CHAPTER 14 BLOOD www.cesnur.org. TISSUE TYPE? TISSUE TYPE? CONNECTIVE CONNECTIVE FUNCTIONS? FUNCTIONS? TRANSPORTATION BETWEEN CELLS AND ENVIRONMENT/HOMEOSTASIS

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> CHAPTER 14 BLOOD www.cesnur.org </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> TISSUE TYPE? TISSUE TYPE? CONNECTIVE CONNECTIVE FUNCTIONS? FUNCTIONS? TRANSPORTATION BETWEEN CELLS AND ENVIRONMENT/HOMEOSTASIS TRANSPORTATION BETWEEN CELLS AND ENVIRONMENT/HOMEOSTASIS FORMED ELEMENTS: CELLS, PLATELETS FORMED ELEMENTS: CELLS, PLATELETS LIQUID: PLASMA LIQUID: PLASMA 8% BODY WT; 5 LITERS 8% BODY WT; 5 LITERS </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> HEMATOCRIT en.wikipedia.org 45% RBC; 1% WBC &amp; PLATELETS; 55% PLASMA </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> BLOOD CELL FORMATION users.rcn.com HEMATAPOIETIC STEM CELLS/HEMOCYTOBLASTS HEMATAPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> RED BLOOD CELL FORMATION MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS (CYTOKINES AND/OR HORMONES) COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS (CYTOKINES AND/OR HORMONES) ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) THROMBOPOIETIN (TPO) THROMBOPOIETIN (TPO) INTERLEUKIN-7 (IL-7) INTERLEUKIN-7 (IL-7) GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (GM-CSF) GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (GM-CSF) GRANULOCYTE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR (G-CSF) GRANULOCYTE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR (G-CSF) INTERLEUKIN-5 (IL-5) INTERLEUKIN-5 (IL-5) INTERLEUKIN-3 INTERLEUKIN-3 MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (M-CSF) MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (M-CSF) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> RED BLOOD CELLS image.bloodline.net </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> RBC CHARACTERISTICS 7.5 m DIAMETER 7.5 m DIAMETER BICONCAVE ? BICONCAVE ? HEMOGLOBIN ?? HEMOGLOBIN ?? 1/3 OF TOTAL VOLUME 1/3 OF TOTAL VOLUME OXYHEMOGLOBIN = BRIGHT RED ?? OXYHEMOGLOBIN = BRIGHT RED ?? DEOXYHEMOGLOBIN = DARKER RED DEOXYHEMOGLOBIN = DARKER RED NO NUCLEUS ?? NO NUCLEUS ?? NO RNA ?? NO RNA ?? NO REPLICATION ?? NO REPLICATION ?? ENERGY FROM GLYCOLYSIS ONLY ?? ENERGY FROM GLYCOLYSIS ONLY ?? </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> RED BLOOD CELL www.bsip.com MALE: 4.6 6.2 MILLION/MICROLITER FEMALE: 4.2 5.4 MILLION/MICROLITER CHILD: 4.5 5.1 MILLION/MICROLITER INCREASE OR DECREASE AFFECTS OXYGEN CARRYING CAPACITY OF BLOOD </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> RED BLOOD CELL www.revisionbuster.com </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> RED BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID DNA SYNTHESIS DNA SYNTHESIS VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY: PARIETAL CELLS (STOMACH) NOT PRODUCING INTRINSIC FACTOR (GIF); CANT ABSORB VITAMIN B12 IN SMALL INTESTINE VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY: PARIETAL CELLS (STOMACH) NOT PRODUCING INTRINSIC FACTOR (GIF); CANT ABSORB VITAMIN B12 IN SMALL INTESTINE IRON IRON MOST REUSED WHEN RBC REPROCESSED MOST REUSED WHEN RBC REPROCESSED SMALL AMOUNT ABSORBED SMALL AMOUNT ABSORBED ANEMIA ?? ANEMIA ?? </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> RED BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION FIRST: FIRST: YOLK SAC, LIVER, SPLEEN YOLK SAC, LIVER, SPLEEN AFTER BIRTH: AFTER BIRTH: RED BONE MARROW RED BONE MARROW </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> DESTRUCTION OF RBCs DAMAGED RBC RUPTURE IN LIVER OR SPLEEN DAMAGED RBC RUPTURE IN LIVER OR SPLEEN MACROPHAGES DESTROY DAMAGED RBC MACROPHAGES DESTROY DAMAGED RBC HEMOGLOBIN HEME BILIVERDIN BILIRUBIN: EXCRETED WITH BILIVERDIN AS BILE SALTS HEMOGLOBIN HEME BILIVERDIN BILIRUBIN: EXCRETED WITH BILIVERDIN AS BILE SALTS IRON BINDS TO TRANSFERRIN HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE HEMOGLOBIN IRON BINDS TO TRANSFERRIN HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE HEMOGLOBIN 80% STORED AS FERRITIN IN LIVER 80% STORED AS FERRITIN IN LIVER GLOBIN AMINO ACIDS METABOLIZED BY MACROPHAGES OR SENT TO BLOOD STREAM GLOBIN AMINO ACIDS METABOLIZED BY MACROPHAGES OR SENT TO BLOOD STREAM </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> NEUTROPHIL bioweb.uwlax.edu </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> LYMPHOCYTE </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> MONOCYTE </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> EOSINOPHIL </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> BASOPHIL </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> DENDRITIC CELL /www.cdaarthritis.com </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> DENDRITIC CELL focus.hms.harvard.edu </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> WHITE BLOOD CELLS GRANULOCYTES: GRANULAR CYTOPLASM GRANULOCYTES: GRANULAR CYTOPLASM NEUTROPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, BASOPHILS NEUTROPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, BASOPHILS AGRANULOCYTES AGRANULOCYTES MONOCYTES, LYMPHOCYTES MONOCYTES, LYMPHOCYTES </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> WHITE BLOOD CELLS NEUTROPHILS: NEUTROPHILS: FINE GRANULES, OLDER: 2-5 LOBED NUCLEUS (PMNs), YOUNGER: C SHAPED (BANDS), FIRST AT INFECTION, 54-62% OF CIRCULATING WBCs, PHAGOCYTIZE SMALL PARTICLES: BACTERIA, FUNGI, SOME VIRUSES FINE GRANULES, OLDER: 2-5 LOBED NUCLEUS (PMNs), YOUNGER: C SHAPED (BANDS), FIRST AT INFECTION, 54-62% OF CIRCULATING WBCs, PHAGOCYTIZE SMALL PARTICLES: BACTERIA, FUNGI, SOME VIRUSES EOSINOPHILS: EOSINOPHILS: COARSE UNIFROMLY SIZED GRANULES, BILOBED, MODERATE ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ATTACK PARASITIC WORMS, 1-3% OF WBCs COARSE UNIFROMLY SIZED GRANULES, BILOBED, MODERATE ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ATTACK PARASITIC WORMS, 1-3% OF WBCs </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> BASOPHILS: BASOPHILS: SIMILAR TO EOSINOPHILS (SIZE AND NUCLEI SHAPE), FEW, IRREGULARLY SHAPED GRANULES, RELEASE HISTAMINE ? AND HEPARIN? SIMILAR TO EOSINOPHILS (SIZE AND NUCLEI SHAPE), FEW, IRREGULARLY SHAPED GRANULES, RELEASE HISTAMINE ? AND HEPARIN? </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> AGRANULOCYTES MONOCYTES: MONOCYTES: LARGEST, NUCLEI MANY SHAPES, CAN BECOME MACROPHAGES IN TISSUE, CONSUME: BACTERIA, DEAD CELLS AND DEBRIES, 3-9%; LIVE WEEKS TO MONTHS LARGEST, NUCLEI MANY SHAPES, CAN BECOME MACROPHAGES IN TISSUE, CONSUME: BACTERIA, DEAD CELLS AND DEBRIES, 3-9%; LIVE WEEKS TO MONTHS LYMPHOCYTES: LYMPHOCYTES: SMALLEST WBC, LARGE ROUND NUCLEUS, T AND B CELLS; T: DIRECTLY ATTACK CELLS: BACTERIA, TUMOR, TRANSPLANTS; B CELLS: ANTIBODIES SMALLEST WBC, LARGE ROUND NUCLEUS, T AND B CELLS; T: DIRECTLY ATTACK CELLS: BACTERIA, TUMOR, TRANSPLANTS; B CELLS: ANTIBODIES </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> DENDRITIC CELLS PRESENT IN SURFACE TISSUES (SKIN); ACTIVATED AND