid and base strength and,509, 509tbuffered solutions, 606607,606fcalculations involving,505509, 509t, 526of common materials, 504tdefinition, 503enzyme activity and, 765hydrolysis of salts and,608612, 608f, 610f, 611findicators, 511512 (see alsoacid-base indicators)liming of streams, 510, 510fof neutral, acidic, and basicsolutions, 500, 504tpH scale, 503504, 503f, 504tproteins and, 765, 782783of rain water, 514self-ionization of water and,499500, 499f, 500t,599600of tap water, 477titration, 515521, 516f,517f, 518f519f, 528529phase diagrams, 347348, 347f,348f, 358fphases, 342, 342tphenolphthalein, 513t, 516, 516fpH indicators. See acid-baseindicatorspH meters, 512, 512fphospholipids, 755, 755f, 823,823fphosphoric acid, 469f, 469t,471, 480481phosphoruselectron configuration, 117tfertilizers, 831, 831toxidation numbers, 235tproperties, 19, 828829,828f, 829tradioactive decay, 689photochemical processes, 836photochemical smog, 836photochromic lenses, 634photoelectric effect, 99100, 99fphotons, 100101photosynthesis, 306307, 751,766, 766fpH paper, 8f, 468, 468f, 471,512, 515fphysical changes, 78, 9fphysical chemistry, 4, 70, 445physical chemists, 70physical constants, 855tphysical properties, 78, 9fpickling, 471picometers (pm), 76Planck, Max, 99Plancks constant, 99, 855tplasma (blood), 762plasma (state of matter), 8, 680fplatinum, 144Plunkett, Roy, 4pOH, 503polar bonds, 176177, 176f,177f, 204tpolar-covalent bonds, 176177,176f, 177f, 204tpolarityacid strength and, 474in crystals, 340341, 340tdipole-dipole forces,204206, 205f, 206fdissolution and, 411412,412fof hydroxyl groups, 487ideal gas behavior and, 332London dispersion forcesand, 207, 207fin phospholipids, 755, 755f,823, 823fpolar bonds, 176177, 176f,177f, 204tpolonium, 685, 706, 832, 834tpolyamides, 739polyatomic ions, 194, 199200,230, 230f, 294polyesters, 739polyethylene, 738, 738fpolymerase chain reaction(PCR), 774polymer products, 145,748749polymers, 737739, 738f,748749polypeptides, 756polyprotic acids, 479481, 480fpolysaccharides, 753, 753fporous barriers, 656657, 656fPI N D E X944positrons, 685t, 686687potassiumin electrolyte balance,789790, 789t, 790felectron configuration, 118,118tfertilizers, 831, 831tproperties, 786787, 786f,787f, 788treactivity of, 142fpotential difference, 662664,676potential energy, 179, 179fpounds per square inch (psi),364tprecipitatesfrom chemical reactions,262, 262f, 602, 602ffrom double-displacementreactions, 282, 282f,438440, 438fprecipitation calculations,618620precipitation reactions,437439, 437t, 438fprecision, 4446, 44fpreenzymes, 765prefixesacids, 231carbon-atom chain, 718tmolecular compounds,227229, 228t, 229toxyanions, 226Stock system and, 235units, 34, 35t, 854tpressure, 361, 361fatmospheric, 362363, 362f,363f, 365Boyles law, 369370, 369f,370fcombined gas law, 374375critical, 347f, 348effect on chemical equilib-rium, 598599force and, 361362, 361f,362fGay-Lussacs law, 373374,373fmeasuring, 363, 363f,398399osmotic, 452453, 452fpartial, 365368, 366f, 599solubility and, 413units of, 37, 364365, 364tvapor, 343344, 343f, 344f,366, 446447water-vapor, 859fPriestley, Joseph, 279, 302primary standards, 517primary structure, 759principal quantum number,107, 107fproducts, 9, 261propane, 382, 716, 717tproperties, chemical and physical, 710, 9fproportionality, 5557, 55f,55t, 56t, 57f, 572proteins, 757765amino acids in, 757, 761, 761fbiological functions, 760, 760tdenaturation, 764, 764fdigestion of, 765, 768as enzymes, 550, 760t,763765, 763f, 764fpH and, 765, 782783, 821as polypeptides, 756shape and structure, 759, 759fside-chain reactions, 758,758fsynthesis, 736, 773774, 780protium, 78, 78f, 79tproton-exchange membrane(PEM fuel cells), 666protons, 72atomic number and, 77nuclear binding energy and,682683, 683fproperties, 75, 76t, 855tp-type semiconductors, 827,827fpure substances, 