GO TO LYMPH NODES TO STIMULATE T AND B CELLS; SIGNAL PHAGOCYTES; PRESENT IN SURFACE TISSUES (SKIN); ACTIVATED AND GO TO LYMPH NODES TO STIMULATE T AND B CELLS; SIGNAL PHAGOCYTES; </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> DIFF www.maexamhelp.com </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> DIAPEDESIS www.mybloodyourblood.org </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> HISTAMINE en.wikipedia.org </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> CHEMOTAXIS http://www.cellsalive.com/qtmovs/chemot x_mov.htm http://www.cellsalive.com/qtmovs/chemot x_mov.htm </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> CHEMOTAXIS www.whfreeman.com </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTS 4.5 10 THOUSAND PER MICROLITER 4.5 10 THOUSAND PER MICROLITER LEUKOCYTOSIS LEUKOCYTOSIS MORE THAN 10,000 MORE THAN 10,000 ACUTE INFECTION; VIGOROUS EXERCISE; EMOTIONAL DISTRESS; BODY FLUID LOSS; ACUTE INFECTION; VIGOROUS EXERCISE; EMOTIONAL DISTRESS; BODY FLUID LOSS; LEUKOPENIA LEUKOPENIA LESS THAN 4,500 LESS THAN 4,500 TYPHOID FEVER; FLU; MEASLES; MUMPS; CHICKENPOX; AIDS; POLIOMYELITUS; ANEMIA; LEAD, ARSENIC, MERCURY POISONING TYPHOID FEVER; FLU; MEASLES; MUMPS; CHICKENPOX; AIDS; POLIOMYELITUS; ANEMIA; LEAD, ARSENIC, MERCURY POISONINGDIFF </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> MEGAKARYOCYTES www.academic.marist.edu </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> PLATLETS FORM FROM ?? FORM FROM ?? FORM PLATLETS WHEN FRAGMENTS TRAVEL THROUGH LUNGS FORM PLATLETS WHEN FRAGMENTS TRAVEL THROUGH LUNGS SMALL PACKETS OF CYTOPLASM/ SIZE OF RBC SMALL PACKETS OF CYTOPLASM/ SIZE OF RBC LIVE 10 DAYS; AMEBOID MEVEMENT LIVE 10 DAYS; AMEBOID MEVEMENT 130,000 160,000 PER MICROLITER 130,000 160,000 PER MICROLITER STICK TO BROKEN SURFACES FOR REPAIR STICK TO BROKEN SURFACES FOR REPAIR RELEASE SEROTONIN TO CONTRACT SMOOTH MUSCLE RELEASE SEROTONIN TO CONTRACT SMOOTH MUSCLE </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> PLATELETS www.psbc.org </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> PLASMA CLEAR, STRAW COLORED CLEAR, STRAW COLORED ~92% H2O; AND NUTRIENTS; GASES; VITAMINS; ~92% H2O; AND NUTRIENTS; GASES; VITAMINS; HELP REGULATE FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE AND Ph; HOMEOSTASIS HELP REGULATE FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE AND Ph; HOMEOSTASIS ALBUMEN www.friedli.com GLOBULIN www.ssi.dk </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> PLASMA PROTEINS MOST ABUNDANT DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES IN PLASMA MOST ABUNDANT DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES IN PLASMA ALBUMIN ALBUMIN 60%/WEIGHT BUT SMALLEST 60%/WEIGHT BUT SMALLEST SYNTHESIZED IN LIVER SYNTHESIZED IN LIVER IMPORTANT FOR OSMOTIC PRESSURE ?? IMPORTANT FOR OSMOTIC PRESSURE ?? COLLOID OSMOTIC PRESSURE COLLOID OSMOTIC PRESSURE REGULATE WATER COMPOSITION CONTROLS BLOOD VOLUME AFFECTS BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATE WATER COMPOSITION CONTROLS BLOOD VOLUME AFFECTS BLOOD PRESSURE ALSO ACT AS CARRIERS: BIND THINGS LIKE HORMONES, BILLIVERDIN, FATTY ACIDS, ALSO ACT AS CARRIERS: BIND THINGS LIKE HORMONES, BILLIVERDIN, FATTY ACIDS, </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> GLOBULINS GLOBULINS 36% 36% ALPH AND BETA GLOBULINS SYNTHESIZED BY LIVER ALPH AND BETA GLOBULINS SYNTHESIZED BY LIVER TRANSPORT LIPIDS, FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS TRANSPORT LIPIDS, FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS GAMMA PRODUCED BY LYMPHATIC TISSUE GAMMA PRODUCED BY LYMPHATIC TISSUE ANTIBODIES ANTIBODIES FIBRINOGEN FIBRINOGEN 4% 4% BLOOD CLOTTING BLOOD CLOTTING </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> GASES AND NUTRIENTS BLOOD GASES ?? BLOOD GASES ?? OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, NITROGEN PLASMA NUTRIENTS PLASMA NUTRIENTS AMINO ACIDS, SIMPLE SUGARS, NUCLEOTIDES, LIPIDS FROM SMALL INTESTINE AMINO ACIDS, SIMPLE SUGARS, NUCLEOTIDES, LIPIDS FROM SMALL INTESTINE LIPIDS: TRIGLYCERIDES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, CHOLESTEROL/ WATER SOLUBLE ???? LIPIDS: TRIGLYCERIDES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, CHOLESTEROL/ WATER SOLUBLE ???? MUST BE CARRIED BY PLASMA PROTEINS MUST BE CARRIED BY PLASMA PROTEINS </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> NONPROTEIN NITROGENOUS SUBSTANCES (NPNs) AMINO ACIDS, UREA, URIC ACID, CREATINE, CREATININE AMINO ACIDS, UREA, URIC ACID, CREATINE, CREATININE PRODUCED BY ?? PRODUCED BY ?? PROTEIN CATABOLISM OR ABSORPTION OF AMINO ACIDS PROTEIN CATABOLISM OR ABSORPTION OF AMINO ACIDS PROTEIN CATABOLISM PROTEIN CATABOLISM NUCLEIC ACID CATABOLISM NUCLEIC ACID CATABOLISM CREATINE METABOLISM FORMS CREATININE CREATINE METABOLISM FORMS CREATININE GENERALLY PROTEIN INTAKE AND EXCRETION OF NITROGENOUS WASTES IS EQUAL UNLESS KIDEYS ARE NOT WORKING CORRECTLY </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> PLASMA ELECTROLYTES ELECTROLYTES BECOME IONS WHEN DISSOLVED IN H2O ELECTROLYTES BECOME IONS WHEN DISSOLVED IN H2O ABSORBED BY INTESTINES OR FORMED DURING METABOLISM ABSORBED BY INTESTINES OR FORMED DURING METABOLISM SODIUM, POTASSIUM, MAGNESIUM, CHLORIDE, BICARBONATE, PHOSPHATE, SULFATE IONS SODIUM, POTASSIUM, MAGNESIUM, CHLORIDE, BICARBONATE, PHOSPHATE, SULFATE IONS SODIUM AND CHLORIDE ARE MOST ABUNDANT SODIUM AND CHLORIDE ARE MOST ABUNDANT BICARBONATE: MAINTIANING OSMOTIC PRESSURE, AND PLAMSA pH BICARBONATE: MAINTIANING OSMOTIC PRESSURE, AND PLAMSA pH </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> HEMOSTASIS STOPPAGE STOPPAGE OF OF BLEEDING BLEEDING BY: BY: BLOOD BLOOD VESSEL SPASM PLATLET PLUG PLATLET PLUG CLOTTING CLOTTING /image.bloodline.net </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> BLOOD VESSEL SPASM VASOSPASM: SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTS WHY? VASOSPASM: SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTS WHY? REFLEX A FEW SECONDS, DIRECT STIMULTATION LASTS 30 MIN REFLEX A FEW SECONDS, DIRECT STIMULTATION LASTS 30 MIN PLATELETS RELEASE SEROTONIN WHICH AGMENTS THIS REACTION PLATELETS RELEASE SEROTONIN WHICH AGMENTS THIS REACTION </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> PLATELET PLUG PLATELETS ATTACH TO COLLAGEN EXPOSED UNDER EPITHELIAL LINING PLATELETS ATTACH TO COLLAGEN EXPOSED UNDER EPITHELIAL LINING COLLAGEN CAUSES THE PRODUCTION OF MANY TINY SPINOUS PROCESSES ON PLATELETS SO STICK TOGETHER TO FORM A PLUG COLLAGEN CAUSES THE PRODUCTION OF MANY TINY SPINOUS PROCESSES ON PLATELETS SO STICK TOGETHER TO FORM A PLUG ONLY WORKS ON SMALLER BLOOD VESSEL BREAKS ONLY WORKS ON SMALLER BLOOD VESSEL BREAKS </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> BLOOD COAGULATION/CLOT WOUND = EXTRINSIC FACTORS WOUND = EXTRINSIC FACTORS FOREIGN SURFACE (PLASTIC) = INTRINSIC FACTORS FOREIGN SURFACE (PLASTIC) = INTRINSIC FACTORS CASCADE: A SERIES OF REACTIONS THAT ALL STIMULATE THE NEXT REACTION. CASCADE: A SERIES OF REACTIONS