11f, 1314,13f, 14f, 14tpurine bases, 770purity of reagents, 14, 14f, 14tpyrimidine bases, 770qualitative analysis, 800, 800fqualitative information, 29quantitative information, 29quantity, 33quantum, 99quantum numbers, 107110,107f, 108f, 108t, 109f, 110t.See also electron configurationsquantum theory, 100101, 105quarks, 682quaternary structure, 759radiation, 685, 693696, 693f,694f, 695fradiation exposure, 693694,694fradioactive dating, 695radioactive decay, 685692decay series, 690691, 690fhalf-life, 688689, 688f, 688t,706, 708709simulation of, 708709types of, 685687, 685t,686f, 687fradioactive tracers, 695, 695fradioactive wastes, 695696radium, 685, 688, 688f,792793, 792f, 794tradon, 115, 136, 694Ramsay, William, 114115,115f, 135136rate-determining steps,576577rate laws for reactions,571578, 584Rayleigh, Lord (John WilliamStrutt), 114, 114f, 135reactants, 9, 261, 312316, 312freaction mechanisms, 561562,561freaction rates, 568, 591, 591f.See also kinetics of reactionsreaction stoichiometry,299301. See alsostoichiometryreaction waves, 288, 288freal gases, 332, 332frechargeable cells, 669, 669frecombinant DNA technology,775redox reactions, 633635, 644.See also oxidation-reductionreactionsreducing agents, 642645, 642t,643treduction, 633. See alsooxidation-reduction reactionsreduction potential, 662relative atomic masses, 8081rems, 693resonance structures, 189, 729,729frespiration, 816817, 816f, 817freverse osmosis, 453reversible reactions, 266267,270, 589590ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 773RNA (ribonucleic acid),773774, 773froentgens, 693rounding numbers, 48, 48trubber, 748749rubidium, 120t, 122, 786787,786f, 787f, 788tRutherford, Ernest, 74, 75fsacrificial anodes, 662salt bridges, 656657, 656fsalts, 489as electrolytes, 405406, 406fon freezing roads, 456fhydrates, 243244, 411, 411fhydrolysis of, 608612, 608f,610f, 611ffrom neutralization reac-tions, 468, 472, 488489,488fnomenclature, 231solubility product constants,613620, 615t, 620sample problems approach,5254saponification, 754saturated hydrocarbons, 716.See also alkanessaturated solutions, 409, 409fscanning electron microscope(SEM), 34, 3fscanning tunneling microscope(STM), 3f, 70, 772f, 773fSchrdinger wave equation,105106, 107fscientific method, 2931, 31fscientific notation, 5052, 62scintillation counters, 694scuba diving, 368secondary structure, 759second ionization energy,155156, 155tsecond-period elements,116117, 116tself-ionization of water,499500, 499f, 500t, 599self-oxidation, 645self-reduction, 645semiconductors, 340341,826827, 826f, 827fsemipermeable membranes,452453, 452fshielding, 698significant figures, 24, 4650,47t, 48t, 505silicon, 117t, 230, 812813,812f, 813tsilveralloys, 803t, 804fSRQI N D E X 945silver (continued)electron configuration, 120tin photochromic lenses, 634properties, 798, 799f, 801tsolubility, 613614single-displacement reactions,281282, 281f, 285SI units, 3342, 854tbase units, 3436, 34tconversion factors, 4042,50, 92derived units, 3639, 36t, 38tprefixes in, 34, 35tsodiumin electrolyte balance, 789,789telectron configuration, 117,117tindustrial production of, 671oxidation state, 632, 632fproperties, 786787, 786f,787f, 788tsodium chloridecrystal structure, 191192,191f, 192f, 338fdissociation of, 435436,435f, 608fas electrolyte, 405406, 406fionic bonding in, 190191,190f, 191flattice energy, 192, 193tsodium hydroxide, 488489,488f, 754sodium-potassium pump, 790,790fsolids, 8, 337341, 338f, 339f,340t, 341fsols, 404t. See also colloidssolubility, 408410calculating, 617620definition, 616dissociation, 435439, 435f,437f, 437t, 438fof gases in water, 860tprecipitation calculations,618620precipitation reactions,437439, 437t, 438fpressure and, 413saturation, 409, 409fsolubility charts, 860t, 861tsolubility products, 613616,615ttemperature and, 410t,414415, 414fsolubility