THAT ALL STIMULATE THE NEXT REACTION. DEPENDS ON AMOUNT OF PROCOAGULANTS AND ANTICOAGULANTS DEPENDS ON AMOUNT OF PROCOAGULANTS AND ANTICOAGULANTS USUALLY MORE ANTICOAGULANTS USUALLY MORE ANTICOAGULANTS </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> EXTRINSIC CLOTTING MECHANISM WOUND: RELEASES TISSUE THROMOPLASTIN (FACTOR III) WOUND: RELEASES TISSUE THROMOPLASTIN (FACTOR III) WHICH EVENTUALLY CONVERTS THROMBOPLASTIN USING CALCIUM AND FORMING PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR WHICH EVENTUALLY CONVERTS THROMBOPLASTIN USING CALCIUM AND FORMING PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR CHANGES PROTHROMBIN (ALPHA GLOBULIN) TO THROMBIN PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR CHANGES PROTHROMBIN (ALPHA GLOBULIN) TO THROMBIN </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> THROMBIN CHANGES FIBRINOGEN TO FIBRIN THROMBIN CHANGES FIBRINOGEN TO FIBRIN FIBRIN STICKS TO DAMAGED SURFACES, TRAPS CELLS AND PLATELETS = CLOT FIBRIN STICKS TO DAMAGED SURFACES, TRAPS CELLS AND PLATELETS = CLOT POSITIVE FEEDBACK ??? POSITIVE FEEDBACK ??? GENERALLY BLOOD ONLY COAGULATES WHERE IT IS STILL OR SLOW GENERALLY BLOOD ONLY COAGULATES WHERE IT IS STILL OR SLOW BLOOD NORMALLY CARRIES THROMBIN AWAY KEEPING ITS CONCENTRATION TOO LOW FOR COAGULATION AND ANTITHROMBININ BLOOD AND ON VESSEL WALLS KEEPS THROMBIN FROM FORMING BLOOD NORMALLY CARRIES THROMBIN AWAY KEEPING ITS CONCENTRATION TOO LOW FOR COAGULATION AND ANTITHROMBININ BLOOD AND ON VESSEL WALLS KEEPS THROMBIN FROM FORMING </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> INTRINSIC FACTOR WHEN EXPOSED TO COLLAGEN OR GLASS IT STIMULATES HAGEMAN FACTOR (FACTOR XII); ACTIVATES FACTOR XI; ACTIVATES FACTOR IX; ALONG WITH FACTOR VIII AND PHOSPHOLIPIDS ACTIVATES FACTOR X WHEN EXPOSED TO COLLAGEN OR GLASS IT STIMULATES HAGEMAN FACTOR (FACTOR XII); ACTIVATES FACTOR XI; ACTIVATES FACTOR IX; ALONG WITH FACTOR VIII AND PHOSPHOLIPIDS ACTIVATES FACTOR X FACTOR X PLUS CALCIUM IONS PRODUCES PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR FACTOR X PLUS CALCIUM IONS PRODUCES PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR THEN LIKE EXTRINSIC FACTOR THEN LIKE EXTRINSIC FACTOR </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> BLOOD CLOTS FATE DRIES AND SHRINKS PULLING EDGES IN DRIES AND SHRINKS PULLING EDGES IN PLATELETS RELEASE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR (PDGF) STIMULATE FIBROBLASTS AND SMOOTH MUSCLE TO REPAIR DAMAGE PLATELETS RELEASE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR (PDGF) STIMULATE FIBROBLASTS AND SMOOTH MUSCLE TO REPAIR DAMAGE FIBROBLASTS PRODUCE CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS TO STRENGTHEN CLOT FIBROBLASTS PRODUCE CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS TO STRENGTHEN CLOT PLASMINOGEN PICKED UP BY FIBERS PLASMINOGEN PICKED UP BY FIBERS PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR FROM LYSOSOMES CAUSES PLASMINOGEN TO BECOME PLASMIN WHICH IS AN ENZYME THAT DIGESTS FIBRIN PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR FROM LYSOSOMES CAUSES PLASMINOGEN TO BECOME PLASMIN WHICH IS AN ENZYME THAT DIGESTS FIBRIN </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> THROMBOSSIS: THROMBOSSIS: ABNORMALLY FORMED BLOOD CLOT ABNORMALLY FORMED BLOOD CLOT EMBOLUS: EMBOLUS: A CLOT THAT BREAKS FREE A CLOT THAT BREAKS FREE EMBOLISM: EMBOLISM: A BLOCKAGE DUE TO AN EMBOLUS A BLOCKAGE DUE TO AN EMBOLUS ATHEROSCLEROSIS: ATHEROSCLEROS...</li></ul>