product constants,614620, 615tsoluble substances, 401solutesdissolution rate, 407408,407felectrolytes, 405406, 406f,442443solubility, 408410, 408f,409f, 410tsolute-solvent interactions,410415, 411f, 412f, 413f,414ftypes of, 402, 402tsolution equilibrium, 408409,408fsolutions, 400424. See alsoaqueous solutionsbuffered, 606607, 606fcomponents of, 402, 402fdissolution rate, 407408,407fenthalpies of, 415416, 415f,416tentropy in, 547548, 548fin Henrys law, 368,413415, 413f, 414fliquid-liquid miscibility, 412,412fmolality, 422424, 422fmolarity, 418421, 419f, 430nonelectrolytes in, 405406,406fobserving, 405pressure and, 413properties, 401f, 404tsaturated vs. unsaturated,409, 409fsolubility, 408410, 408f,409f, 410tsolute-solvent interactions,410415, 411f, 412f, 413f,414fstandard, 517supersaturated, 409types of, 402403, 402tsolvated particles, 415, 415fsolvents, 402, 402f, 411specific heat, 532534, 533tspecific rate constant, 573575spectator ions, 439, 489, 494speed, 37fspeed of light, 855tspin quantum number, 110, 112stainless steel, 803, 803fstandard electrode potential,663664, 663f, 664tstandard hydrogen electrode(SHE), 663, 663fstandard molar volume of agas, 380381standard solutions, 517standard temperature andpressure (STP), 364starch, 753, 753f, 822, 822fstates of matter, 328352changes of state, 342348,342t, 344f, 345f, 347f, 348fgas properties, 329332,330f, 331f, 332fliquid properties, 333336,334f, 335f, 336fsolid properties, 337341,337f, 338f, 339f, 340t, 341fsteel, 803, 803f, 814steroids, 755Stock system, 221, 224225,235, 235tstoichiometry, 298318composition vs. reaction, 299gas, 381382gravimetric analysis and,326327limiting reactants, 312316mass-mass calculations,310311mass-mole conversions,306310molar mass and, 301mole conversions, 304306mole ratios and, 300301, 324percentage yield, 317318Strassman, Fritz, 700701strong acids, 474475, 474t,484485, 485t, 501t, 509strong bases, 475476, 475t,476f, 484485, 485tstrong electrolytes, 442, 442fstrontium, 120t, 792793, 792f,794t, 795, 795fstructural formulas, 185structural isomers, 713, 713fsubatomic particles, 72, 682sublimation, 342t, 346347substitution reactions, 735substrate molecules, 763764,763fsucrose, 752753chemical reactions, 737,737f, 752753, 752f, 753fchemical structure, 178f,752f, 821fvapor pressure and, 447, 447fsuffixeshydrocarbons, 720, 725, 728molecular compounds, 228oxyanions, 226227sugars, 406, 406f, 751753, 752fsulfurchemical bonding, 177crystalline forms, 832felectron configuration, 117toxidation numbers, 235, 235tproperties, 832833, 832f,833f, 834tsulfuric acid, 470in acid rain, 489, 489fin car batteries, 669, 669fas diprotic acid, 480, 480fnomenclature, 469tproduction and uses of, 470,837, 837f, 837tstructure of, 469fsuperconductors, 18supercooled liquids, 338supersaturated solutions, 409surface area, 407, 407f,568569surface melting, 346surface tension, 335, 335fsurfactants, 417suspensions, 403, 404t, 405symbols, unit 854tsymbols used in equations,265267, 266t, 855tsynthesis reactions, 276279,277f, 288temperatureabsolute zero, 371Charless law, 371372, 371f,372fcombined gas law, 374375critical, 347, 347fdissolution rate and, 408effect on chemical equilib-rium, 600601, 601fenzyme activity and, 764,764fof gases, 330Gay-Lussacs law, 373374,373fheat and, 531532, 532freaction rate and, 569scales, 371372, 531SI units of, 34tsolubility and, 410t, 414415, 414ftensile strength, 18tertiary structure, 759Thales of Miletus, 43theoretical yield, 317TI N D E X946theories, 31, 31fthermite reaction, 560f, 809fthermochemical equations,535thermochemistry, 531550calorimeters, 531, 539, 539f,558559definition, 531enthalpy of combustion,538539, 539f, 856tenthalpy of formation,537538, 542544, 543fenthalpy of reaction,534537, 536f, 537fentropy, 546548, 547f, 548ffree energy, 548550, 549theat and temperature,531532, 532fHesss law, 539542, 556,558559specific heat, 532534, 533tstability and, 538third ionization energy, 155,155tthird-period elements,117118, 117tThomson, Joseph John, 73thymine, 770, 770f, 824ftime, units of, 34ttitanium, 118t, 119titration, 515521acid-base, 515517, 516f, 517fbalancing equations for,639641end point, 516equivalence point, 516lab exercises, 528529,652653procedures, 517521, 518f519f, 850851, 850f, 851fredox, 639641, 652653Torricelli, Evangelista, 363,363f, 376, 376ftorr, 364, 364ttrace elements, 806807, 806f,807t. See also transitionmetalstransfer RNA (tRNA), 773trans isomers, 714, 724f, 724ttransition intervals, 512, 513ttransition metals, 144146,798807alloys, 802804, 803t, 804fin the body, 806807, 806f,807tgemstones, 801802, 801f,802tmercury poisoning, 805, 805fproperties, 144146, 144f,798800, 799f, 800f, 801ttransmutation, 684, 691692,691f, 692f, 692ttransuranic elements, 692,692f, 692t, 700701triglycerides, 754, 823, 823ftriple bonds, 187, 187f, 187t,727728triple point, 347, 347f, 855ttriprotic acids, 480tritium, 7879, 78f, 79ttrypsin, 765tungsten, 119, 144fTyndall effect, 404, 404funcertainty principle, 105unit cells, 339units. See SI unitsunsaturated hydrocarbons,724729, 724tunsaturated solutions, 409,409furacil, 770, 770f, 773, 824furaniumchain reaction, 697698, 697fdecay series, 690691, 690fdiscovery of, 700isotopes, 79, 82toxidation numbers, 233234vacuum filtration, 845, 845fvacuums, 376377valence electrons, 160, 160tvaporization, 196, 335336,336f, 342t, 345, 345fvapor pressure, 343344, 343f,344f, 366vapor-pressure lowering,446447, 446f, 447fvariables, 30Verneuil, Auguste, 801802visible spectrum, 98fvitamins, 755, 820, 820fvolatile liquids, 343Volta, Alessandro, 444voltage (potential difference),662664, 676voltaic cells, 658666corrosion in, 661662, 661f,662felectrode potentials,662665, 663f, 664t, 676electrolytic cells comparedwith, 667668, 667fexamples of, 659660, 659f,660foperation of, 658, 658fvolumeBoyles law, 369370, 369f,370fCharless law, 371372, 371f,372fcombined gas law, 374375molar, 380381units of, 36t, 37, 37f, 854tvolumetric analysis, 850851,850f, 851fVSEPR theory, 197201, 198f,199f, 200twater, 349351as amphoteric substance,485486boiling point, 344, 344f, 351,855tas Brnsted-Lowry acid, 478changes of state in, 8, 9fdensity, 351, 859tdipole interactions, 205206,206ffrom double-displacementreactions, 283electrolysis of, 670, 670ffreezing point, 855thydrogen bonding in, 206,206fice, 342t, 346347, 349350,350fionization constant,500501, 500t, 600, 607molecular geometry, 199,199f, 202, 202fphase diagram, 347348,347f, 351as pure substance, 13, 13fself-ionization, 499500,499f, 500t, 599600structure of, 349350, 349ftap, 477triple point, 347, 347t, 855twater-vapor pressure, 859twater purification, 273274,453water testing, 464465water treatment, 840841, 840fWatson, James, 771wavelength, 9799, 98fwavesdiffraction and interference,104, 105f, 106electrons as, 104, 105flight as, 9799, 98fSchrdinger wave equation,105106, 107fweak acids, 474475, 474t,605606, 606tweak bases, 475476, 475t,476fweak electrolytes, 442f, 443weight, 35weighted averages, 8182, 128Wilkins, Maurice, 771Whler, Friedrich, 715, 715fword equations, 263264, 268X-ray diffraction patterns, 4Yucca Mountain nuclear wastesite, 696zincin the body, 807tin cathodic protection, 662,662fin dry cells, 659, 659fin electrochemical cells,655660, 655f, 656f, 657f,658felectron configuration, 118t,119properties, 798800, 799f,800f, 801tas reducing agent, 643, 643f,643tzinc-carbon dry cells, 659, 659fZYXWVUI N D E X 947C R E D I T S948Staff CreditsPhoto CreditsAbbreviations used: (t) top, (b) bottom, (c) center,(l) left, (r) right, (bkgd) backgroundAll photos, unless otherwise noted, by SamDudgeon/HRW. Cover: W. P. Wergin/E. F. Erbe;Electron Microscope Unit; ARS-USDA. CBL cal-culator icon: Andy Christiansen/HRW. HistoricalChemistry feature icons: (bkgd), Charles D.Winters. Cross-Disciplinary Connection featureicons: (l), Digital Art/CORBIS; (c), PhotoDisc/gettyimages; (r), Dr. Dennis Kunkel/VisualsUnlimited. Careers in Chemistry feature icons: (l), Kaluzny-Thatcher/Getty Images; (c), LWA-Stephen Welstead/CORBIS; (r), Roger Tully/Getty Images. Chemistry in Action feature icons:(l), Maximilian Stock Ltd/Photo Researchers,Inc.; (c), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory/ScienceSource/Photo Researchers, Inc.; (r), Omikron/Photo Researchers, Inc. Table of Contents: v (bl), Ed Bock/CORBIS; vi (tl), Sinclair Stammers/Photo Researchers, Inc.; vi (cl), NationalInstitute of Standards & Technology/PhotoResearchers, Inc.; vi (bl), Eurelios/Phototake;vii (tl), Silvestre Machado/SuperStock; vii (cl), NOAO/Photo Researchers, Inc.; vii (bl), AlfredPasieka/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers,Inc.; viii (tl), Phil Degginger/Bruce Coleman, Inc.;viii (bl), Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs;viii (cl), Robert Burch/Bruce Coleman, Inc.; ix(tl), Andy Goldsworthy. Courtesy of the artist andGalerie Lelong, New York.; ix (cl), PictorInternational/ImageState/Alamy; ix (bl), StephenSimpson/Getty Images; x (tl), J & L Weber/PeterArnold, Inc.; x (tlc), Richard B. Swint, M. D./TheTexas Collection, Baylor Unversity, Waco, Texas;x (blc), Sandra Ivany/FoodPix/Getty Images; x(bl), Paul Chesley/Getty Images; xi (tlc), GregEdmonds/Earth Images; xi (blc), SuperStock/PictureQuest; xi (bl), Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA; xii (tl), EFDA-JET/Photo Researchers,Inc.; xii (cl), David Luzzi, Univ. ofPennsylvania/Photo Researchers, Inc.; xii (bl), Dr.Jeremy Burgess/Photo Researchers, Inc.; xiii (bl),J & L Weber/Peter Arnold, Inc. Chapter 1: 2 (c),Sinclair Stammers/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 3 (br),Volker Steger/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 5 (tr), JonFeingersh/CORBIS; 13 (bl), Tom PantagesPhotography; 15 (c), James Lyle/Texas A&MUniversity; 18 (bc), Bruce Iverson; 20 (t), C. BradleySimmons/Bruce Coleman, Inc. Chapter 2: 28 (c), National Institute of Standards & Technology/Photo Researchers, Inc. Chapter 3: 66 (c), Eurelios/Phototake; 68 (tl), Grant HeilmanPhotography, Inc.; 70 (cr), IBM Corporation/Research Division/Almaden Research Center; 83(tr, cr, br), Dennis Fagan/HRW. Chapter 4: 96 (c), Silvestre Machado/SuperStock; 100 (cl), SuperStock; 105 (tl), Polytechnic Institute ofBrooklyn; 105 (tr), Atlas of optical phenomena byMichel Cagnet, Maurice Francon & Jean ClaudeThrierr. Published by Springer-Verlag in 1962. Springer-Verlag; 114 (bl), Reprinted with per-mission from Nature (No. 1196, Vol. 46).Copyright 1892 Macmillian Magazines Limited;115 (tl), Elliott & Fry, photographers, courtesyAIP Emilio Segr Visual Archives, WF MeggersGallery of Nobel Laureates; 130 (c), PhotoTake.Chapter 5: 132 (c), NOAO/Photo Researchers,Inc.; 133 (br), SuperStock; 142 (bl), Dr. E. R.Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.; 142 (br), Breck P.Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes; 144 (bl),Alfred Pasieka/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 145 (cr),NASA; 147 (bl, cl), Dr. E. R. Degginger/Color-Pic,Inc. Chapter 6: 174 (c), Alfred Pasieka/SciencePhoto Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 190 (bl),Bruce Iverson; 196 (tl), Photri; 206 (bc), Photri.Chapter 7: 218 (c), Phil Degginger/BruceColeman, Inc. Chapter 8: 260 (c), Robert Burch/Bruce Coleman, Inc.; 272 (tr), L. S. Stepanowicz/Visuals Unlimited; 288 (all), Institute of StructuralMacrokinetics and Materials Science (ISMAN);296 (bl), Tom Pantages Photography. Chapter 9:298 (c), Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs;302 (tr), Stefano Bianchetti/CORBIS. Chapter10: 328 (c), Andy Goldsworthy. Courtesy of theartist and Galerie Lelong, New York.; 334 (tl),Dennis Fagan/HRW; 335 (cr), Harold & EstherEdgerton Foundation, 2006, Courtesy of PalmPress, Inc.; 336 (cl), Dr. E. R. Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.; 337 (br), Photonica; 338 (cl), PhotoTake;Acknowledgments, continuedThe people who contributed to Modern Chemistry are listed below. They represent editorial, design, inventory, multimedia production, manufacturing, marketing,permissions, and production.Brigitta Arden, Wesley M. Bain, Juan Baquera, Kimberly Barr, Angela Beckmann,Ed Blake, Sara Butler, Soojinn Choi, Lana Cox, Eddie Dawson, Julie Dervin, MichelleDike, Lydia Doty, Paul Draper, Sam Dudgeon, James Foster, Jeff Galvez, Leigh AnnGarca, Diana Goetting, Mark Grayson, Armin Gutzmer, Wilonda Ieans, Jevara Jackson,Stephanie Janda, Simon Key, Jane A. Kirschman, Cathy Kuhles, Ivania Quant Lee, LauraLikon, Jenifer Limb, Denise Mahoney, Carol Martin, Sean McCormick, Richard Metzger,Jessica Mraz, Cathy Murphy, Mercedes Newman, Micah Newman, Cathy Par, NandaPatel, Jenny Patton, Peter D. Reid, Sara Rider, Michael Rinella, Jeff Robinson, Mike Roche,Tara Ross, Teresa Ruiz, Beth Sample, Margaret Sanchez, Kay Selke, Chris Smith, VictoriaSmith, Dawn Marie Spinozza, Sherry Sprague, Christine Stanford, Jeff Streber, JoAnnStringer, Jeannie Taylor, David Trevino, Bob Tucek, Kira J. Watkins, Holly Whittaker,Patty Zepeda, and Sara Zettner.C R E D I T S 949339 (tr, cl), PhotoTake; 339 (c, cr, br, tl, tc), BreckP. Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes; 341 (tr),Dr. E. R. Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc. Chapter 11:360 (c), Pictor International/ImageState/Alamy;361 (all), Dennis Fagan/HRW; 362 (b), NASA/SIPA Press; 368 (bl), Royalty Free/CORBIS;376 (bl), Bettmann/CORBIS; 377 (t), JamesSchwabel/Panoramic Images; 377 (c), Leo L.Larson/Panoramic Images; 398 (bc), age foto-stock/Rick Gomez. Chapter 12: 400 (c), StephenSimpson/Getty Images; 401 (bl), Courtesy Dr. C.W. Dill, Texas A&M University-Corpus ChristiBell Library; 403 (tl), Neal Mishler/GettyImages; 404 (cl), Richard Haynes/HRW; 408 (bl),Peter Van Steen/HRW Photo. Chapter 13: 434 (c),J & L Weber/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 445 (tr), Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 456 (tl),Lawrence Stepanowicz/Bruce Coleman, Inc.Chapter 14: 466 (c), Richard B. Swint, M.D./TheTexas Collection, Baylor Unversity, Waco, Texas;467 (br), Peter Van Steen/HRW Photo; 479 (tc),Photo Researchers, Inc.; 489 (cr), ThomasNilsen/Photo Researchers, Inc. Chapter 15: 498(c), Sandra Ivany/FoodPix/Getty Images; 500(bl, br), Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs;510 (c), Massachusetts Division of Fisheries &Wildlife; 511 (bl, br), Jerry Mason/Science PhotoLibrary/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 512 (bl), PhotoResearchers, Inc.; 513 (all), Peter Van Steen/HRWPhoto; 516 (bl, br), Richard Megna/FundamentalPhotographs Chapter 16: 530 (c), Paul Chesley/Getty Images Chapter 17: 562 (tl), LarryStepanowicz; 573 (br), Robert Harding WorldImagery/Alamy Photos; 579 (bl), Dorling KindersleyLimited courtesy of the Science Museum, London/Corbis Chapter 18: 588 (c), David Muench/COR-BIS; 593 (all), Dr. E. R. Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.;597 (tr), Steve McCutcheon/Visuals Unlimited; 608(all), Dennis Fagan/HRW; 618 (all), John King/HRW Chapter 19: 630 (c), SuperStock/PictureQuest; 633 (tr), Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs; 636 (c), Renee Lynn/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 645 (bc), Richard L.Carlton/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 645 (tc), ThomasEisner and Daniel Aneshansley, Cornell University.Chapter 20: 654 (c), Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA; 662 (tl), Adam Jones/Visuals Unlimited;666 (c), Getty/NewsCom. Chapter 21: 680 (c),EFDA-JET/Photo Researchers, Inc. ; 693 (b),Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory; 695(tr), 1991 Peter Berndt, M.D., P.A. All RightsReserved; 699 (t), Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS;700 (bc), AIP Emilio Segr Visual Archives; 701(tr), AIP Emilio Segr Visual Archives; 708 (cl),Peter Van Steen/HRW. Chapter 22: 710 (c), David Luzzi, Univ. of Pennsylvania/PhotoResearchers, Inc.; 712 (bl), Gregory K.Scott/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 714 (tc), Runk/Schoenberger/Grant Heilman Photography, Inc.;715 (c), Science Photo Library/PhotoResearchers, Inc.; 723 (tr), David Spindel/SuperStock; 723 (br), Keith Wood/GettyImages; 728 (br), Kevin Anderson/GettyImages; 734 (tl), Seth Joel/Science PhotoLibrary/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 748 (bc), CharlesCecil/Visuals Unlimited; 748 (bl), Tom Pix/PeterArnold, Inc. Chapter 23: 750 (c), Dr. JeremyBurgess/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 752 (cl), Richard Hamilton Smith/CORBIS; 754 (bl),Stephanie Friedman/HRW; 757 (tr), Dr. JeremyBurgess/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 761 (bl), GopalMurti/Phototake; 761 (cl), Microworks/Phototake; 762 (bl), National Portrait Gallery,Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource, NY; 765(cr), Andy Christiansen/HRW; 766 (bl), BarryRunk/STAN/Grant Heilman Photography, Inc.;772 (tc), W. Schonert, GSI Biophysik, Darmstadt,Germany; 773 (br), Kiseleva and DonaldFawcett/Visuals Unlimited; 774 (bl), DavidParker/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 775 (tr), CharlesMarden Fitch. Elements Handbook: 784785(bkgd), Yoav Levy/Phototake; 784 (bl, bc), TomPantages Photography; 784 (br), Breck P.Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes; 787 (cl, cr,bc), Lester Bergman/The Bergman Collection;787 (bl, br), Dr. E. R. Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.;788 (all), Phi-Lo Photo; 789 (cl), John Langford/HRW; 791 (bl), PhotoTake; 792 (bl), Dr. E. R.Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.; 792 (bc), Carl Frank/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 792 (br), Gary Retherford/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 792 (cl), Breck P.Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes; 793 (bl, bc),PhotoTake; 793 (br), Larry Stepanowicz; 794 (cr), Mauritius/SuperStock; 795 (b), Stuart CraigJr./Bruce Coleman, Inc.; 795 (bc), PhotoTake; 796(tr), Chris Rogers/Rainbow; 797 (tl), Dr. E. R.Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.; 798 (br), BrentCavedo/SuperStock; 798 (tr), Thomas DelBrase/Getty Images; 798 (cr), Larry Stepanowicz;798 (bc), Ken Lucas/Visuals Unlimited; 798 (bl), Bettmann/CORBIS; 799 (tl), David R. FrazierPhotolibrary; 799 (cr), L. S. Stepanowicz/VisualsUnlimited; 801 (all), Tom Pantages Photography;802 (tr, tl), Larry Stepanowicz; 802 (br), TomPantages Photography; 803 (tr), Dan McCoy/Rainbow; 804 (bl), Hank Morgan/Rainbow; 804(br), Dan Rubin/The Stock Shop/Medichrome;808 (br), Visuals Unlimited; 808 (bc), ArthurHill/Visuals Unlimited; 809 (br), Tom PantagesPhotography; 810 (cr), CoCo McCoy/Rainbow;811 (cr), Tom Pantages Photography; 812 (bl), J & L Weber/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 818 (cr), TomPantages Photography; 820 (tc), Irving Geis/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 828 (bc), Myron Jay Dorf/CORBIS; 829 (c, cr), Dr. E. R.Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.; 830 (br), GeorgeGlod/SuperStock; 830 (bl), Peter Beck/COR-BIS; 832 (cl), Heather Angel/Natural Visions; 832(cr, br), Dr. E. R. Degginger/Color-Pic, Inc.; 839(bl), Tom Tracy/The Stock Shop/Medichrome.Reference: 842-843 (bkgd), Yoav Levy/Phototake;843 (t), Photri; 864 (c), Stephen Simpson/GettyImages; 866 (br), Science Photo Library/PhotoResearchers, Inc.; 867 (c), Photo Researchers, Inc.;869 (cr), Bruce Iverson; 871 (br), Ed Bock/COR-BIS; 875 (br), Phil Degginger/Bruce Coleman, Inc.;878 (c), J & L Weber/Peter Arnold, Inc.Photos by Charles D. Winters: xi (tl), xiii (bc), 3(bl), 7 (br), 8 (bl), 10 (t), 12 (tl, tc), 13 (br), 14 (all),18 (bl, br), 19 (all), 26 (bl), 38 (tl), 73 (tr), 94 (bl),142 (tl, cl), 144 (bc, br), 147 (cr, br), 224 (b), 231(t), 239 (tr), 258 (bl), 261 (br), 262 (all), 270 (cl),277 (all), 280 (tc), 281 (br), 316 (br), 334 (bl, bc,br), 335 (bl, bc), 337 (bc), 358 (bl), 366 (tc), 371(all), 401 (cl), 406 (all), 413 (all), 437 (t), 438 (b),444 (b, c), 467 (bl), 470 (bl, br), 471 (br), 472 (br),476 (tc), 477 (br), 480 (all), 486 (tc), 488 (b), 496(bl), 497 (tl), 512 (cl, cr, tr, tc, tl), 528 (bl), 532 (all),547 (all), 560 (c), 561 (br), 569 (all), 570 (cl), 587(bl), 589 (br), 602 (bc), 604 (cl), 606 (tl, cl), 628 (bl,br), 632 (bl, tr), 639 (tr), 643 (bc), 655 (bl, br), 659(tr), 670 (bc), 731 (br), 732 (cl), 733 (tc), 736 (tc),737 (all), 738 (bc), 782 (c), 785 (tr), 786 (bl), 787(tl, tr), 793 (tr, cl, cr), 795 (cr), 799 (bl, br, tr, cl, bl),800 (all), 808 (cl, bl), 809 (tr, bl), 812 (cr, cl, br), 813(cr), 821 (tl), 825 (all), 828 (bl, br), 829 (cl), 832(bl), 833 (all), 838 (all), 839 (tr, br), 844 (bc), 845(all), 847 (all), 850 (bl), 851 (all), 872 (tr), 876 (bl),877 (b)Photos by Sergio Purtell: xix (tl), xx (tl), 9 (t), 12(tr), 29 (b), 46 (tl), 61 (br), 265 (bl), 278 (bl), 282(bl), 283 (bl, br), 327 (tr), 330 (tl), 337 (bl), 379 (tr,cr, br), 403 (tr), 419 (l, cl, cr, r, bl, bc, br), 422 (l), 432(bc), 515 (bc), 518 (tr, cl, c, cr, bl, bc, br), 519 (tc, tr,cl, c, cr, bl, bc, br), 601 (tl, tc, tr, tr), 694 (bl, br, bc),711 (bl, c, bc, br), 727 (br), 786 (bc, br), 787 (tc)holt_modern_chemistry_NoRestriction.pdfChapter 23 Biological ChemistrySection 1 Carbohydrates and LipidsSection 2 Amino Acids and ProteinsSection 3 MetabolismSection 4 Nucleic AcidsChapter HighlightsChapter ReviewMath Tutor: Interpretation of the Genetic CodeStandardized Test PrepExperiment: Casein GlueElements HandbookGroup 1 Alkali MetalsApplication: TechnologySodium Vapor LightingApplication: HealthElectrolyte Balance in the BodyGroup 2 Alkaline Earth MetalsApplication: TechnologyFireworksApplication: HealthCalcium: An Essential Mineral in the DietMagnesium: An Essential Mineral in the DietGroups 3-12 Transition MetalsApplication: GeologyGemstones and ColorApplication: TechnologyAlloysApplication: The EnvironmentMercury PoisoningApplication: HealthElements in the BodyRole of IronGroup 13 Boron FamilyApplication: TechnologyAluminumAluminum AlloysGroup 14 Carbon FamilyApplication: Chemical IndustryCarbon and the Reduction of Iron OreCarbon DioxideCarbon MonoxideApplication: BiochemistryCarbon Dioxide and RespirationApplication: The EnvironmentCarbon Monoxide PoisoningApplication: BiochemistryMacromoleculesApplication: Chemical IndustrySilicon and SilicatesSiliconesApplication: TechnologySemiconductorsGroup 15 Nitrogen FamilyApplication: BiologyPlants and NitrogenApplication: Chemical IndustryFertilizersGroup 16 Oxygen FamilyApplication: Chemical IndustryOxidesApplication: The EnvironmentOzoneApplication: Chemical IndustrySulfuric AcidGroup 17 Halogen FamilyApplication: The EnvironmentChlorine in Water TreatmentFluoride and Tooth DecayReferencePreparing for Chemistry LabPre-Laboratory ProceduresExtraction and FiltrationGravimetric AnalysisPaper ChromatographyVolumetric AnalysisCalorimetryAppendix A: Reference TablesAppendix B: Study Skills for ChemistryAppendix C: Graphing Calculator TechnologyAppendix D: Problem BankAppendix E: Selected AnswersGlossaryIndex


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